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課程來源:MITW
     

Collaboration and Collective Intelligence
協作和集體智慧

英文原稿聽打:Spring Liu (spl0115@hotmail.com)
字幕校對執行:劉慕華
簡體翻譯:陳盈
編輯校對、繁體編輯:馬景文
總校對:朱學恒

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MODERATOR主持人:
Thomas W. Malone
Patrick J. McGovern Professor of Management, MIT Sloan School of Management
Founder and Director, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence
Thomas W. Malone
麻省理工學院史隆管理學院Patrick J. McGovern管理學教授
麻省理工學院集體智慧中心的創始人和主管

MODERATOR主持人: Thomas W. Malone
Sloan Faculty Profile page 史隆學院個人檔案頁
Malone's page on the Center for Coordination Science site協作科學中心網站個人網頁
MIT Center for Collective Intelligence 麻省理工學院集體智慧中心

PANELISTS參與討論嘉賓:
Trebor Scholz: Assistant Professor of Media Study, State University of New York at Buffalo. 水牛城紐約州立大學媒體研究助理教授
Scholz's SUNY Buffalo webpage水牛城紐約州立大學Scholz網頁
IDC website網路資料中心(IDC)網站
Cory Ondrejka: Chief Technology Officer, Linden Lab

Linden Lab公司技術長
Ondrejka's site on Linden Lab
Linden Lab公司Ondrejka的網頁

Mizuko (Mimi) Ito伊藤瑞子: Research Scientist, USC Annenberg Center for Communication 南加州大學安納堡傳播中心研究科學員
Ito's website 伊藤瑞子的網站

ABOUT THE PANEL DISCUSSION嘉賓小組討論內容:
現在我們可以隨時與世界各地的人一起工作,一起談論政治,甚至開派對,對此我們有什麼說法?幾位講者為網際網路推動的集體潛能提供了一些很有吸引力的例子,以及一些忠告。

主持人Thomas Malone描述美國太空總署(NASA)的“點擊者”計畫,讓非專業人士協助標記火星表面的隕石坑。1999年國際象棋冠軍Garry Kasparov與“世界之隊”對弈,隊中成員通過互聯網投票決定每一步的走法,Kasparov說這是他經歷過最艱難的比賽。

Trebor Scholz說,最近估計MySpace有5千萬至1億7千萬參與者,Facebook有8千萬。當然,線上社交生活有代價。Scholz說即使有企業贊助商,伺服器且中心是“難以置信的昂貴,需要費勁支援的流程”。但在可能要求大企業支援社會網路的同時,用戶也無償提供有價值的內容。所有個人上載的內容,從個人資料到視頻短片、照片、博客和鏈結,都放在網上。Scholz感覺到在虛擬世界的“社會生活商品化”, 以及人們沉迷社區的危險,“送出他們的音樂、書籍、照片、工作、教育、生日、性取向”, 成為發展中商業網絡空間的“被俘虜受眾”。Scholz提出媒體巨人之外的非盈利方式,由大眾控制網上內容。

Cory Ondrejka追述Starwood集團在“第二人生”設計一家新酒店。該虛擬世界的6百萬用戶中,好些人進去,組成設計師群體,讓連鎖集團的首席執行官知道,他們不喜歡大廳的外觀和感覺。“第二人生”用戶對公司的新稅收政策洩憤時,他們做出了要網路主機注意的聰明之舉:虛擬抗議者遇上潛在的新用戶,“一邊揮動抗議標語,一邊自焚”。Ondrejka說,讓人印象深刻,“這是吸引我們注意的好方法”。

伊藤瑞子說,神奇寶貝的重點是方便攜帶,用交易卡和手提設備,確實是突破,讓兒童媒體提升到前所未有的水平。神奇寶貝不僅向業界證明,孩子能管好“數百個各有不同性格特徵的人物”,還指出“社會交流是內容受到廣泛歡迎的主要原因”。 她描述“孩子玩遊戲時密集的資訊交換”,從學習的角度來看這很關鍵。她說,可能更重要的是“孩子意識到他們正參與一種集體幻想,這比他們單獨進行的更棒”。

Now that it’s possible to work, politick or party with partners round the world, round the clock, what have we got to show for it? These speakers offer some intriguing examples of the potential of internet-driven collectives, as well as some cautionary notes.

