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10.571J / 12.306 / 12.806J Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry

Spring 2006

Interactions between air pollution and climate.Interactions between air pollution and climate. (Image courtesy of Anne Slinn.)

Course Highlights

This course features lecture notes, background readings, and home work assignments.

Course Description

This course provides an introduction to the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere, including experience with computer codes. It is intended for undergraduates and first year graduate students.



Syllabus

Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at Amazon.com! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to Amazon.com to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book from Amazon.com, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.


Prerequisites

Physical Chemistry (5.61), Advanced Calculus for Engineers (18.075), or permission of instructor. This course is intended for undergraduates and first year graduate students.



Description

This course provides an introduction to the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere including experience with computer codes, aerosols and theories of their formation, evolution, and removal. Topics covered include, gas and aerosol transport from urban to continental scales, coupled models of radiation, transport, and chemistry, solution of inverse problems to deduce emissions and removal rates, emissions control technology and costs, and applications to air pollution and climate.



Textbook and Readings

This course has no required text. The following optional text can be used as a supplement to the course notes:

Amazon logo Seinfeld, J. H., and S. N. Pandis. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1997. ISBN: 9780471178163. (Paperback.)

Additional references organized by topics are listed in the readings section.



Grading


ACTIVITIESPERCENTAGES
Problem Sets30%
Critical Review of an Atmospheric Science Paper20%
Take Home Exam in Final Two Weeks50%




Calendar

Instructors

M = Prof. Gregory Mcrae
P = Prof. Ronald Prinn


Lec #TOPICSINSTRUCTORSKEY DATES
1Introduction, Properties of the AtmosphereP, M
2Combustion Sources and StoichiometryM
3Chemical Thermodynamics/KineticsM
4Radiative Transfer and PhotochemistryM
5Tropospheric Chemistry: COM
6Tropospheric Chemistry: NOx and OzoneM
7Tropospheric Chemistry: HCHO and OzoneMProblem set 1 out
8Tropospheric Chemistry: Complex HydrocarbonsM
9-10Atmospheric Chemistry and Transport: Continuity EquationPProblem set 1 due in Lec #9
11Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models: Basic StructuresP
12-14Tropospheric Chemistry: Homogeneous ProcessesM
15-16Air Pollution ControlsMProblem set 2 out in Lec #15
17Integrated Assessment of Air PollutionMProblem set 2 due
18Atmospheric Transport Models: Numerical IntegrationP
19Incorporating Chemical and Physical Processes in ModelsP
20-21Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models: ExamplesPTake-home exam out
22Atmospheric Chemistry: Measurement Systems/EstimationP
23Inverse Methods: Optimal EstimationP
24Inverse Methods: Statistical MethodsPTake-home exam due
25-27Inverse Methods: ExamplesP




Readings

Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at Amazon.com! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to Amazon.com to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book from Amazon.com, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.

This course has no required text. The optional reference (Amazon logo Seinfeld, J. H., and S. N. Pandis. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1997. ISBN: 9780471178163. (Paperback.)) can be used as a supplement to the course notes. Below are a selection of additional references organized by topics to be covered in class.



Aerosol Physics

Amazon logo Friedlander, S. K. Smoke, Dust, and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780195129991.

Amazon logo Pruppacher, H. R., and J. D. Klett. Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1980. ISBN: 9789027711069.



Combustion

Amazon logo Glassman, I. Combustion. 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780122858529.

Amazon logo Heywood, J. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 1988. ISBN: 9780070286375.

Amazon logo Kuo, K. K-Y. Principles of Combustion. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 2005. ISBN: 9780471046899.

Amazon logo Poinsot, T., and D. Veynante. Theoretical and Numerical Combustion. 2nd ed. Flourtown, PA: R. T. Edwards, Inc., 2005. ISBN: 9781930217102.

Amazon logo Stone, R. Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines. 3rd ed. Warrendale, PA: SAE International, 1999. ISBN: 9780768004953.

Amazon logo Taylor, C. F. Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice: Vol. 2 - 2nd Edition, Revised: Combustion, Fuels, Materials, Design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1985. ISBN: 9780262700276.

