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9.14 Brain Structure and its Origins

Spring 2005

Dorsal view drawing of embryonic central nervous system.Recently evolved long sensory and motor pathways in the mammalian brain. Dorsal view of embryonic central nervous system. (Image by Prof. Gerald Schneider.)

Course Highlights

This course includes a complete set of audio lectures and a bibliography of readings.

Course Description

This course covers major CNS structures with emphasis on systems being used as models for experimental studies of development and plasticity. Topics include basic patterns of connections in CNS, embryogenesis, PNS anatomy and development, process outgrowth and synaptogenesis, growth factors and cell survival, spinal and hindbrain anatomy, and development of regional specificity with an introduction to comparative anatomy and CNS evolution. A review of lab techniques (anatomy, tissue culture) is also covered as well as the trigeminal system, retinotectal system development, plasticity, regeneration, neocortex anatomy and development, the olfactory system, corpus striatum, brain transplants, the limbic system and hippocampal anatomy and plasticity.

Special Features

Technical Requirements

Special software is required to use some of the files in this course: .mp3, .rm.





Syllabus

Overview

This course gives an outline of mammalian functional neuroanatomy, aided by studies of brain development, comparative neuroanatomy and evolution. Topics include early steps to a central nervous system, basic patterns of brain and spinal cord connections, regional development and differentiation, regeneration, motor and sensory pathways and structures, systems underlying motivations, innate action patterns, formation of habits, and various cognitive functions, lab techniques. It also covers optional brain dissections.

There will be readings assigned for each session, and a series of questions to help guide your readings. Class time will consist of discussions of the topics related to the readings. We expect class participation by students so try to prepare answers to the questions before each class session.



Texts

Allman, John Morgan. Evolving Brains. New York, NY: Scientific American Library: Distributed by W. H. Freeman and Co., 1999. ISBN: 0716750767.

Brodal, Per. The Central Nervous System, Structure and Function. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN: 0195165608.

Butler, Ann B., and William Hodos. Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss, 1996. ISBN: 0471888893.

Cajal, S. Ramón y. Histology of the Nervous System of Man and Vertebrates. Translated by Neely Swanson and Larry W. Swanson. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN: 0195074017.

Mesulam, M-Marsel, ed. Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 0195134753.

Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986. ISBN: 0716717239.

Purves, Dale, and Jeff W. Lichtman. Principles of Neural Development. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1985. ISBN: 0878937447.

Striedter, Georg F. Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005. ISBN: 0878938206.

Swanson, Larry W. Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN: 0195105052.

Zigmond, Michael J. et al, eds. Fundamental Neuroscience. Illustrations by Robert S. Woolley. Part III. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999. ISBN: 0127808701.



Assignments

There are four homework assignments for this class.



Grading


ACTIVITIESPERCENTAGES
One Midterm Exam20%
One Final Exam40%
Classroom Quizzes and Class Participation20%
Homework Assignments20%




Calendar

LEC #TOPICSKEY DATES
1-2Introduction; Anatomical Techniques
3-4Steps to the CNS of Chordates
5-6Specializations in CNS Evolution
7-8Spinal Cord Development and Anatomy
9-11Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles
12-13Axon Growth
14-15Motor SystemsHomework 1 due
16-17Motor Systems (cont.)
18Midterm Exam
19-20Taste and Olfactory Systems
21-23Visual Systems
24-25Auditory and Related Sensory SystemsHomework 2 due
26Introduction to the Forebrain
27-28Hypothalamus and Limbic System
29Hormonal and Other Influences on Brain Development and Plasticity
30Hippocampal Formation
31Amygdala and Other Aspects of Limbic Formation
32-33Corpus StriatumHomework 3 due
34-38NeocortexHomework 4 due (optional)
Final Exam




Readings

LEC #TOPICSSTUDY QUESTIONSREADINGS
1-2Introduction; Anatomical Techniques(PDF)Allman, John Morgan. Chapter 1 in Evolving Brains. New York, NY: Scientific American Library: Distributed by W. H. Freeman and Co., 1999, pp. 1-13. ISBN: 0716750767.

Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Chapter 1 in Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, pp. 1-11. ISBN: 0716717239.

