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課程來源:MIT
     
翻譯:陳思豪(Chris Szu-Hau Chen)

編輯:侯嘉玨    陈盈    魏冉  


The neurotransmitter serotonin.
圖片為神經傳遞質,羥色胺(圖片由麻省理工學院腦與認知科學系提供)
Image of the neurotransmitter serotonin. (Courtesy of MIT's Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences.)

課程重點

本課程包涵適合所有選修本課程的大學部和研究所學生廣泛的閱讀資料作業‧書報主題將反應日新月異的突觸傳導領域中的時事和持續性的爭議。

This course has a comprehensive reading list, and assignments tailored for the undergraduate and graduate students who enroll in this class. The paper topics reflect the current issues as well as ongoing controversy in the fast-changing field of synaptic transmission.

課程描述

思 考神經傳遞的過程,尤其是那些用以將信號,由神經末梢傳遞到所支配組織的腦內和身體其他部位的化學物質。注意力將集中在單銨神經傳遞質(乙醯膽鹼、羥色 胺、多巴胺和正腎上腺素);也會檢視胺基酸和?的神經傳遞質和神經調節物質,像腺甘酸。討論那些仲介神經傳遞質的合成、釋放、反活化、和受器仲介活動的巨 分子,並且將討論調節它們活動的因子和第二信使系統。本課的學分需要有額外的專題,方得以計入畢業學分。

Considers the process of neurotransmission, especially chemicals used in the brain and elsewhere to carry signals from nerve terminals to the structures they innervate. Focuses on monoamine transmitters (acetylcholine; serotonin; dopamine and norepinephrine); also examines amino acid and peptide transmitters and neuromodulators like adenosine. Macromolecules that mediate neurotransmitter synthesis, release, inactivation, and receptor-mediated actions are discussed, as well as factors that regulate their activity and the second-messenger systems they control. An additional project is required for graduate credit.



課堂介紹

本 課檢視神經傳遞質分子的傳導、合成、和釋放。酯質的生成、分解和它在神經傳遞質中所扮演之角色。每位學生有責任了解所有已知的神經傳遞質之途徑和它們在中 樞神經系統中的交互作用。此外,每位學生將會學習神經傳導質生成之先驅物由血管穿過血腦障的傳導機制和速率,由此也可學習先驅物可用性的涵義和它們如何影 響神經傳導。

學期報告

每位學生在學期中第四個星期結束前選擇一個作業裡的主題,然後在學期的第十三個星期前繳交報告。

課本

Cooper, Bloom, 與 Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》(The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology)第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996。

考試

期中考
期末考



The Course

This course examines the transport, synthesis, and release of molecules that are know neurotransmitters. The production of lipids, their breakdown and role as neurotransmitters will be explored. Students are responsible for understanding the pathways of all known nerve transmitters and their interactions in the central nervous system. Additionally, students will learn the mechanisms of precursor materials transport for neurotransmitter production from the bloodstream across the blood-brain barrier, and the rates thereof, as well as the implications of precursor materials availability and how they will affect neural transmission.

Term Paper

Students choose a topic from the list of topics on the assignments page by the end of fourth week of the term. The paper is submitted by week #13 of the term.

Text

Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Exams

Mid-term exam
Final exam

 
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996。
Text: Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.


            課       課程單元       閱讀資料            
         
  1       導論;神經傳遞質
Introduction; Neurotransmitters
      3-48, 75-81  
         
         
  2       細胞膜、腦酯質和蛋白質;腦血障
Membranes, Brain Lipids, and Proteins; Blood-Brain Barrier
         
         
         
  3       乙醯膽鹼:阿爾滋海默症(老年癡呆症)和中風
Acetylcholine: Alzheimer's Disease and Stroke
      194-225, 480-486, 500-501  
         
         
  4       多巴胺
Dopamine
      293-351  
         
         
  5       多巴胺:帕金森氏症和精神病
Dopamine: Parkinson's Disease and Psychosis
      493-499, 501-506  
         
         
  6       正腎上腺素;腎上腺素
Norepinephrine; Epinephrine
      226-292, 487-493  
         
         
  7       羥色胺
Serotonin
      352-391, 487-493  
         
         
  8       羥色胺:憂鬱症和肥胖症
Serotonin: Depression and Obesity
      352-391  
         
         
  9       黑色素:睡眠
Melatonin: Sleep
         
         
         
  10       一小時期中考
Hour Examination
         
         
         
  11       麩胺酸酯;天冬胺酸酯
Glutamate; Aspartate
      171-193  
         
         
  12       麩胺酸酯的釋放機制和受器效應
Dynamics of Glutamate Release and Receptor Effects
      171-193  
         
         
  13       伽馬安基丁酸和甘胺酸:焦慮症和癲癇
GABA and Glycine: Anxiety and Seizures
      126-171  
         
         
  14       腺嘌呤和咖啡;組織胺和癢
Adenosine and Coffee; Histamine and Itch
      391-409  
         
         
  15       受器和第二信使
Receptors and Second Messengers
      82-102, 103-125, 459-479  
         
         
  16       藥物的研發;精神病的類別
Drug Discovery; Categories of Psychiatric Disease
         
         
         
  17       ?
Peptides
      410-458  
         
         
  18       複習
Review
         
         
         
          期末考
Final Examination
         
         

 


以下的閱讀資料表提供本課程的基礎知識。按下連結就可看到可用的期刊文章之摘要。
The readings listed below provide the foundation of this course. Click on the links to view abstracts for the journal articles, where available.