Moderator Thomas Malone describes a NASA “clickworker” project enabling amateurs to help identify craters on the surface of Mars; and Garry Kasparov’s 1999 chess match against ‘the world’ –a team that voted via the internet on its moves against the champion. Kasparov said it was the hardest game he’d ever played.

Current estimates show anywhere from 50-170 million people participating in MySpace, and 80 million in Facebook, notes Trebor Scholz. There is of course a cost to this online social life. Scholz notes it is an “incredibly expensive, arduous process to support,” with server farms and corporate sponsors. But as much as big business may be required to back social networking, users provide valuable content for which they are not remunerated. All the content individuals upload, from personal data, to videos, photos, blogs and links, gets put to work. Scholz perceives “a commercialization of social life itself” in this virtual world, as well as the danger that people get locked into communities, “giving away their music, books, pictures, jobs, education, birth dates, sexual orientation,” and then become a “captive audience” within an increasingly commercial web space. Why not nonprofit alternatives to media giants, he suggests, and public control over content.

When the Starwood group wanted to design a new hotel, they did it in Second Life, recounts Cory Ondrejka. Quite a few of this virtual world’s six million users jumped right in, creating a community of designers who let the chain’s CEO know, among other things, that they didn’t like the look and feel of the lobby. And when Second Life users rankled at a new company policy on taxation, they figured out an ingenious way to get their web host’s attention: a group of virtual protesters met potential new users, “lighting themselves on fire while waving protest signs.” It was impressive to watch, says Ondrejka, and “was a pretty good way to get us to pay attention.”

With its focus on portable play with trading cards and handhelds, Pokemon was a breakthrough, boosting children’s media to unprecedented levels, says Mimi Ito. Pokemon not only demonstrated to the industry that children could master “a pantheon of hundreds of characters with unique characteristics” but that “social exchange was a central reason for why the content was widely popular.” Ito describes “the intense exchange of information when children are engaging in it,” extremely critical from a learning perspective. Perhaps more important, she says, is that “kids have the realization that they are participating in a collective imagination that is greater than what they could master on their own.”

影片註釋(時間索引):

影片長度是1:29:43
Henry Jenkins是麻省理工媒體比較研究計畫的主管,主持圓桌討論並介紹Thomas W. Malone。

1:50,Malone開始發言。
11:00,Trebor Scholz開始發言。
24:39,Cory Ondrejka開始發言。
35:43,伊藤瑞子開始發言。
44:10, Malone開始問答環節。
NOTES ON THE VIDEO (Time Index): Video length is 1:29:43.。

Henry Jenkins, Director of MIT’s Comparative Media Studies Program, opens the roundtable. He introduces Thomas W. Malone.

At 1:50, Malone begins.
At 11:00, Trebor Scholz begins.
At 24:39, Cory Ondrejka begins.
At 35:43, Mimi Ito begins.
At 44:10, Malone begins the question and answer period.

影片在2007-07-24加入麻省理工影片世界。網頁資訊與當時內容相同。

The information on this page was accurate as of the day the video was added to MIT World. This video was added to MIT World on 2007-07-24.
影片播放時間:Video Run Time 1:29:43
影片技術註釋:

影片長度是1:29:43.
Henry Jenkins是麻省理工媒體比較研究計畫的主管,他主持圓桌討論並介紹Thomas W. Malone。

1:50,Malone開始發言。
11:00,Trebor Scholz開始發言。
24:39,Cory Ondrejka開始發言。
35:43,伊藤瑞子開始發言。
44:10, Malone開始問答環節。
Technical Notes on Video:

Video length is 1:29:43.
Henry Jenkins, Director of MIT’s Comparative Media Studies Program, opens the roundtable. He introduces Thomas W. Malone.
At 1:50, Malone begins.
At 11:00, Trebor Scholz begins.
At 24:39, Cory Ondrejka begins.
At 35:43, Mimi Ito begins.
At 44:10, Malone begins the question and answer period.

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课程讨论
视频链接打不开?在哪里可以看视频?

mao ju, 2011-02-12 01:05:47
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无法下载RM,Avi
sinojason, 2010-08-23 08:21:51
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很好的材料..充實也增加許多想法
okok3358, 2010-01-09 11:45:54
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RM下載 找沒檔??3QQ
Anonymous, 2009-07-17 19:46:53

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