Swanson, Larry W. Chapter 2 in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 9-28. ISBN: 0195105052.

Recommended

Swanson, Larry W. Chapter 1 in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 1-8. ISBN: 0195105052.
3-4Steps to the CNS of Chordates(PDF)Allman, John Morgan. Chapters 2-4 in Evolving Brains. New York, NY: Scientific American Library: Distributed by W. H. Freeman and Co., 1999, pp. 16-83. ISBN: 0716750767.

Striedter, Georg F. Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 37-44. ISBN: 0878938206.

Recommended

Swanson, Larry W. Chapter 3 in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 29-39. ISBN: 0195105052.

Striedter, Georg F. Chapter 2 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 19-50. ISBN: 0878938206.
5-6Specializations in CNS Evolution(PDF)Striedter, Georg F. Chapter 3 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 51-81. ISBN: 0878938206.

Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Chapter 3 in Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, pp. 39-49. ISBN: 0716717239.

Recommended

Striedter, Georg F. Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 81-91. ISBN: 0878938206.

Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Chapter 4 in Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, pp. 50-61. ISBN: 0716717239.

Swanson, Larry W. Chapter 4a in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 40-60. ISBN: 0195105052.
7-8Spinal Cord Development and Anatomy(PDF)Swanson, Larry W. Chapter 4a in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 40-60. ISBN: 0195105052.

Purves, Dale, and Jeff W. Lichtman. Chapter 1 in Principles of neural Development. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1985, pp. 3-23. ISBN: 0878937447.

Striedter, Georg F. Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 220-223, fig. 7.1. ISBN: 0878938206.

Recommended

Swanson, Larry W. Chapter 4b in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 60-79. ISBN: 0195105052.
9-11Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles(PDF)Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Chapter 5 in Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, pp. 64-84. ISBN: 0716717239.

Allman, John Morgan. Chapter 5 in Evolving Brains. New York, NY: Scientific American Library: Distributed by W. H. Freeman and Co., 1999, pp. 86-119. ISBN: 0716750767.

Butler, Ann B., and William Hodos. Chapters 7, 9, and 10 in Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss, 1996, pp. 95-106, 120-122, and 133-134. ISBN: 0471888893.

Recommended

Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Chapter 10, and 11 in Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986. ISBN: 0716717239.

Butler, Ann B., and William Hodos. Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss, 1996, pp. 134-140. ISBN: 0471888893.
12-13Axon Growth(PDF)Purves, Dale, and Jeff W. Lichtman. Chapters 4b and 5 in Principles of Neural Development. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1985, pp. 94-103, and 105-129. ISBN: 0878937447.

Zigmond, Michael J., et. al., eds. "Growth Cones and Axon Pathfinding." In Fundamental Neuroscience. Illustrations by Robert S. Woolley. Part III. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999, pp. 519-546. ISBN: 0127808701.

Recommended

Zigmond, Michael J., et. al., eds. Fundamental Neuroscience. Illustrations by Robert S. Woolley. Part III. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999, pp. 417-517, and 547-654. ISBN: 0127808701.
14-17Motor Systems(PDF)Swanson, Larry W. Chapter 6A in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 97-122. ISBN: 0195105052.

Striedter, Georg F. Chapter 7 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 217-245. ISBN: 0878938206.

Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Chapter 7 in Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, pp. 91-107. ISBN: 0716717239.

Recommended

Swanson, Larry W. Chapter 5, and 6B in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 122-138. ISBN: 0195105052.

Striedter, Georg F. Chapter 7 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 245-253. ISBN: 0878938206.
19-20Taste and Olfactory Systems(PDF)Brodal, Per. "Olfaction and Taste." Chapter 10 in The Central Nervous System, Structure and Function. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 233-239. ISBN: 0195165608.

Striedter, Georg F. "Concerted and Mosaic Evolution." Chapter 5 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 137-153. ISBN: 0878938206.

Cajal, S. Ramón y. Vol. 2 of Histology of the Nervous System of Man and Vertebrates. Translated by Neely Swanson and Larry W. Swanson. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN: 0195074017. [See drawings in chapters 28-30.]

Lois, C., J. M. Garcia-Verdugo, and A. Alvarez-Buylla. "Chain Migration of Neuronal Precursors." Science 271 (1996): 978-981.