導論
Introduction

Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第二章〈神經藥理學之細胞基礎〉. 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 9-48.
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. "Cellular Foundations of Neuropharmacology." Chap. 2 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 9-48.

------. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第一章〈導論〉. 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 3-8.
------. "Introduction." Chap. 1 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 3-8.

------. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第三章〈神經藥理學之分子基礎.〉. 第七版。
------. "Molecular Foundations of Neuropharmacology." Chap. 3 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed.
紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 75-81.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 75-81.

《基礎神經生物學中的中樞神經系統的神經化學系統》.20-24.
Neurochemical Systems in the Central Nervous System in Basic Neurobiology. 20-24.

Tobin, A. 《基礎神經化學:分子、細胞、和醫學的觀點》G.J. Siegel 編輯. 紐約:烏鴉出版有限公司,1994, 493-513,〈哺乳類動物神經系統中的基因表現〉
Tobin, A. "Gene Expression in the Mammalian Nervous System." In Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects. Edited by G. J. Siegel. New York: Raven Press Ltd., 1994, 493-513.

酯質
Lipids

Agranoff, B. W., 和 A. K. Hajra. 《基礎神經化學中的酯質:分子、細胞、和醫學的觀點》G.J. Siegel 編輯. 紐約:烏鴉出版有限公司,1994, 97-116.
Agranoff, B. W., and A. K. Hajra. Lipids in Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects. Edited by G. J. Siegel. New York: Raven Press Ltd., 1994, 97-116.

Betz, A. L. 《聯合公報》45. 第7號 (1986): 2050-2054.,〈穿越血腦障的離子運送.〉.
編者註:Proc. = Proceeding,活動或會議等紀錄及公報
Betz, A. L. "Transport of Ions Across the Blood-Brain Barrier." Federation Proc. 45, no. 7 (1986): 2050-2054.

Brownlees, J., 和 C. H. Williams. 《神經化學期刊》. 60, 第三號 (1993): 793-803,〈n, ?, 和哺乳類動物的血腦障〉.
Brownlees, J., and C. H. Williams. "Peptidases, Peptides, and the Mammalian Blood-Brain Barrier." J. Neurochem. 60, no. 3 (1993): 793-803.

Pardridge, W. M. 《營養和腦》第一冊. R. J. Wurtman 和 J. J. Wurtman編輯。紐約:烏鴉出版有限公司,1977, 142-175 ,〈胺基酸在腦內調節的出現機率〉.
Pardridge, W. M. "Regulation of Amino Acid Availability to the Brain." In Nutrition and the Brain. Vol. 1. Edited by R. J. Wurtman, and J. J. Wurtman. New York: Raven Press, 1977, 142-175.

Temburni, M. K., and M. H. Jacob. 《美國國家科學協會公報》98,第七號. (2001): 3631-3632.,〈神經膠質在腦內的新功能..〉
Temburni, M. K., and M. H. Jacob. "New Functions for Glia in the Brain." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, no. 7 (2001): 3631-3632.

乙醯膽鹼
Acetylcholine

Blusztajn, J. K.,和 R.J. Wurtman. .《科學》221 (1983): 614-620,〈膽素和膽鹼激性的神經細胞.〉
Blusztajn, J. K., and R. J. Wurtman. "Choline and Cholinergic Neurons." Science 221 (1983): 614-620.

Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第七章〈乙醯膽鹼〉, 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 194-225.
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. "Acetylcholine." Chap. 7 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 194-225.

------. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第十三章〈神經和精神疾病的治療〉,第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 500-501.
------. "Treating Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases." Chap. 13 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 500-501.

Nitsch, R. M., J. K. Blusztajn, A. G. Pittas, B. E. Slack, J. H. Growdon, 和 R. J. Wurtman. 《美國國家科學協會腦科學公報》89 (1992): 1671-1675,〈阿爾滋海默症中細胞膜缺陷的證據.〉
Nitsch, R. M., J. K. Blusztajn, A. G. Pittas, B. E. Slack, J. H. Growdon, and R. J. Wurtman. "Evidence for a Membrane Defect in Alzheimer Disease." Brain Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89 (1992): 1671-1675.

Ulus, I. H., R. J. Wurtman, C. Mauron, 和 J. K. Blusztajn. 《腦研究》484 (1989): 217-227,〈在老鼠紋狀體細胞膜中,膽素增加乙醯膽鹼的釋放和保護來自刺激所引發的磷酯濃度下降.〉
Ulus, I. H., R. J. Wurtman, C. Mauron, and J. K. Blusztajn. "Choline Increases Acetylcholine Release and Protects Against the Stimulation-Induced Decrease in Phosphatide Levels within Membranes of Rat Corpus Striatum." Brain Research 484 (1989): 217-227.

