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課程來源:TED
     

 

手塚貴晴談你見過最棒的幼稚園

Takaharu Tezuka: The best kindergarten you’ve ever seen

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:手塚貴晴

2014年10月攝於TEDxKyoto

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

在這所位於東京的學校,五歲大的孩童能引發交通阻塞,還有為聖誕老人設計的天窗。我們來看一下:世上最可愛的幼稚園,由建築師手塚貴晴設計。在這場引人入勝的演講中,他帶領我們進行一趟讓孩子享有童真歲月的設計之旅。

 

關於手塚貴晴

建築師手塚貴晴創造充滿想像力與機能多元化的個人空間。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

手塚貴晴和妻子由比共同創立手塚建築研究所。他們共同建造以樹為中心的學校,由木樑交織而成的遊樂區,以及提供患者有益療養之光線和空間的醫院。這種令人驚嘆的光線和空間,以及木材、金屬和玻璃構成的簡潔線條正是手塚作品的標誌。自1994年研究所成立以來,手塚和他的團隊僅藉由牆壁和窗戶的變化,將建築作品打造成栩栩如生且適合居住的藝術作品。

 

手塚貴晴的英語網上資料

Tezuka Architects

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

手塚貴晴談你見過最棒的幼稚園

 

好,這是我們在2007年設計的一所幼稚園。我們把這所幼稚園設計成環狀屋頂,類似無止盡的迴圈。如果你為人父母,就知道孩子喜歡不停地轉圈。這就是屋頂的外觀。為何我們要設計成這樣?這所幼稚園的園長說:「不,我不想要護欄。」我說:「不可能。」但他堅持:「做個從屋頂向外延伸的防護網如何?這樣就能接住跌落的孩子。」(笑聲)我說:「不可能。」

 

當然,政府官員說:「當然,護欄是必須的。」但我們可以將這個想法運用在樹上。這裡有三棵穿出屋頂的樹,政府允許我們將繩索當成護欄。但-當然,繩索對孩子毫無作用,他們會故意掉進網中,然後更多人如法炮製,然後更多更多。(笑聲)有時樹的周圍同時圍繞40個孩子,掛在樹枝上那個男孩熱愛那棵樹,所以不斷地啃那棵樹。(笑聲)當舉辦活動時,他們會坐在屋頂邊緣,由下而上仰視感覺相當棒,就像動物園裡的猴子。(笑聲)餵食時間。(笑聲)(掌聲)

 

我們盡可能使屋頂矮一些,因為我們希望看見孩子在屋頂上,而不是只待在屋簷下。如果屋頂太高,就只能看見天花板。還有洗腳的地方-那裡有很多種水龍頭,你可以看見活動式水管,讓你忍不住想往朋友身上噴水。還有淋浴噴頭,前面這種相當普通,但如果你仔細觀察,這個男孩不是在洗靴子,而是往靴子裡灌水。(笑聲)

 

這家幼稚園一年中大部分時間都是完全開放的,室內和室外沒有界線,因此這意味著這棟建築基本上只是一個屋頂。同樣地,教室之間也沒有界線,因此完全沒有聽覺上的阻礙。你知道,當你把許多小孩放入一個安靜的密閉空間,有些人會變得非常緊張。但在這所幼稚園裡,他們沒有緊張的理由,因為這裡沒有任何界線。幼稚園園長說,如果角落裡那個男孩不想待在室內,我們就讓他出去,反正他最後還是會回來,因為這是個圓圈,他總會繞回來。(笑聲)但重點是:在類似情況下,孩子通常會試著躲在某個地方,但在這裡,他們離開後還是會回來,這是自然的過程。

 

其次,我們認為噪音非常重要。你知道,孩童在噪音裡睡得更香,他們不會在安靜的環境下入睡。在這所幼稚園裡,孩童在課堂上展現驚人的注意力。你知道,人類原本就是在充滿噪音的叢林裡成長,他們需要噪音。你知道,你能在嘈雜的酒吧裡跟朋友聊天,你不應身處寂靜的環境。你知道,當今時代,我們總是試著掌控每一件事。你知道,這裡是完全開放的,你應該知道我們能在零下20度的冬天滑雪,夏天時你去游泳,沙子高達攝氏50度,我們能夠忍受。你也該知道:我們是防水的,不可能在雨中溶掉。因此孩子本來就應該待在戶外,因此我們就應該這樣對待孩子。

 

這是他們分隔教室的方式,他們應該幫忙老師,他們沒有。(笑聲)不是我把他放進去的。(笑聲)這是教室,這是洗手台。他們在洗手台旁聊天。教室裡總會有一些樹,一隻猴子試著把另一隻猴子釣上去。(笑聲)猴子們。每間教室至少有一扇天窗,這是聖誕老人在聖誕節時進入的地方。這是幼稚園的附屬建築,就在之前的橢圓形幼稚園附近。這棟建築只有5公尺高,共有七層。當然,這導致它的天花板非常矮,因此你必須考慮安全問題。因此我們把孩子放進去,我的兒子和女兒,他們試著進入。他撞到頭了,他沒事,他的頭骨很硬。他的復原力很強,他是我兒子。(笑聲)

 

他還在觀望是否能安全地跳下去,然後我們放了其他孩子進去。東京的交通阻塞相當嚴重,你懂的。(笑聲)前面那個司機,她需要學習如何開車。在這個時代,孩子需要稍微嘗試危險的滋味,在這種情況下他們會學習互相幫助,這就是社會,這就是如今我們逐漸喪失的學習機會。