Recommended

Alvarez-Buylla, A., and J. M. Garcia-Verdugo. "Neurogenesis in Adult Subventricular Zone." J Neurosci 22 (2002): 629-634.

Malnic, B., J. Hirono, T. Sato, and L. Buck. "Combinatorial Receptor Codes for Odors." Cell 96 (1999): 713-723.
21-23Visual Systems(PDF)Allman, John Morgan. Chapter 6 in Evolving Brains. New York, NY: Scientific American Library: Distributed by W. H. Freeman and Co., 1999, pp. 122-157. ISBN: 0716750767.

Striedter, Georg F. Chapter 5 and 6 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 153-176, and 185-215. Figures 7.14, 7.15, and 7.16. ISBN: 0878938206.

Recommended

Striedter, Georg F. Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 177-185. ISBN: 0878938206.

Butler, Ann B., and William Hodos. "Optic Tectum," "Pretectum and Posterior Tuberculum," "Dorsal Thalamus," "Dorsal Pallium," and "Visual Forebrain in Amniotes." Chapters 18, 20, 22, 25 and 26 in Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss, 1996. ISBN: 0471888893.
24-25Auditory and Related Sensory Systems(PDF)Allman, John Morgan. Chapter 5 in Evolving Brains. New York, NY: Scientific American Library: Distributed by W. H. Freeman and Co., 1999, pp. 98-101. ISBN: 0716750767.

Striedter, Georg F. Chapter 5 and 8 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 154-157, 162-171, and 259-268. Also Figure 8.10 on p. 282. ISBN: 0878938206.

Recommended

Striedter, Georg F. "What's Special about Mammal Brains?" Chapter 8 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 225-258, and 268-287. ISBN: 0878938206.

Butler, Ann B., and William Hodos. "Dorsolateral cranial Nerves: Lateral Line and Octaval Systems," and "Auditory and Vocal Forebrain in Amniotes." Chapters 11 and 28 in Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss, 1996, pp. 148-152, and 410-421. ISBN: 0471888893.
26Introduction to the Forebrain(PDF)Allman, John Morgan. Chapter 5 in Evolving Brains. New York, NY: Scientific American Library: Distributed by W. H. Freeman and Co., 1999, pp. 255-287. ISBN: 0716750767.

Striedter, Georg F. Chapter 8A in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 255-287. ISBN: 0878938206.

Recommended

Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Chapter 13 in Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, pp. 220-238. ISBN: 0716717239.

Butler, Ann B., and William Hodos. "Overview of the Forebrain." Chapter 19 in Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss, 1996, pp. 259-280. ISBN: 0471888893.
27-28Hypothalamus and Limbic System(PDF)Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. "Innervation of the viscera," and "Affect and motivation; the limbic system." Chapter 8 and 9 in Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, pp. 108-131. ISBN: 0716717239.

Brodal, Per. "The Central Autonomic System: Hypothalamus." Chapter 19 in The Central Nervous System, Structure and Function. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 397-414. ISBN: 0195165608.

Swanson, Larry W. "Drive and Motivation. Autonomic Nervous System," and "The Behavioral State System." Chapters 6B and 7 in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 117-130, and 149-155. ISBN: 0195105052.

Mesulam, M-Marsel, ed. "Behavioral Neuroanatomy: Large-scale Networks, Association Cortex, Frontal Syndromes, the Limbic System, and Hemispheric Specializations." Chapter 1 in Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 1-120. ISBN: 0195134753.

Recommended

Swanson, Larry W. "The Behavioral State System." Chapter 7 in Brain Architecture, Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 139-149. ISBN: 0195105052.

Giesler, G. J., Jr., J. T. Katter, and R. J. Dado. "Direct spinal pathways to the limbic system for nociceptive information." Trends in Neuroscience 17 (1994): 244-250.
29Hormonal and Other Influences on Brain Development and Plasticity(PDF)

Swaab, D. F., and M. A. Hofman. "Sexual Differentiation of the Human Hypothalamus in Relation to Gender and Sexual Orientation." Trends in Neuroscience 18 (1995): 264-270.

Nottebohm, F. "From Bird Song to Neurogenesis." Scientific American (February 1989): 74-79.