Ulus, I. H., M. C. Scally, 和 R. K. Wurtman,《藥理學期刊和實驗性治療》204, 第三號. (1978): 676-682,〈膽素加強由苯氧芐胺鹽酸鹽、羥基多巴胺 、胰島素或暴露於寒冷中所催發的腎酪氨酸羥化的催化反應.〉
Ulus, I. H., M. C. Scally, and R. J. Wurtman. "Enhancement by Choline of the Induction of Adrenal Tyrosine Hydroxylase by Phenoxybenzamine, 6-Hydroxydopamine, Insulin or Exposure to Cold." J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 204, no. 3(1978): 676-682.

正腎上腺素和腎上腺素
Norephinephrine and Epinephrine

Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第八章〈正腎上腺素和腎上腺素〉,第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 226-292.
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. "Norepinephrine and Epinephrine." Chap. 8 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 226-292.

------. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第十三章〈神經和精神疾病的治療〉, 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 487-493.
------. "Treating Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases." Chap. 13 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 487-493.

Insel, P. A. 《新英格蘭醫學期刊》334, 第九號 (1996): 580-585,〈腎上腺素受器-進化的概念和臨床的意義〉
Insel, P. A. "Adrenergic Receptors-Evolving Concepts and Clinical Implications." N. Engl. J. Med. 334, no. 9 (1996): 580-585.

Wurtman R. J., 和 J. Axelrod. 《生物化學期刊》241, 第十號. (1965): 2301-2305,〈腎髓質中由腎皮質膽固醇所控制的腎上腺素之酵素合成〉
Wurtman R. J., and J. Axelrod. "Control of Enzymatic Synthesis of Adrenaline in the Adrenal Medulla by Adrenal Cortical Steroids." J. Biol. Chem. 241, no. 10 (1965): 2301-2305.

Wurtman, R. J., A. Casper, L. Pohorecky 和 F. C. Bartter. 《美國國家科學協會公報》61 (1968): 522-528,〈被切除垂體的狗表現由胰島素所誘發的腎上腺素分泌之減弱.〉
Wurtman, R. J., A. Casper, L. Pohorecky and F. C. Bartter. "Impaired Secretion of Epinephrine in Response to Insulin Among Hypophysectomized Dogs." Proc. N. A. S. 61 (1968): 522-528.

Wurtman, R. J. 《神經資訊處理系統》3, (1988): 158-163,〈由先驅物濃度所控制的突觸前部胺神經傳遞質之釋放〉
Wurtman, R. J. "Presynaptic Control of Release of Amine Neurotransmitters by Precursor Levels." NIPS 3 (1988): 158-163.

多巴胺
Dopamine

Acworth, I. N., M. J. During, 和 R. J. Wurtman. 《腦研究會報》21, 第三號. (1988): 473-477,〈酪胺酸:在兒茶酚胺釋放上的作用.〉
Acworth, I. N., M. J. During, and R. J. Wurtman. "Tyrosine: Effects on Catecholamine Release." Brain Res. Bull. 21, no. 3 (1988): 473-477.

Anden, N. E., M. Grabowska-Anden, 和 B. Liljenberg. 《神經傳遞期刊》57, (1983): 129-137,〈在不同腦部位裡多巴胺神經細胞上的動作受器之存在.〉
Anden, N. E., M. Grabowska-Anden, and B. Liljenberg. "On the Presence of Autoreceptors on Dopamine Neurons in Different Brain Regions." J. Neural Transmission 57 (1983): 129-137.

Bjorklund, A., 和 O. Lindvall. 《自然醫學》6, (2000): 1207-1208,〈帕金森氏症基因療法進入臨床.〉
Bjorklund, A., and O. Lindvall. "Parkinson Disease Gene Therapy Moves Toward the Clinic." Nature Medicine 6 (2000): 1207-1208.

Burns, R. S., P. A. LeWitt, M. H. Ebert, H. Pakkenberg, 和 I. J Kopin. 《新英格蘭醫學期刊》312, 第二十二號. (1985): 1418-1421,〈紋狀體多巴胺不足的臨床症狀.〉
Burns, R. S., P. A. LeWitt, M. H. Ebert, H. Pakkenberg, and I. J Kopin. "The Clinical Syndrome of Striatal Dopamine Deficiency." N. Engl. J. Med. 312, no. 22 (1985): 1418-1421.

Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第九章〈多巴胺〉 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 293-351.
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. " Dopamine." Chap. 9 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 293-351.

------. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第十三章〈神經和精神疾病的治療〉 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 493-499, 501-506.
------. "Treating Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases." Chap. 13 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 493-499, 501-506.

Guillin, O., J. Diaz, P. Carroll, N. Griffon, J. C. Schwartz, 和 P. Sokoloff. 《自然》411, (2001): 86-89,〈腦源性神經營養因素控制多巴胺D3受器的表現和觸發行動的感受.〉
Guillin, O., J. Diaz, P. Carroll, N. Griffon, J. C. Schwartz, and P. Sokoloff. "BDNF Controls Dopamine D3 Receptor Expression and Triggers Behavioural Sensitization." Nature 411 (2001): 86-89.

