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11.953 Comparative Land Use and Transportation Planning

Spring 2006

Examples of transportation infrastructure.The impact of transportation infrastructure on land development is a topic covered in this course. (Image courtesy of the U.S. Department of Transportation.)

Course Highlights

This course features selected lecture notes and assignments.

Course Description

This course focuses on the land use-transportation "interaction space" in metropolitan settings. The course aims to develop an understanding of relevant theories and analytical techniques, through the exploration of various cases drawn from different parts of the world. The course begins with an overview of the role of transportation in patterns of urban development and metropolitan growth. It introduces the concept of accessibility and related issues of individual and firm travel demand. Later in the semester, students will explore the influence of the metropolitan built environment on travel behavior and the role of transportation on metropolitan land development. The course will conclude with an examination of the implications of the land use-transportation interaction space for metropolitan futures, and our abilities to forecast them.



Syllabus

Course Description

This course focuses on the land use-transportation "interaction space" in metropolitan settings. The course aims to develop an understanding of relevant theories and analytical techniques, through the exploration of various cases drawn from different parts of the world.

During the first part of the course, students will develop a basic understanding of: the major forces, patterns and trends of metropolitan growth today; conceptual and analytical models of urban development and the role of transportation; and the relevant planning institutions. The second part of the course will introduce the concept of accessibility and related issues of individual and firm travel demand.

Building on these foundations, in the third part of the course students will explore the influence of the metropolitan built environment on travel behavior, including historical interest and evidence, relevant theories and analytical approaches, techniques for measuring relevant aspects of the "built environment," and implications for planning tools and policies.

The fourth part of the course turns to the other side of the land use-transportation "interaction space;" that is, the role of transportation on metropolitan land development. Students will learn about historical influences and then study in more detail the effects as they relate to provision of both public transportation infrastructure and roadways. We will also examine the implications for various financial instruments and institutional structures. Finally, the fifth part of the course will take a prospective perspective, looking at the implications of the land use-transportation interaction space for metropolitan futures, and our abilities to forecast them.



Course Objectives

By the end of the course, students should have developed:



Course Requirements and Grading

The course meets twice a week for lectures and class discussions. There are no formal prerequisites for the course; however students should have an understanding of basic micro-economics and some understanding of, and facility with, statistics. For those students with the need/interest, a special session(s) will be organized to give students a basic aptitude in understanding regression modeling. Students will not be required to carry out regression analysis; however, the purpose of the special session(s) will be to help students understand the analyses as reported in the literature.

Students are expected to come to class having read the assigned readings for the week. Not every reading needs to be read thoroughly; the Instructor will give guidance when appropriate.

Students will be graded based on their performance on seven assignments, plus class participation, accordingly (as % of final grade):


AcitvitiesPercentages
Assignment Introduction (Graded Pass/Fail)5%
Assignment I10%
Assignment II15%
Assignment III15%
Assignment IV20%
Assignment V15%
Assignment VI15%
Class Participation5%



The assignments will be a combination of individual, partner, and group projects. In particular, Assignment IV will be a group project carried out in conjunction with the Passaic Studio in Architectural Urbanism. The configuration of groups and pairs for the relevant assignments will be determined based upon class composition and student skill sets.





Calendar

Ses #TopicsKEY DATES
Introduction
1Comparative Land Use and Transportation Planning?

Course Overview, Objectives, Expectations, Logistics, Student Interests, Basic Course Framework, Why Comparative Land Use and Transportation Planning?
Introductory Assignment (Your Neighborhood) out
Part I: Understanding the Metropolitan-"izing" World
2Metropolitan-ization Forces, Patterns and Trends, Concerns
3"Models" of the MetropolisIntroductory Assignment due
4"Regional Architectures": Institutions of the Metropolis
Part II: The Basics of Activities and Travel
5Accessibility: The Land Use-Transportation Link
6Basics of Travel Demand: Persons and FirmsAssignment I (Accessibility Management in the Metropolis) out
Part III: The Influence of Land Use on Mobility and Accessibility
7Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): Something New?
8Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): Conceptualizing the EffectsAssignment I due
9Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): Analytical Approaches
10Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): A Matter of ScaleAssignment II (Santiago de Chile) out
11Measuring Urban Form and Urban Design
12Implications for Planning Policies and ToolsAssignment II due