Baum, M. J. "Psychosexual Development." Chapter 47 in Fundamental Neuroscience. Illustrations by Robert S. Woolley. Part III. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999, pp. 1229-1244, Box 47.2, and 47.3. ISBN: 0127808701.

Recommended

Toran-Allerand, C. D. "Mechanisms of Estrogen Action During Neural Development: Mediation by Interactions with the Neurotrophins and their Receptors?" J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 56 (1997): 169-178.

———. "Organotypic Culture of the Developing Cerebral Cortex and Hypothalamus: Relevance to Sexual Differentiation." Psychoneuroendocrinology 16 (1991): 7-24.

Reisert, I., V. Han, E. Lieth, D. Toran-Allerand, C. Pilgrim, and J. Lauder. "Sex Steroids Promote Neurite Growth in Mesencephalic Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactive Neurons in Vitro." International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 5 (1987): 91-98.

Johnson, F., and S. W. Bottjer. "Differential Estrogen Accumulation among Populations of Projections Neurons in the Higher Vocal Center of Male Canaries." J Neurobiology 26: 87-108.

Brown, S. D., and S. W. Bottjer. "Testosterone-induced Changes in Adult Canary Brain are Reversible." J Neurobiology 24 (1993): 627-640.

Brown, S. D., F. Johnson, and S. W. Bottjer. "Neurogenesis in Adult Canary Telencephalon is Independent of Gonadal Hormone Levels." J Neuroscience 13 (1993): 2024-2032.

Bottjer, S. W., and T. P. Dignan. "Joint Hormonal and Sensory Stimulation Modulate Neuronal Number in Adult Canary Brains." J Neurobiology 19 (1998): 624-635.

30Hippocampal Formation(PDF)

Striedter, Georg F. Chapter 5 and 8 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 171-176, and 290-294. ISBN: 0878938206.

Butler, Ann B., and William Hodos. "Limbic Telencephalon." Chapter 30 in Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss, 1996. ISBN: 0471888893.
Read one small section, "Evolutionary perspective," to get a flavor of the comparative work (pp. 455-457.)

Brodal, Per. "The Limbic Structures." Chapter 20 in The Central Nervous System, Structure and Function. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 415-434. ISBN: 0195165608.


Recommended

Mesulam, M-Marsel, ed. "Behavioral Neuroanatomy: Large-scale Networks, Association Cortex, Frontal Syndromes, the Limbic System, and Hemispheric Specializations." Chapter 1 in Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 1-120. ISBN: 0195134753.

31Amygdala and Other Aspects of Limbic Formation(PDF)

Brodal, Per. "The Limbic Structures." Chapter 20 in The Central Nervous System, Structure and Function. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 415-434. ISBN: 0195165608.


Recommended

Mesulam, M-Marsel, ed. "Behavioral Neuroanatomy: Large-scale Networks, Association Cortex, Frontal Syndromes, the Limbic System, and Hemispheric Specializations." Chapter 1 in Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 1-120. ISBN: 0195134753.

32-33Corpus Striatum(PDF)Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, p. 99, and figure 48. ISBN: 0716717239.

Striedter, Georg F. Chapter 8C "Beyond the Neocortex." In Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 287-290. ISBN: 0878938206.

Brodal, Per. "The Basal Ganglia." Chapter 13 in The Central Nervous System, Structure and Function. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 286-302. ISBN: 0195165608.

Mesulam, M-Marsel, ed. "Behavioral Neuroanatomy: Large-scale Networks, Association Cortex, Frontal Syndromes, the Limbic System, and Hemispheric Specializations." Chapter 1 in Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 1-120. ISBN: 0195134753.


Recommended

Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, pp. 97-101. ISBN: 0716717239.

Olanow, C. W., J. H. Kordower, and T. B. Freeman. "Fetal Nigral Transplantation as a Therapy for Parkinson's Disease." Trends in Neuroscience 19 (1996): 103-109.

Kempermann, G., and F. H. Gage. "New Nerve Cells for the Adult Brain." Sci American 280 (1999): 48-53.
34-38Neocortex

(PDF 1 of 2)

(PDF 2 of 2)

Allman, John Morgan. "The Evolution of Big Brains." Chapter 7 in Evolving Brains. New York: Scientific American Library: Distributed by W. H. Freeman and Co., 1999, pp. 160-208. ISBN: 0716750767.