Schultz, W., P. Dayan, 和 P. R. Montague. 《科學》275 (1997): 1593-1599,〈預測和回報反應的神經基質.〉
Schultz, W., P. Dayan, and P. R. Montague. "A Neural Substrate of Prediction and Reward." Science 275 (1997): 1593-1599.

Seeman, P. 《科學美國人:科學和醫學》2, 第五號. (1995): 28-37,〈多巴胺受器和精神病〉
Seeman, P. "Dopamine Receptors and Psychosis." Scientific American: Science & Medicine 2, no. 5 (1995): 28-37.

Strange, P. G. 《Tocris 評論》15 (2000). Bristol, 英國: Tocris Cookson 有限公司,〈多巴胺受器〉
Strange, P. G. "Dopamine Receptors." Tocris Reviews 15 (2000). Bristol, UK: Tocris Cookson Ltd.

White, F. J. 《自然》411 (2001): 35-37,〈推動多巴胺受器〉
White, F. J. "Dopamine Receptors Get a Boost." Nature 411 (2001): 35-37.

Williams G. V., 和 P. S. Goldman-Rakic. 《自然》376 (1995): 572-575,〈由額葉前部多巴胺D1受器所調節的記憶區.〉
Williams G. V., and P. S. Goldman-Rakic. "Modulation of Memory Fields by Dopamine D1 Receptors in Prefrontal Cortex." Nature 376 (1995): 572-575.

羥色胺
Serotonin

Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第十章〈羥色胺和組織胺〉 第七版。
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. "Serotonin and Histamine." Chap. 10 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed.
紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 352-391.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 352-391.

------. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第十三章〈神經和精神疾病的治療〉 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 487-493.
------. "Treating Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases." Chap. 13 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 487-493.

Fernstrom, J. D., 和 R. J. Wurtman. 《科學》174 (1971): 1023-1025,〈腦羥色胺的反應內容:在攝取碳水化合物後增加.〉
Fernstrom, J. D., and R. J. Wurtman. "Brain Serotonin Content: Increase Following Ingestion of Carbohydrate Diet." Science 174 (1971): 1023-1025.

------. 《科學》173 (1971): 149-152,〈腦羥色胺的反應內容:生理上的依賴血漿中色氨酸的濃度.〉
------. "Brain Serotonin Content: Physiological Dependence on Plasma Tryptophan Levels." Science 173 (1971): 149-152.

------. 《科學》178 (1972): 414-416,〈腦羥色胺的反應內容:由血漿中的中性胺基酸做生理上的調整.〉
------. "Brain Serotonin Content: Physiological Regulation by Plasma Neutral Amino Acids." Science 178 (1972): 414-416.

Martin, G. M. 《中樞神經藥物評論》3, 第三號 (1997): 294-299,〈羥色胺受器研究的進展:分子生物學、信號傳導和治療學〉
Martin, G. M. "Advances in Serotonin Receptor Research: Molecular Biology, Signal Transduction and Therapeutics." CNS Drug Reviews 3, no. 3 (1997): 294-299.

Nishizawa, S., C. Benkelfat, S. N. Young, M. Leyton, S. Mzengeza, C. de Montigny, P. Blier, 和 M. Diksic. 《美國國家科學協會公報》94 (1997): 5308-5313,〈男性和女性在人腦內羥色胺合成速率的不同.〉
Nishizawa, S., C. Benkelfat, S. N. Young, M. Leyton, S. Mzengeza, C. de Montigny, P. Blier, and M. Diksic. "Differences between Males and Females in Rates of Serotonin Synthesis in Human Brain." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997): 5308-5313.

O'Rourke, D., J. J. Wurtman, R. J. Wurtman, R. Chebli, 和R. Gleason. 《臨床精神病學期刊》50, 第九號 (1989): 343-347,〈用食慾抑制劑治療季節性憂鬱症.〉
O'Rourke, D., J. J. Wurtman, R. J. Wurtman, R. Chebli, and R. Gleason. "Treatment of Seasonal Depression With d-Fenfluramine." J. Clin. Psychiatry 50, no. 9 (1989): 343-347.

Schaechter, J. D., 和R. J. Wurtman. 《神經化學期刊》53, 第六號. (1989): 1925-1933,〈色氨酸的可獲性調節老鼠下丘體切片的羥色胺之釋放.〉
Schaechter, J. D., and R. J. Wurtman. "Tryptophan Availability Modulates Serotonin Release from Rat Hypothalamic Slices." J. Neurochem. 53, no. 6 (1989): 1925-1933.

Wurtman, R. J., 和J. J. Wurtman. 《科學美國人》1, (1989): 68-75,〈碳水化合物和憂鬱症.〉
Wurtman, R. J., and J. J. Wurtman. "Carbohydrates and Depression." Scientific American 1 (1989): 68-75.