Amazon logo Warnatz, J., U. Maas, and R. W. Dibble. Combustion: Physical and Chemical Fundamentals, Modeling and Simulation, Experiments, Pollutant Formation. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 2001. ISBN: 9783540677512.

Amazon logo Williams, F. A. Combustion Theory the Fundamental Theory of Chemically Reacting Flow Systems. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985. ISBN: 9780201407778.



Atmospheric Chemistry

Amazon logo Brimblecombe, P. Air Composition and Chemistry. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780521453660.

Amazon logo Hobbs, P. V. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000a. ISBN: 9780521778008.

Amazon logo ———. Basic Physical Chemistry for the Atmospheric Sciences. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000b. ISBN: 9780521785679.

Amazon logo Jacob, D. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999. ISBN: 9780691001852.

Amazon logo Finlayson-Pitts B. J., and Jr. J. N. Pitts. Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 1999. ISBN: 9780122570605.

Amazon logo einfeld, J. H., and S. N. Pandis. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1997. ISBN: 9780471178163.

Amazon logo Warneck, P. Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, Inc., 1988. ISBN: 9780127356303.

Amazon logo Wayne, R. P. Chemistry of Atmospheres. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780198503750.



Atmospheric Physics

Amazon logo Andrews, D. G. An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780521629584.

Amazon logo Arya, S. P. Air Pollution Meteorology and Dispersion. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780195073980.

Amazon logo Bohren, C. F., and B. A. Albrecht. Atmospheric Thermodynamics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780195099041.

Amazon logo Garratt, J. R. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer (Cambridge Atmospheric and SpaceScience Series). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN: 9780521467452.

Amazon logo Gill, A. E. Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics (International Geophysics Series). Vol. 30. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 1982. ISBN: 9780122835223.

Amazon logo Holton, J. R. An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology (International Geophysics Series). 4th ed. Vol. 88. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780123540157.

Amazon logo Houze, R. A., Jr. Cloud Dynamics (International Geophysics Series). Reprint ed. Vol. 53. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 1994. ISBN: 9780123568816.

Amazon logo Hsu, S-A. Coastal Meteorology (International Geophysics Series). Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 1988. ISBN: 9780123579553.

Amazon logo Pedlosky, J. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer, 1992. ISBN: 9780387963877.

Petty, G. W. A First Course in Atmospheric Radiation. Madison, WI: Sundog Publishing, 2004. ISBN: 09729033.

Amazon logo Stull, R. B. An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library). New York, NY: Springer, 1988. ISBN: 9789027727695.

Amazon logo Tsonis, A. A. An Introduction to Atmospheric Thermodynamics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780521796767.

Amazon logo Wallace, J. M. Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 1977. ISBN: 9780127329505.

Amazon logo Yau, M. K. Short Course in Cloud Physics (International Series in Natural Philosophy). 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1989. ISBN: 9780750632157.



Air Pollution Control Technology

Amazon logo Flagan, R. C., and J. H. Seinfeld. Fundamentals of Air Pollution Engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988. ISBN: 9780133325379.

Amazon logo Heinsohn, R. J., and R. L. Kabel. Sources and Control of Air Pollution. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998. ISBN: 9780136248347.

Amazon logo Perry, R. H., and D. W. Green. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1997. ISBN: 9780070498419.



Atmospheric Visibility and Radiative Transfer Processes

Amazon logo Bohren, C. F., and E. E. Clothiaux. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation: An Introduction with 400 Problems. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 2006. ISBN: 9783527405039.

Amazon logo Chandrasekhar, S. Radiative Transfer. New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1960. ISBN: 9780486605906.

Amazon logo Goody, R. M., and Y. L. Yung. Atmospheric Radiation: Theoretical Basis. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN: 9780195102918.

Amazon logo Liou, K. N. An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (International Geophysics). 2nd ed. Vol. 84. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780124514515.

Amazon logo Petty, G. W. A First Course in Atmospheric Radiation. Madison, WI: Sundog Publishing, 2004. ISBN: 9780972903301.

Amazon logo van de Hulst, H. C. Light Scattering by Small Particles (Structure of Matter Series). New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1981. ISBN: 9780486642284.