Striedter, Georg F. "What's special about Human Brains." Chapter 9 in Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2005, pp. 297-344. ISBN: 0878938206.

Nauta, Walle J. H., and Michael Feirtag. "Forebrain", and "Neocortex." Chapter 13 and 16 in Fundamental Neuroanatomy. New York, NY: Freeman, 1986, pp. 220-238, 289-207. ISBN: 0716717239.

Brodal, Per. "The Cerebral Cortex."Chapter 21, part 1 in The Central Nervous System, Structure and Function. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 435-464. ISBN: 0195165608.

Purves, Dale, and Jeff W. Lichtman. "Movement and Migration of Neurons." Chapter 4 in Principles of Neural Development. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1985, pp. 91-95. ISBN: 0878937447.

Rakic, P. A. "Small Step for the Cell, a Giant Leap for Mankind: A Hypothesis of Neocortical Expansion During Evolution." Trends in Neurosciences 18 (1995): 383-388.

Recommended

Mesulam, M-Marsel, ed. "Behavioral Neuroanatomy: Large-scale Networks, Association Cortex, Frontal Syndromes, the Limbic System, and Hemispheric Specializations." Chapter 1 in Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 1-120. ISBN: 0195134753.

Finlay, B. L., and R. B. Darlington. "Linked regularities in the development and evolution of mammalian brains." Science 268 (1995): 1578-1584.

Brodal, Per. "Development, Aging, and Plasticity of the Nervous System." Chapter 4 in The Central Nervous System, Structure and Function. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 103-132. ISBN: 0195165608.

Bonhoeffer, T. "Neurotrophins and Activity-Dependent Development of the Neocortex." Current Opinion in Neurobiology 6 (1996): 119-126.

Sur, M., A. Angelucci, and J. Sharma. "Rewiring Cortex: The Role of Patterned Activity in Development and Plasticity of Neocortical Circuits." J Neurobiol 41 (1999): 33-43.





Lecture Notes

A selection of lecture notes is presented below. The materials on this page are representative of the work and pedagogy developed by Prof. Gerald Schneider. Your use of these course materials is subject to the conditions and terms of use in our Legal Notices section.


LEC #TOPICSSTUDY QUESTION
1Introduction: Brain Orientation, Primitive Cellular Activities (PDF)(PDF)
2Introduction: Methods; Primitive Cellular Activities (PDF - 1.6 MB)
3Steps to the CNS of Chordates (PDF - 1.0 MB)(PDF)
4Steps to the CNS of Chordates (cont.) (PDF - 1.9 MB)
5Specializations in CNS Evolution (PDF - 1.9 MB)(PDF)
6Specializations in CNS Evolution (cont.) (PDF - 1.1 MB)
7Spinal Cord Development and Anatomy (PDF - 1.2 MB)(PDF)
8Spinal Cord Development and Anatomy (cont.)
9Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles (PDF - 1.2 MB)(PDF)
10Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles (cont.) (PDF - 1.1 MB)
11Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles (cont.) (PDF)
12Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles (cont.) (PDF)(PDF)
13Axon Growth
14Axon Growth (cont.) (PDF)(PDF)
15Motor Systems (PDF)
16Motor Systems (cont.)
17Motor Systems (cont.)
18Midterm Exam
19Taste and Olfactory Systems(PDF)
20Taste and Olfactory Systems (cont.)
21Visual Systems(PDF)
22Visual Systems (cont.)
23Visual Systems (cont.)
24Auditory Systems(PDF)
25Auditory Systems (cont.)
26Forebrain Introduction(PDF)
27Hypothalamus; Limbic System(PDF)
28Hypothalamus; Limbic System (cont.)
29Hypothalamus; Limbic System (cont.)(PDF)
30Hypothalamus; Limbic System (cont.)(PDF)
31Hypothalamus; Limbic System (cont.)(PDF)
32Corpus Striatum
33Corpus Striatum
34Neocortex
35Neocortex (cont.)
36Neocortex (cont.)
37Neocortex (cont.)
38Plastic Systems: Cerebellum, Striatum, Cortex
39Plastic Systems: Cerebellum, Striatum, Cortex (cont.)