Wurtman, J. J., 和R. J. Wurtman. 《國際肥胖症期刊》8, 第一號. (1984): 79-84,〈食慾抑制劑選擇性的減少肥胖實驗對象對碳水化合物之吸收而不是蛋白質.〉
Wurtman, J. J., and R. J. Wurtman. "D-Fenfluramine Selectively Decreases Carbohydrate But Not Protein Intake in Obese Subjects." Intl. J. Obesity 8, no. 1 (1984): 79-84.

黑色素和睡眠
Melatonin and Sleep

Lynch, H. J., R. J. Wurtman, M. A. Moskowitz, M. C. Archer, 和M. H. Ho. 《科學》187, (1975): 169-171,〈人類泌尿系統中的黑色素週期.〉
Lynch, H. J., R. J. Wurtman, M. A. Moskowitz, M. C. Archer, and M. H. Ho. "Daily Rhythm in the Human Urinary Melatonin." Science 187 (1975), 169-171.

Wurtman, R. J., J. Axelrod, 和E. W. Chu. 《科學》141, (1963): 277-278,〈黑色素,松果體物質:對老鼠卵巢的作用〉
Wurtman, R. J., J. Axelrod, and E. W. Chu. "Melatonin, a Pineal Substance: Effect on the Rat Ovary." Science 141 (1963): 277-278.

Zhdanova, I. V., R. J. Wurtman, M. M. Regan, J. A. Taylor, J. P. Shi, 和O. U. Leclair. 《臨床內分泌新陳代謝期刊》86, 第十號 (2001): 4727-4730,〈對老年性不眠症的黑色素療法.〉
Zhdanova, I. V., R. J. Wurtman, M. M. Regan, J. A. Taylor, J. P. Shi, and O. U. Leclair. "Melatonin Treatment for Age-Related Insomnia." J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab. 86, no. 10 (2001): 4727-4730.

Zhdanova, I. V., et al. 《臨床藥理學治療法》57, (1995): 552-558,〈晚間攝取低劑量黑色素的睡眠引起之影響.〉
Zhdanova, I. V., et al. "Sleep-Inducing Effects of Low Doses of Melatonin Ingested in the Evening." Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 57 (1995): 552-558.

麩胺酸酯和天冬胺酸酯
Glutamate and Aspartate

Cooper, Bloom, 和Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第六章〈胺基酸神經傳遞質〉 第七版。
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. "Amino Acid Transmitters." Chap. 6 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed.
紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 171-193.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 171-193.

Krystal, J. H., et al. 《哈佛評論精神病學》7, (1999): 125-143,〈用於腦病變症候群中的氨酸鹽能官能障礙和藥物療法的探測劑,─N-甲基-D-天冬胺酸酯促效劑和拮抗劑.〉
Krystal, J. H., et al. "NMDA Agonists and Antagonists as Probes of Glutamatergic Dysfunction and Pharmacotherapies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders." Harvard Rev. Psychiatry 7 (1999): 125-143.

Malenka, R. C., 和R.A. Nicoll. 《科學》285, (1999): 1870-1874,〈長效活化─十年的進展?
Malenka, R. C., and R.A. Nicoll. "Long-Term Potentiation-A Decade of Progress?" Science 285 (1999): 1870-1874.

Schoepp, D. D., J. A. Monn, G. J. Marek, G. Aghajanian, 和B. Moghaddam. 《中樞神經系統藥物評論》5, 第一號. (1999): 1-12,〈LY354740:有系統的活化mGlu2/mGlu3受器之促效劑〉
(*mGlu2和mGlu3為兩種麩胺酸酯(glutamate)的受器,當活化後由G-蛋白質(G-protein)在細胞膜裡側開始傳遞訊息到第二信使系統(second messenger system)進而觸發一連串的反應(cascade effect))
Schoepp, D. D., J. A. Monn, G. J. Marek, G. Aghajanian, and B. Moghaddam. "LY354740: A Systematically Active mGlu2/mGlu3 Receptor Agonist." CNS Drug Reviews 5, no. 1 (1999): 1-12.

Schoepp, D. D. 《國際神經化學》24, 第五號. (1994): 439-449,〈新陳代謝性麩胺酸酯受器的亞型之新功能.〉
Schoepp, D. D. "Novel Functions for Subtypes of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors." Neurochem. Int. 24, no. 5 (1994): 439-449.


伽馬安基丁酸和甘胺酸
GABA and Glycine

Anagnostaras, S. G., M. G. Craske, 和M. S. Fanselow. 《自然神經科學》2, 第九號. (1999): 780-782,〈焦慮症:在基因和經驗的交叉口.〉
Anagnostaras, S. G., M. G. Craske, and M. S. Fanselow. "Anxiety: At the Intersection of Genes and Experience." Nature Neurosci. 2, no. 9 (1999): 780-782.

Betz, H., 和C. M. Becker. 《國際蛋白質神經化學》13, 第二號. (1988): 137-146,〈哺乳類動物的甘胺酸受器:神經氯化物通道的生物學和構造〉
Betz, H., and C. M. Becker. "The Mammalian Glycine Receptor: Biology and Structure of a Neuronal Chloride Channel." Protein. Neurochem. Int. 13, no. 2 (1988): 137-146.