Assignment III (North Point, Cambridge) out
13Financial Instruments
Part IV: The Influence of Transportation on Land Use
14Transportation and Metropolitan Growth: History of EffectsAssignment III due

Assignment IV (Passaic Urban Design Studio) out
15Public Transportation and Metropolitan Growth
16Public Transportation and Metropolitan Growth: Case Studies in Integration
17Passaic Studio PresentationAssignment IV due (Student groups will present their results of the passaic studio analysis to the studio)
18Roadways and Metropolitan Growth
19Roadways and Metropolitan Growth: São Paulo Case

Guest Speaker: Ciro Biderman
Assignment V (São Paulo Ring Road) out
20Transportation and Metropolitan Growth: Financial Instruments
21Transportation Networks and Travel BehaviorAssignment V due
Part V: Metropolitan Futures
22Pulling It All Together: Land Use, Mobility, Accessibility

Guest Speaker: Chris Porter, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
23Back to the Future? Land Use Mobility, Accessibility in Metropolitan ChinaAssignment VI (China Metropolitan Futures) out
24The Future of the Metropolis: Theoretical Speculations
25The Future of the Metropolis: Tools and Models

Guest Speaker: Mikel Murga
26Student PresentationsAssignment VI due




Readings

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SES #TopicsREADINGS
Introduction
1Comparative Land Use and Transportation Planning?

Course Overview, Objectives, Expectations, Logistics, Student Interests, Basic Course Framework, Why Comparative Land Use and Transportation Planning?
Part I: Understanding the Metropolitan-"izing" World
2Metropolitan-ization Forces, Patterns and Trends, ConcernsMieszkowski, P., and E. Mills. "The Causes of Metropolitan Suburbanization." Journal of Economic Perspectives 7, no. 3 (1993): 135-147.

Ingram, G. "Patterns of Metropolitan Development: What Have We Learned?" Urban Studies 35, no. 7 (1998): 1019-1035.

Glaeser, E. "Are Cities Dying?" The Journal of Economic Perspectives 12, no. 2 (1998): 139-160.
3"Models" of the MetropolisMiller, Mervyn. "Garden Cities and Suburbs: At Home and Abroad." Journal of Planning History 1, no. 1 (2002): 6-28.

Tiebout, C. "A Pure Theory of Local Public Expenditures." Journal of Political Economy 64 (1956): 416-24.
4"Regional Architectures": Institutions of the MetropolisPorter, D. "Regional Governance: The Missing Link in Relating Land Use and Transportation." Transportation, Urban Form, and the Environment. Transportation Research Board, Special Report 231, 1991, pp. 63-80.

Metcalf, G. "Regional Planning without Regional Government." SPUR (July 2004): 1-4.
Part II: The Basics of Activities and Travel
5Accessibility: The Land Use-Transportation LinkAmazon logo Lynch, K. "Access." Chapter 10 in Good City Form. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984, pp. 187-204. ISBN: 0262620464.

Geurs, K. T., and B. van Wee. "Accessibility Evaluation of Land-use and Transport Strategies: Review and Research Directions." Journal of Transport Geography 12 (2004): 127-140.

Handy, S. L., and K. J. Clifton. "Evaluating Neighborhood Accessibility: Possibilities and Practicalities." Journal of Transportation and Statistics 4, no. 2/3 (2001): 67-78.
6Basics of Travel Demand: Persons and FirmsHolton, R. "The Distinction between Convenience Goods, Shopping Goods, and Specialty Goods." Journal of Marketing 23, no. 1 (1958): 53-56.