Inverse Methods

Amazon logo Bennett, A. F. Inverse Methods in Physical Oceanography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN: 9780521385688.

Amazon logo Daley, R. Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991. ISBN: 9780521382151.

Amazon logo Menke, W. Geophysical Data Analysis: Discrete Inverse Theory (International Geophysics Series). Vol. 45. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, Inc., 1989. ISBN: 9780124909212.

Amazon logo Parker, R. L. Geophysical Inverse Theory. Princeton University Press, 1994. ISBN: 9780691036342.

Amazon logo Wunsch, C. The Ocean Circulation Inverse Problem. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780521480901.



Scientific Journals

Some of the key scientific journals containing articles related to atmospheric chemistry and air pollution are:

Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association

Atmospheric Environment (Search for Atmospheric Environment)

Environmental Science and Technology

Journal of Geophysical Research

In addition to the above journals, Science and Nature occasionally have articles related to climate change.



Organizations Concerned with Air Pollution

There are numerous organizations that are concerned with air pollution issues. In the United States two of the most important regulatory agencies are:

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

The California Air Resources Board (CARB)





Lecture Notes

Instructors

M = Prof. Gregory Mcrae
P = Prof. Ronald Prinn

At this time, only lecture notes by Prof. Prinn are available to OCW users.


Lec #TOPICSINSTRUCTORS
1Introduction, Properties of the Atmosphere (PDF)P, M
2Combustion Sources and StoichiometryM
3Chemical Thermodynamics/KineticsM
4Radiative Transfer and PhotochemistryM
5Tropospheric Chemistry: COM
6Tropospheric Chemistry: NOx and OzoneM
7Tropospheric Chemistry: HCHO and OzoneM
8Tropospheric Chemistry: Complex HydrocarbonsM
9-11Atmospheric Chemistry and Transport: Continuity Equation and Basic Structures (PDF 1) (PDF 2)P
12-14Tropospheric Chemistry: Homogeneous ProcessesM
15-16Air Pollution ControlsM
17Integrated Assessment of Air PollutionM
18Atmospheric Transport Models: Numerical Integration (PDF)P
19-21Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models: Examples and Measurement Systems (PDF 1) (PDF 2) (PDF 3)P
22-24Inverse Methods: Optimal Estimation (PDF 1) (PDF 2) (PDF 3)P
25-26Inverse Methods: Examples (PDF 1) (PDF 2)P
27Integrated Assessment of Climate Change (PDF - 1.4 MB)P




Assignments

This section contains the 2 problem sets (worth 30% of the course grade) and the take-home final exam (worth 50% of the course grade).

Problem Set 1 (PDF)

Problem Set 2 (PDF)

Take Home Exam (PDF)





Study Materials

Some Interesting Questions to Ponder

The purpose of these questions are to stimulate some thought - while the answers will be developed as part of the course you should at least begin to think about possible answers. To gain a sense of what you have learnt during the course on the first day of classes write down your best guess as to what the answers might be. At the end of the course revisit the questions once again, you should be able to give quantitatively correct answers to all the problems.



Puzzles in Atmospheric Science

  1. 3) in the troposphere, where we live, is considered to be 'bad', but ozone in the stratosphere is 'good' - why?

  2. 3) formation are

    • 2+ hν NO + O (3P)

    • 3P) + O2+ M O3+ M

  3. 2) and most of the emissions of NOx= (NO + NO2) are in the form of nitric oxide (NO) what role, if any, is played by emissions of Volatile Organics Compounds (VOC's).

  4. 2, O2and Ar. They are not greenhouse gases. Molecules like H2O, CO2, N2O, and CFC's, that only occur in trace amounts, are radiatively active - why?

  5. 2) is an important climatically active gas, what is its atmospheric life time and, given the time scale for its removal, what are the implications for controlling global warming?

  6. 3OH), derived from oil and gas, and ethanol (C2H5OH) from the fermentation of biomass, have been used either on their own as fuels or as additives to gasoline. Which one of the two alcohols would you choose as a fuel additive to lower air pollution in urban areas and why?

  7. 2.)

  8. 2), but they are not regulated by pollution control agencies - why not?




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