Cooper, Bloom, 和Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第六章〈胺基酸神經傳遞質〉 第七版。
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. "Amino Acid Transmitters." Chap. 6 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed.
紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 126-171.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 126-171.

Crestani, F., et al. 《自然神經科學》2, 第九號. (1999): 833-839,〈減少伽馬安基丁酸-A受器的叢集造成焦慮症的惡化和威脅性線索的偏見.〉
Crestani, F., et al. "Decreased GABA-A Receptor Clustering results in Enhanced Anxiety and a Bias for Threat Cues." Nature Neurosci. 2, no. 9 (1999): 833-839.

During, M. J., M. K. Ryder, 和D. D. Spencer. 《自然》376, (1995): 174-177,〈在顳葉癲癇的海馬體伽馬安基丁酸傳導值之功能.〉
During, M. J., M. K. Ryder, and D. D. Spencer. "Hippocampal GABA transporter function in temporal-lobe epilepsy." Nature 376 (1995): 174-177.

Gale, K., 和M. J. Iadarola. 《科學》208, (1980): 288-291,〈癲癇的保護和增加神經末梢伽馬安基丁酸:伽馬安基丁酸傳導抑制的延遲效應.〉
Gale, K., and M. J. Iadarola. "Seizure Protection and Increased Nerve-Terminal GABA: Delayed Effects of GABA Transmission Inhibition." Science 208 (1980): 288-291.

Martin, D. L., 和K. Rimvall. 《神經化學期刊》60, 第二號. (1993): 395-407,〈伽馬安基丁酸在腦中合成的控制.〉
Martin, D. L., and K. Rimvall. "Regulation of GABA Synthesis in the Brain." J. Neurochem. 60, no. 2 (1993): 395-407.

腺嘌呤和咖啡;組織胺和癢
Adenosine and Coffee; Histamine and Itch

Braas, K. M., A. C. Newby, V. S. Wilson, 和S. H. Snyder. 《神經科學期刊》6, 第七號. (1986): 1952-1961,〈由免疫細胞化學定位的含有腺嘌呤之腦內神經細胞.〉
Braas, K. M., A. C. Newby, V. S. Wilson, and S. H. Snyder. "Adenosine-Containing Neurons in the Brain Localized by Immunocytochemistry." J. Neurosci. 6, no. 7 (1986), 1952-1961.

Brown, S. J., S. James, M. Reddington, 和P. J. Richardson. 《神經化學期刊》55, 第一號. (1990): 31-38,〈A1和A2a嘌呤受器都可以調整紋狀體乙醯膽鹼的釋放.〉
Brown, S. J., S. James, M. Reddington, and P. J. Richardson. "Both A1 and A2a Purine Receptors Regulate Striatal Acetylcholine Release." J. Neurochem. 55, no. 1 (1990), 31-38.

Clarke, B., E. Rowland, P. J. Barnes, J. Till, D. E. Ward, 和E. A. Shinebourne. 《柳葉刀》 (1987): 299-301,〈用腺嘌呤立即和安全的終止兒童上心室性頻脈〉
Clarke, B., E. Rowland, P. J. Barnes, J. Till, D. E. Ward, and E. A. Shinebourne. "Rapid and Safe Termination of Supraventricular Tachycardia in Children by Adenosine." The Lancet (1987): 299-301.

Cooper, Bloom, 和Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第十章〈羥色胺和組織胺〉, 第七版。
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. "Serotonin and Histamine." Chap. 10 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed.
紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 391-409.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 391-409.

Fredholm, B. B. 《神經資訊處理系統》10, (1995): 122-128,〈中樞神經系統的腺嘌呤受器〉
Fredholm, B. B. "Adenosine Receptors in the Central Nervous System." NIPS 10 (1995): 122-128.

Shankley, N. P., G. F. Watt, 和J. W. Black. 《歐洲臨床研究期刊》25, 第一號. (1995): 12-18,〈組織胺H2受器的定義和位置.〉
Shankley, N. P., G. F. Watt, and J. W. Black. "Definition and Localization of Histamine H2 Receptors." Euro. J. Clin. Investig. 25, no. 1 (1995): 12-18.

Simons, F. E. R., 和K. J. Simons. 《藥物治療》330, 第二十三號. (1994): 1663-1670,〈藥理學和H1受器拮抗劑藥物的使用.〉
Simons, F. E. R., and K. J. Simons. "The Pharmacology and Use of H1-Receptor-Antagonist Drugs." Drug Therapy 330, no. 23 (1994): 1663-1670.

受器
Receptors

Anggard, E. 《柳葉刀》343, (1994): 1199-1206,〈氧化氮:介質,兇手和藥物.〉
Anggard, E. "Nitric Oxide: Mediator, Murderer, and Medicine." The Lancet 343 (1994): 1199-1206.