Vickerman, R. "The Demand for Non-Work Travel." Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 6, no. 2 (1972): 176-210.

Schafer, A. "Regularities in Travel Demand: An International Perspective." Journal of Transportation and Statistics 3, no. 3 (2000): 1-31.
Part III: The Influence of Land Use on Mobility and Accessibility
7Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): Something New?Carroll, J. D. "The Relation of Homes to Work Places and the Spatial Pattern of Cities." Social Forces 30, no. 3 (1952): 271-282.

Cervero, R. "Jobs-Housing Balance Revisited: Trends and Impacts in the San Francisco Bay Area." Journal of the American Planning Association 62, no. 4 (1996): 492-511.
8Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): Conceptualizing the EffectsCrane, R. "On Form Versus Function: Will the New Urbanism Reduce Traffic, or Increase It?" Journal of Planning Education and Research 15 (1996): 117-126.

Vilhelmson, B. "Daily Mobility and the Use of Time for Different Activities. The Case of Sweden." GeoJournal 48, no. 3 (1999): 177-185.

Maat, K., B. van Wee, and D. Stead. "Land Use and Travel Behaviour: Expected Effects from the Perspective of Utility Theory and Activity-based Theories." Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 32 (2005): 33-46.
9Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): Analytical ApproachesHandy, S. "Methodologies for Exploring the Link between Urban Form and Travel Behavior." Transportation Research D 1, no. 2 (1996): 151-165.

Crane, R. "The Influence of Urban Form on Travel: An Interpretive Review." Journal of Planning Literature 15, no. 1 (2000): 3-23.
10Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): A Matter of ScaleMiller, E. J., and A. Ibrahim. "Urban Form and Vehicular Travel: Some Empirical Findings." Transportation Research Record 1617 (1998): 18-27.

Ewing, R., and R. Cervero. "Travel and the Built Environment: A Synthesis." Transportation Research Record 1780 (2001): 87-113.

McCormack, E., G. S. Rutherford, and M. Wilkinson. "Travel Impacts of Mixed Land Use Neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington." Transportation Research Record 1780 (2001): 25-32.
11Measuring Urban Form and Urban DesignSong, Y., and G. J. Knaap. "Measuring Urban Form: Is Portland Winning the War on Sprawl?" Journal of the American Planning Association 70, no. 2 (2004): 210-225.

Horner, M. W., and A. T. Murray. "Excess Commuting and the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem." Urban Studies 39, no. 1 (2002): 131-139.

Dill, J. "Measuring Network Connectivity for Bicycling and Walking." Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 2004.
12Implications for Planning Policies and ToolsSteiner, Ruth L. "Florida's Transportation Concurrency: Are the Current Tools Adequate to Meet the Needs for Coordinated Land Use and Transportation?" University of Florida Journal of Law and Public Policy 12 (2001): 269-297.

Schwanen, T., M. Dijst, and F. Dieleman. "Policies for Urban Form and Their Impact on Travel: The Netherlands Experience." Urban Studies 41, no. 3 (2004): 579-603.

Walters, G., R. Ewing, and W. Schroeer. "Adjusting Computer Modeling Tools to Capture Effects of 'Smart Growth.'" Transportation Research Record 1722 (2000): 17-26.
13Financial InstrumentsKrizek, K. "Transit Supportive Home Loans: Theory, Application, and Prospects for Smart Growth." Housing Policy Debate 14, no. 4 (2003): 657-677.

Blackman, A. "Testing the Rhetoric." Regulation 25, no. 1 (2002): 34-38.

Zegras, C. "Financing Transport Infrastructure in Developing Country Cities: Evaluation of and Lessons from Nascent Use of Impact Fees in Santiago de Chile." Transportation Research Record 1839 (2003): 81-88.

Renne, J., and P. Newman. "Facilitating the Financing and Development of Smart Growth." Transportation Quarterly 56, no. 2 (2002): 23-32.