Assignments

Students must complete required readings in addition to these assignments.

Homework 1 (PDF)

Homework 2 (PDF)

Homework 3 (PDF)

Homework 4 (PDF)





Study Materials

General Topical Handouts

Questions and Answers: Axon Growth and Neuron Survival (PDF)

Review Questions for Midterm (PDF)

Review Questions for Final Exam (PDF)





Audio Lectures

Special software is required to use some of the files in this section: .mp3, .rm.

The materials on this page are representative of the work and pedagogy developed by Professor Gerald Schneider. Your use of these course materials is subject to the conditions and terms of use in our Legal Notices section.

These files are also available for download from iTunes®.


LEC #TOPICSMP3 AUDIOSSTREAMING AUDIOS
1Introduction: Brain Orientation, Primitive Cellular Activities(MP3 - 23.4MB)(RM - 16K)
2Introduction: Methods; Primitive Cellular Activities(MP3 - 30MB)(RM - 16K)
3Steps to the CNS of Chordates(MP3 - 26.2MB)(RM - 16K)
4Steps to the CNS of Chordates (cont.)(MP3 - 22MB)(RM - 16K)
5Specializations in CNS Evolution(MP3 - 25.2MB)(RM - 16K)
6Specializations in CNS Evolution (cont.)(MP3 - 20.9MB)(RM - 16K)
7Spinal Cord Development and Anatomy(MP3 - 26.3MB)(RM - 16K)
8Spinal Cord Development and Anatomy (cont.)(MP3 - 23.6MB)(RM - 16K)
9Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles(MP3 - 26.8MB)(RM - 16K)
10Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles (cont.)(MP3 - 28.9MB)(RM - 16K)
11Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles (cont.)(MP3 - 25MB)(RM - 16K)
12Differentiation of the Brain Vesicles (cont.)(MP3 - 27.4MB)(RM - 16K)
13Axon Growth(MP3 - 29.5MB)(RM - 16K)
14Axon Growth (cont.)(MP3 - 29.2MB)(RM - 16K)
15Motor Systems(MP3 - 30.1MB)(RM - 16K)
16Motor Systems (cont.)(MP3 - 21.4MB)(RM - 16K)
17Motor Systems (cont.)
18Midterm Exam
19Taste and Olfactory Systems(MP3 - 28.7MB)(RM - 16K)
20Taste and Olfactory Systems (cont.)(MP3 - 26.6MB)(RM - 16K)
21Visual Systems(MP3 - 28.8MB)(RM - 16K)
22Visual Systems (cont.)(MP3 - 26.2MB)(RM - 16K)
23Visual Systems (cont.)(MP3 - 24.7MB)(RM - 16K)
24Auditory Systems(MP3 - 26.7MB)(RM - 16K)
25Auditory Systems (cont.)(MP3 - 26.1MB)(RM - 16K)
26Forebrain Introduction(MP3 - 29.2MB)(RM - 16K)
27Hypothalamus; Limbic System(MP3 - 26.2MB)(RM - 16K)
28Hypothalamus; Limbic System (cont.)(MP3 - 25.2MB)(RM - 16K)
29Hypothalamus; Limbic System (cont.)(MP3 - 29.8MB)(RM - 16K)
30Hypothalamus; Limbic System (cont.)(MP3 - 22.7MB)(RM - 16K)
31Hypothalamus; Limbic System (cont.)(MP3 - 28.8MB)(RM - 16K)
32Corpus Striatum(MP3 - 27.8MB)(RM - 16K)
33Corpus Striatum (cont.)(MP3 - 26.2MB)(RM - 16K)
34Neocortex(MP3 - 20.6MB)(RM - 16K)
35Neocortex (cont.)(MP3 - 28.1MB)(RM - 16K)
36Neocortex (cont.)(MP3 - 27.5MB)(RM - 16K)
37Neocortex (cont.)(MP3 - 28.4MB)(RM - 16K)
38Plastic Systems: Cerebellum, Striatum, Cortex(MP3 - 20MB)(RM - 16K)
39Plastic Systems: Cerebellum, Striatum, Cortex (cont.)



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