MyOOPS開放式課程

10.492-1 2004秋季課程：整合化學工程專題I：流程控制設計(Integrated Chemical Engineering Topics I: Process Control by Design, Fall 2004)

 操作變數能夠有效地克服擾動嗎？這張圖顯示了冷流和熱流對於系統擾動之多種組合的要求。擾動的組合表現為一個角度，並且要求的流（冷流或熱流）在所有情況下，都在限定條件之內。（本圖承蒙Barry S. Johnston博士允許使用。） Are the manipulated variables sufficient to overcome disturbances? This plot shows the demands on hot and cold flow for various combinations of disturbances to a system. The disturbance combination is expressed as an angle, and the required flows are within limits in all cases. (Graph courtesy of Dr. Barry S. Johnston. Used with permission.)

This course features a full set of assignments and a series of Microsoft® Excel and MATLAB® file resources in the tools section.

I在綜合化學工程專題課程中，在工業應用環境下提出並分析了各種各樣的化學工程問題。重點是物性估計，程序控制，產品開發和電腦類比這些基本理論的整合。社會議題的整合，例如工程道德規範，環境及安全考慮，技術對於社會的影響等，將放在案例教學的環境中進行。

n the ICE-Topics courses, various chemical engineering problems are presented and analyzed in an industrial context. Emphasis is on the integration of fundamentals with material property estimation, process control, product development, and computer simulation. Integration of societal issues, such as engineering ethics, environmental and safety considerations, and impact of technology on society are addressed in the context of case studies.

The broad context for this ICE-Topics module is the commonsense notion that, when designing something, one should plan for the off-normal conditions that may occur. A continuous process is conceived and designed as a steady-state operation. However, the process must start up, shut down, and operate in the event of disturbances, and so the time-varying behavior of the process should not be neglected. It is helpful to consider the operability of a process early in the design, when alternatives are still being compared. In this module, we will examine some tools that will help to evaluate the operability of the candidate process at the preliminary design stage, before substantial effort has been invested.

## 技術需求

Microsoft® Excel software is recommended for viewing the .xls files found on this course site. Free Microsoft® Excel viewer software can also be used to view the .xls files. MATLAB® software is required to run the .m files found on this course site.

 師資 講師： Barry S. Johnston 博士 上課時數 教師授課： Eighteen sessions for 5 weeks 每節1小時 程度 大學部 回應 告訴我們您對本課程或「開放式課程網頁」的建議。 聲明 麻省理工學院開放式課程認可 開放式課程計畫（OOPS）的翻譯計畫，開放式課程計畫（OOPS）乃是運用其獨立團隊、獨立資源、獨立流程進行翻譯計畫之團隊。 所有麻省理工學院開放式課程之材料皆以麻省理工學院開放式課程創作共享授權發佈，所有之翻譯資料皆由開放式課程計畫（OOPS）所提供，並由其負翻譯品質之責任。 此 處麻省理工學院開放式課程之資料乃由 開放式課程計畫（OOPS） 譯為正體中文。麻省理工學院開放式課程在此聲明，不論是否遭遇或發現相關議題，麻省理工學院開放式課程、麻省理工學院教師、麻省理工學院校方並不對翻譯正 確度及完整性作保證。上述單位並對翻譯後之資料不作明示或默許對任一特定目的之適合性之保證、非侵權之保證、或永不出錯之保證。麻省理工學院校方、麻省理 工學院開放式課程對翻譯上之不正確不負任何責任。由翻譯所引發任何關於此等資料之不正確或其他瑕疵，皆由開放式課程計畫（OOPS）負全責，而非麻省理工 學院開放式課程之責。 原文聲明

Overview

The broad context for this ICE-Topics module is the commonsense notion that, when designing something, one should plan for the off-normal conditions that may occur.  A continuous process is conceived and designed as a steady-state operation. However, the process must start up, shut down, and operate in the event of disturbances, and so the time-varying behavior of the process should not be neglected. It is helpful to consider the operability of a process early in the design, when alternatives are still being compared. In this module, we will examine some tools that will help to evaluate the operability of the candidate process at the preliminary design stage, before substantial effort has been invested.

Goals

I want you to learn about:

continuous processes, although designed for steady state, will vary in time
the Relative Gain Array, Disturbance Cost, and dynamic simulation as tools to use in design
some basic notions of process control

Objectives

I plan to show you:

a simple process that we can derive all the math for
a more complicated process that we will examine by numerical calculations
use of MATLAB® for matrix calculations
the derivation and use of the RGA and DC screening tools

Grading

Simplicity itself: 8 problem sets, the lowest grade dropped, and the remaining 7 weighted equally. Course letter grades will be assigned on the conventional scale: A≥90% and so on.