See also, Affordability Index (PDF - 3.5 MB)
Part IV: The Influence of Transportation on Land Use
14Transportation and Metropolitan Growth: History of EffectsAmazon logo Warner, S. B. "The Large Institutions." Chapter 2 in Streetcar Suburbs. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962, 2nd Printing, 1978, pp. 15-34. ISBN: 0674842138.

Amazon logo Muller, Peter O. "Transportation and Urban Form: Stages in the Spatial Evolution of the American Metropolis." Chapter 3 in The Geography of Urban Transportation. Edited by S. Hanson. 3rd ed. New York, NY: The Guildford Press, 2004, pp. 59-85. ISBN: 1593850557.
15Public Transportation and Metropolitan GrowthBaum-Snow, N., and M. E. Kahn. "The Effects of New Public Projects to Expand Urban Rail Transit." Journal of Public Economics 77 (2000): 241-263.

Rodríguez, D., and F. Targa. "Value of Accessibility to Bogotá's Bus Rapid Transit System." Transport Reviews 24, no. 5 (2004): 587-610.
16Public Transportation and Metropolitan Growth: Case Studies in IntegrationTransit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). "Curitiba, Brazil: BRT Case Study." From Appendix in Bus Rapid Transit. Vol. 1. Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit. TCRP Report 90, Washington, DC, 2003.

Amazon logo Cervero, R. "Orbiting the City with Rail-Served Satellites: Stockholm, Sweden." Chapter 4 in The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998, pp. 109-131. ISBN: 1559635916.
17Passaic Studio Presentation
18Roadways and Metropolitan GrowthBoarnet, M., and A. Haughwout. "Do Highways Matter? Evidence and Policy Implications of Highways' Influence on Metropolitan Development." Brookings Discussion Paper. Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, Washington, DC, August 2000.

Boarnet, M., and S. Chalermpong. "New Highways, House Price, and Urban Development: A Case Study of Toll Roads in Orange County, CA." Housing Policy Debate 12, no. 3 (2001): 575-605.
19Roadways and Metropolitan Growth: São Paulo Case

Guest Speaker: Ciro Biderman
Biderman, C. "Transport and Location Decision: The São Paulo External Ring Case." Draft Paper, 2006.

Vasconcellos, E. "Urban Change, Mobility and Transport in São Paulo: Three Decades, Three Cities." Transport Policy 12 (2005): 91-104.
20Transportation and Metropolitan Growth: Financial InstrumentsCervero, R., and B. Susantono. "Rent Capitalization and Transportation Infrastructure Development in Jakarta." Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies 11, no. 1 (1999): 11-23.

Batt, W. H. "Value Capture as a Policy Tool in Transportation Economics: An Exploration in Public Finance in the Tradition of Henry George." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 60, no. 1 (2001): 196-228.
21Transportation Networks and Travel BehaviorAmazon logo Ewing, R. "Traffic Calming in New Developments." Chapter 10 in Traffic Calming: State of the Practice. Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers and U.S. Federal Highway Administration, 1999, pp. 182-198. ISBN: 0935403361.

———. "From Highway to My Way: Context-Sensitive Highway Design." Planning 67, no. 1 (2001): 22-27.

Macbeth, A. "Bicycle Lanes in Toronto." ITE Journal 69, no. 2 (1999): 38-43.
Part V: Metropolitan Futures
22Pulling It All Together: Land Use, Mobility, Accessibility

Guest Speaker: Chris Porter, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
Wheeler, S. M. "Planning for Metropolitan Sustainability." Journal of Planning Education and Research 20 (2000): 133-145.

Porter, C. "These Agencies Get It." Planning 71, no. 5 (2005): 41-45.
23Back to the Future? Land Use Mobility, Accessibility in Metropolitan ChinaYang, J. "The Transportation Implications of Land Development in a Transitional Economy: Evidence from Housing Relocation in Beijing." Paper accepted for publication in Transportation Research Record, 2006.