 

好,這幅圖顯示了一個男孩的活動軌跡,在9:10至9:30這段時間當中。這棟建築的周長是183公尺,一點也不算小。這個男孩在早上移動了6000公尺,但令人驚訝的還在後頭。這家幼稚園的孩子平均運動距離是4000公尺,在眾多幼稚園當中,這家幼稚園的孩子擁有最高的運動能力。園長說:「我不訓練他們,我只是把他們放在屋頂上,就像放羊一樣。」(笑聲)他們會不停地跑。(笑聲)

 

我的觀點是:不要控制他們,不要過度保護他們。他們有時需要跌倒,也需要受點傷,這將使他們學習如何在這個世界生存。

 

我認為建築可以改變世界,也能改變人類的生活,這就是改變孩子生活的一種嘗試,非常感謝。(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

At this school in Tokyo, five-year-olds cause traffic jams and windows are for Santa to climb into. Meet: the world's cutest kindergarten, designed by architect Takaharu Tezuka. In this charming talk, he walks us through a design process that really lets kids be kids.

About this Speaker

Architect Takaharu Tezuka creates imaginative and versatile personal spaces. Full Bio.

Transcript

This is a kindergarten we designed in 2007. We made this kindergarten to be a circle. It's a kind of endless circulation on top of the roof. If you are a parent, you know that kids love to keep making circles. This is how the rooftop looks.

And why did we design this? The principal of this kindergarten said, "No, I don't want a handrail." I said, "It's impossible." But he insisted: "How about having a net sticking out from the edge of the roof? So that it can catch the children falling off?" (Laughter) I said, "It's impossible."

And of course, the government official said, "Of course you have to have a handrail." But we could keep that idea around the trees. There are three trees popping through. And we were allowed to call this rope as a handrail. But of course, rope has nothing to do with them. They fall into the net. And you get more, and more, more. (Laughter) Sometimes 40 children are around a tree. The boy on the branch, he loves the tree so he is eating the tree. (Laughter)

And at the time of an event, they sit on the edge. It looks so nice from underneath. Monkeys in the zoo. (Laughter) Feeding time. (Laughter) (Applause)

And we made the roof as low as possible, because we wanted to see children on top of the roof, not only underneath the roof. And if the roof is too high, you see only the ceiling.

And the leg washing place -- there are many kinds of water taps. You see with the flexible tubes, you want to spray water to your friends, and the shower, and the one in front is quite normal. But if you look at this, the boy is not washing his boots, he's putting water into his boots. (Laughter)

This kindergarten is completely open, most of the year. And there is no boundary between inside and outside. So it means basically this architecture is a roof. And also there is no boundary between classrooms. So there is no acoustic barrier at all. When you put many children in a quiet box, some of them get really nervous. But in this kindergarten, there is no reason they get nervous. Because there is no boundary.

And the principal says if the boy in the corner doesn't want to stay in the room, we let him go. He will come back eventually, because it's a circle, it comes back. (Laughter)

But the point is, in that kind of occasion, usually children try to hide somewhere. But here, just they leave and come back. It's a natural process.

And secondly, we consider noise very important. You know that children sleep better in noise. They don't sleep in a quiet space. And in this kindergarten, these children show amazing concentration in class. And you know, our kind grew up in the jungle with noise. They need noise. And you know, you can talk to your friends in a noisy bar. You are not supposed to be in silence.

And you know, these days we are trying to make everything under control. You know, it's completely open. And you should know that we can go skiing in -20 degrees in winter. In summer you go swimming. The sand is 50 degrees. And also, you should know that you are waterproof. You never melt in rain. So, children are supposed to be outside. So that is how we should treat them.

This is how they divide classrooms. They are supposed to help teachers. They don't. (Laughter) I didn't put him in. A classroom. And a washbasin. They talk to each other around the well. And there are always some trees in the classroom. A monkey trying to fish another monkey from above. (Laughter) Monkeys. (Laughter) And each classroom has at least one skylight. And this is where Santa Claus comes down at the time of Christmas.

This is the annex building, right next to that oval-shaped kindergarten. The building is only five meters tall with seven floors. And of course, the ceiling height is very low. So you have to consider safety. So, we put our children, a daughter and a son. They tried to go in. He hit his head. He's okay. His skull is quite strong. He is resilient. It's my son. (Laughter) And he is trying to see if it is safe to jump off. And then we put other children.

The traffic jam is awful in Tokyo, as you know. (Laughter) The driver in front, she needs to learn how to drive. Now these days, kids need a small dosage of danger. And in this kind of occasion, they learn to help each other. This is society. This is the kind of opportunity we are losing these days.

Now, this drawing is showing the movement of a boy between 9:10 and 9:30. And the circumference of this building is 183 meters. So it's not exactly small at all. And this boy did 6,000 meters in the morning. But the surprise is yet to come. The children in this kindergarten do 4,000 meters on average. And these children have the highest athletic abilities among many kindergartens. The principal says, "I don't train them. We leave them on top of the roof. Just like sheep." (Laughter) They keep running. (Laughter)

My point is don't control them, don't protect them too much, and they need to tumble sometimes. They need to get some injury. And that makes them learn how to live in this world. I think architecture is capable of changing this world, and people's lives. And this is one of the attempts to change the lives of children.

Thank you very much.

(Applause)


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