Cary, S. P. L., 和M. A. Marletta. 《臨床研究期刊》107, 第九號. (2001): 1071-1073,〈一氧化碳信號案:尚未定論.〉
Cary, S. P. L., and M. A. Marletta. "The Case of CO Signaling: Why is the Jury Still Out." J. Clin. Investig. 107, no. 9 (2001): 1071-1073.

Cooper, Bloom, 和 Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第十二章〈在學習和記憶中的細胞機制〉, 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 459-479.
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. "Cellular Mechanisms in Learning and Memory." Chap. 12 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 459-479.

------. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第五章〈神經結傳導的調節〉, 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 103-125.
------. "Modulation of Synaptic Transmission." Chap. 5 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 103-125.

------. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第四章〈受器〉 第七版。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 82-102.
------. "Receptors." Chap. 4 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 82-102.

Fitzpatrick, F. A., 和 R. Soberman. 《臨床研究期刊》107, 第十一號. (2001): 1347-1351,〈十二酸的被控制形成.〉
Fitzpatrick, F. A., and R. Soberman. "Regulated Formation of Eicosanoids." J. Clin. Investig. 107, no. 11 (2001): 1347-1351.

Sudhof, T. C. 《神經細胞》28, 第二號. (2000): 317-320,〈再次探討神經結小泡週期.〉
Sudhof, T. C. "The Synaptic Vesicle Cycle Revisited." Neuron 28, no. 2 (2000): 317-320.

Mongada, S., 和A. Higgs. 《新英格蘭醫學期刊》329, 第二十七號. (1993): 2002-2012,〈左旋精氨酸-氧化氮途徑.〉
Mongada, S., and A. Higgs. "The L-Arginine-Nitric Oxide Pathway." N. Engl. J. Med. 329, no. 27 (1993): 2002-2012.

精神病的類別
Categories of Psychiatric Disease

Cattaneo, E., D. Rigamonti, D. Goffredo, C. Zuccato, F. Squitieri, 和S. Sipione. 《神經科學的潮流》24, 第三號. (2001): 182-188,〈失去正常效用的亨丁頓蛋白:亨丁頓舞蹈症研究的新發展.〉
Cattaneo, E., D. Rigamonti, D. Goffredo, C. Zuccato, F. Squitieri, and S. Sipione. "Loss of Normal Huntingtin Function: New Developments in Huntington's Disease Research." Trends Neurosci. 24, no. 3 (2001): 182-188.

Cowan, W. M., 和E. R. Kandel. 《美國醫學協會期刊》285, 第五號. (2001): 594-600,〈神經學和精神病學的前景.〉
Cowan, W. M., and E. R. Kandel. "Prospects for Neurology and Psychiatry." JAMA 285, no. 5 (2001): 594-600.

Fava M., 和K. S. Kendler. 《神經細胞》28, 第二號. (2000): 335-41,〈主要的憂鬱症.〉
Fava M., and K. S. Kendler. "Major Depressive Disorder." Neuron 28, no. 2 (2000): 335-41.

Hyman, S. 《神經細胞》28 (2000): 321-323,〈精神疾病:由基因所引起的神經迴路和神經通訊障礙.〉
Hyman, S. "Mental Illness: Genetically Complex Disorders of Neural Circuitry and Neural Communication." Neuron 28 (2000): 321-323.

Leckman, J. F., 和M. A. Riddle. 《神經細胞》28 (2000): 349-354,〈妥瑞氏症狀:當習慣形成系統形成它們自己的習慣?
Leckman, J. F., and M. A. Riddle. "Tourette's Syndrome: When Habit-Forming Systems Form Habits of Their Own?" Neuron 28 (2000): 349-354.

?神經傳遞質
Peptide Neurotransmitters

Cooper, Bloom, 和Roth. 《神經藥理學之生化基礎》第十一章〈神經活化之細胞傳遞質〉 第七版。
Cooper, Bloom, and Roth. "Neuroactive Peptides." Chap. 11 in The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. 7th ed.
紐約:牛津大學出版社,1996, 410-458.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 410-458.

Hokfelt, T., J. F. Rehfeld, L. Skirboll, B. Ivemark, M. Goldstein, 和 K. Markey. 《自然》285, (1980): 476-477,〈多巴胺和膽囊收縮素同時存在於中央邊緣葉神經細胞的證據.〉
Hokfelt, T., J. F. Rehfeld, L. Skirboll, B. Ivemark, M. Goldstein, and K. Markey. "Evidence for Coexistence of Dopamine and CCK in Meso-Limbic Neurones." Nature 285 (1980): 476-477.

Nichols, M. L., et al. 《科學》268 (1999): 1558-1561,〈由脊椎神經細胞表現的P物質受器傳導的慢性疼痛.〉
Nichols, M. L., et al. "Transmission of Chronic Nociception by Spinal Neurons Expressing the Substance P Receptor." Science 268 (1999): 1558-1561.




 
作業是學期報告. 每位學生必須在學期中第四個星期結束前選擇一個作業裡的主題,然後在學期的第十三個星期前繳交報告。
The assignment is a term paper. Students must choose a topic by end of fourth week of the term and submit their completed paper by thirteenth week of the term.