Pan, H., and M. Zhang. "Rail Transit Shaping Urban Travel and Land Use: Evidence from Shanghai, China." Working paper, 2005.
24The Future of the Metropolis: Theoretical SpeculationsGlaeser, E., J. Kolko, and A. Saiz. "Consumer City." Journal of Economic Geography 1 (2001): 27-50.

Audirac, I. "Information Technology and Urban Form: Challenges to Smart Growth." International Regional Science Review 28, no. 2 (2005): 119-145.

Topp, H. "Traffic 2042 - Mosaic of a Vision." Transport Policy 9 (2002): 1-7. Comments by M. Wachs and J. Kenworthy.
25The Future of the Metropolis: Tools and Models

Guest Speaker: Mikel Murga
Rodier, C. J., R. A. Johnston, and J. E. Abraham. "Heuristic Policy Analysis of Regional Land Use, Transit, and Travel Pricing Scenarios Using Two Urban Models." Transportation Research Part D 7 (2002): 243-254.

Waddell, P., G. Ulfarsson, J. Franklin, and J. Lobb. "Incorporating Land Use in Metropolitan Transportation Planning." Transportation Research A. Paper submitted, 2006.
26Student Presentations




Lecture Notes

This section contains documents created from scanned original files, which are inaccessible to screen reader software. A "#" symbol is used to denote such documents.

A selection of notes from the course lectures is included below. All work is courtesy of the lecturer named and used with permission.


SES #Topics
Introduction
1Comparative Land Use and Transportation Planning?

Course Overview, Objectives, Expectations, Logistics, Student Interests, Basic Course Framework, Why Comparative Land Use and Transportation Planning?
Part I: Understanding the Metropolitan-"izing" World
2Metropolitan-ization Forces, Patterns and Trends, Concerns (PDF)
3"Models" of the Metropolis (PDF)
4"Regional Architectures": Institutions of the Metropolis (PDF)
Part II: The Basics of Activities and Travel
5Accessibility: The Land Use-Transportation Link (PDF - 1.4 MB)#
6Basics of Travel Demand: Persons and Firms (PDF)
Part III: The Influence of Land Use on Mobility and Accessibility
7Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): Something New?
8Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): Conceptualizing the Effects
9Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): Analytical Approaches
10Mobility/Accessibility = f (Land Use): A Matter of Scale
11Measuring Urban Form and Urban Design
12Implications for Planning Policies and Tools
13Financial Instruments (PDF)
Part IV: The Influence of Transportation on Land Use
14Transportation and Metropolitan Growth: History of Effects
15Public Transportation and Metropolitan Growth
16Public Transportation and Metropolitan Growth: Case Studies in Integration
17Passaic Studio Presentation
18Roadways and Metropolitan Growth
19Roadways and Metropolitan Growth: São Paulo Case

Guest Speaker: Ciro Biderman
20Transportation and Metropolitan Growth: Financial Instruments
21Transportation Networks and Travel Behavior
Part V: Metropolitan Futures
22Pulling It All Together: Land Use, Mobility, Accessibility

Guest Speaker: Chris Porter, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
23Back to the Future? Land Use Mobility, Accessibility in Metropolitan China (PDF)
24The Future of the Metropolis: Theoretical Speculations (PDF)
25The Future of the Metropolis: Tools and Models (PDF - 9.1 MB)

Guest Speaker: Mikel Murga
26Student Presentations




Assignments

Students are required to complete a series of assignments throughout the semester, available below:

Introductory Assignment: Observe and Think (PDF)

Assignment I: Accessibility in the Metropolis (PDF)

Assignment II: Measuring the Built Environment in Santiago de Chile (PDF)

Assignment IV: The Passaic Urban Design-Architectural Urbanism Studio (PDF)

Assignment V: Highways and Metropolitan Growth-São Paulo Case (PDF)

Assignment VI: Shanghai Sustainable Land Use-Transportation Futures (PDF)




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