學期報告主題表
List of Term Paper Topics

1. 原來很健康的22歲學生突然干擾上課的進行並且很明顯的開始產生幻覺。在所有的診斷中,她可能患有精神分裂症,或是狂躁症,或是藥物濫用。做為一個受過訓練的專業人士要如何分辨這些診斷?可用什麼樣的藥物治療,什麼樣的神經化學機制造成他們的行為?
1. A previously healthy 22 year old suddenly disrupts classes and clearly starts hallucinating. She could be suffering from schizophrenia, or mania, or substance abuse - among other diagnoses. How might a trained professional distinguish among these possibilities? What drug treatments are available, and what neurochemical mechanisms probably underlie their actions?

2.原來很健康的24歲學生開始表現出異常悲傷和異常憤怒之間輪替的情緒波動。有時他也會出現和週遭環境失去連結。他可能患有顳葉癲癇嗎?做為一個受過訓練的專業人士要如何決定?可用什麼樣的藥物治療,什麼樣的神經化學機制造成他們的行為?
2. A previously healthy 24 year old student begins exhibiting mood swings that alternate between great sadness and great anger. He also sometimes appears to be unconnected to his environment. Might he have temporal lobe epilepsy? How might a trained professional decide? What drug treatments are available, and what neurochemical mechanisms probably underlie their actions?

3.敘述恐慌發作,和思考可能構成它們的腦內機制。可用什麼樣的藥物治療,什麼樣的神經化學機制造成他們的行為?
3. Describe panic attacks, and consider the brain mechanisms that might underlie them. What drug treatments are available, and what neurochemical mechanisms probably underlie their actions?

4.壓力創傷後遺症是神經或是精神疾病 (或者都不是) ?可用什麼樣的藥物治療,什麼樣的神經化學機制造成他們的行為?
4. Is post-traumatic stress disorder a neurologic or psychiatric disease (or perhaps neither)? What drug treatments are available, and what neurochemical mechanisms probably underlie their actions?

5.敘述雙極化憂鬱症和現今治療背後的理論。
5. Describe bipolar depression, and the theories that underlie its present treatment.

6.做為一個受過訓練的專業人士要如何從主要憂鬱症的早期症狀來分辨和週遭環境事件有關的憂傷情緒?以及他/她可能如何處理這些情況?
6. How might a trained professional differentiate sadness related to environmental events from early signs on major depressive disorders? And how would he/she probably treat these conditions?

7.如何分辨早期的阿爾滋海默症和其它也可能造成老年人癡呆的神經和精神之疾病 (例如:憂鬱症,拳擊性痴呆症,血管性痴呆症,後天免疫症候群性癡呆症) ?可用什麼樣的藥物治療,和什麼樣的神經化學機制構成它們的行為?
7. How might one differentiate early Alzheimer's Disease from other neurologic and psychiatric diseases that can also produce dementia in older people (e.g., depression, dementia pugilistica, vascular dementia, HIV dementia)? What drug treatments are available, and what neurochemical mechanisms probably underlie their actions?

8.澱粉狀蛋白質是如何涉入蒙古症的形成和症狀?
8. What is the involvement of amyloid in the course and symptoms of Downs' Syndrome?

9.注意力缺乏症 - 過動症 - 是真的存在於兒童中及成人中?可用什麼樣的藥物治療,什麼樣的神經化學機制造成他們的行為?
9. Is Attention Deficit Disorder - Hyperactivity - a real entity in children? In adults? What drug treatments are available, and what neurochemical mechanisms probably underlie their actions?

10.敘述形成酒癮性痴呆症的神經化學和行為之過程。
10. Describe the neurochemical and behavioral processes that are thought to underlie the development of alcoholic dementia.

11.迷幻藥真的是神經毒嗎?
11. Is Ecstasy really neurotoxic?

12.對照古柯鹼戒斷症狀和鴉片戒斷症狀的徵兆和可能有關的機制。
12. Contrast the signs of cocaine withdrawal and opiate withdrawal, and the probable mechanisms involved.

13.敘述和對照現今藥物取得的方法和構成它們施用範圍的機制?
13. Describe and contrast the currently available drug delivery methods and the mechanisms underlying the scope of their application.

14.思考乙醯膽鹼在學習和記憶形成所扮演的腳色並將它運用在思考阿爾滋海默症和亨丁頓舞蹈症中所觀察到的不足。
14. Consider the role of acetylcholine in learning and memory formation and relate it to the deficits observed in Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease.

15.敘述中風後病人的麩胺酸毒害神經之機制和提出一個作為藥理學控制的目標。
15. Describe the mechanism of glutamatergic neurotoxicity in post-stroke patients and propose a target for its pharmacological control.

16.敘述在癲癇中伽馬安基丁酸能的神經傳遞質所扮演之角色特徵和提出一個藥理學的治療辦法。
16. Characterize the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in epilepsy and propose a pharmacological means for its treatment.




 

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Anonymous, 2010-07-09 16:09:47

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