Table for Calendar 課 課程單元 關鍵日期
1 概述，課程目標，噴淋過程，回饋結構
Overview, Aims of Course, Shower Process, Feedback Structure

2 物質和能量平衡模型，線性等式
Material and Energy Balance Model, Linearizing Equations

3 估計偏離變數，矩陣操作
Scaled Deviation Variables, Matrix Operations

4 相對增益陣列，變數配對
The Relative Gain Array, Variable Pairing

Problem set 1 due
5 擾動成本，操作變數估量
The Disturbance Cost, Manipulated Variable Sizing

Problem set 2 due
6 比例控制法則，動態類比
Proportional Control Algorithm, Dynamic Simulation

7 模擬結果，偏移現象，線性模型的局限
Simulation Results, Offset Phenomenon, Limitations of Linear Model

Problem set 3 due
8 比較相對增益陣列、擾動成本和模擬的結果
Comparing RGA, DC, and Simulation Results

9 回顧設計過程，詳細設計過程的總覽
Review the Design Process, Overview of Detailed Design Process

Problem set 4 due
10 熱交換網路，熱恢復方案
Heat Exchanger Network, Heat Recovery Scheme

11 穩態模型，數值線性化
Steady-state Model, Numerical Linearization

Problem set 5 due
12 算熱交換網路相對增益陣列和擾動成本
Computing RGA and DC for Network

13 提高網路可操作性的改進方案
Modified Schemes to Improve Controllability of Network

Problem set 6 due
14 為過程動力學升級相對增益陣列和擾動成本
Updating RGA and DC for Process Dynamics

15 再次回顧設計過程
Review the Design Process (again)

Problem set 7 due
16 過程模擬器
Process Simulators

17 展望－這些方法的局限
Beyond the Scope – What These Methods Miss

Problem set 8 due
18 應與發佈
TBA

Table for Lecture Notes 課 課程單元 筆記
1 概述，課程目標，噴淋過程，回饋結構
Overview, Aims of Course, Shower Process, Feedback Structure
(PDF)
2 質和能量平衡模型，線性等式
Material and Energy Balance Model, Linearizing Equations

3 估計偏離變數，矩陣操作
Scaled Deviation Variables, Matrix Operations
(PDF)
4 相對增益陣列，變數配對
The Relative Gain Array, Variable Pairing

5 擾動成本，操作變數估量
The Disturbance Cost, Manipulated Variable Sizing

6 比例控制法則，動態類比
Proportional Control Algorithm, Dynamic Simulation
(PDF)
7 模擬結果，偏移現象，線性模型的局限
Simulation Results, Offset Phenomenon, Limitations of Linear Model

8 比較相對增益陣列、擾動成本和模擬的結果
Comparing RGA, DC, and Simulation Results

9 回顧設計過程，詳細設計的過程總覽
Review the Design Process, Overview of Detailed Design Process

10 熱交換網路，熱恢復方案
Heat Exchanger Network, Heat Recovery Scheme
(PDF)
11 穩態模型，數值線性化
Steady-state Model, Numerical Linearization

12 計算熱交換網路的相對增益陣列和擾動成本
Computing RGA and DC for Network

13 提高網路可操作性的改進方案
Modified Schemes to Improve Controllability of Network

14 為過程動力學升級相對增益陣列和擾動成本
Updating RGA and DC for Process Dynamics

15 再次回顧設計過程
Review the Design Process (again)

16 過程模擬器
Process Simulators

17 展望－這些方法的局限
Beyond the Scope – What These Methods Miss
(PDF)
18 應與發佈
TBA

1 檢驗能量平衡(PDF)
Examining the Energy Balance (PDF)
2 矩陣操作(PDF)
Matrix Operations (PDF)
3 計算相對增益陣列和擾動成本(PDF)
Calculating RGA and DC (PDF)
4 操作噴淋塔的模擬(PDF)
Simulation of the Controlled Shower (PDF)
5 設計一些換熱器(PDF)
Designing Some Heat Exchangers (PDF)
6 計算HX網路的基本情況(PDF)
Calculating the HX Network Base Case (PDF)
7 變換HX網路的基本情況 (PDF)
Alternative HX Network Base Case (PDF)
8 變換HX網路的相對增益陣列和擾動成本(PDF)
Alternative HX Network RGA and DC (PDF)

Excel計算器文件

MATLAB®文件

Table for Tools MATLAB®文件 描述
calc_f.m (M) 包含一個描述換熱器網路之穩態操作的方程式系統。
calc_Jac.m (M) 用來計算一套非線性代數方程的雅可比矩陣。使用一個簡單微分方法。
ice_root.m (M) 計算課程10.492換熱器網路的RGA（相對增益陣列）和DC（擾動成本）。
reduced_Newton.m (M) 使用簡化的牛頓計算方法和弱佇列搜索，來解決一系列的非線性代數方程。

Microsoft® Excel software is recommended for viewing the .xls files in this section. Free Microsoft® Excel viewer software can also be used to view the .xls files. MATLAB® software is required to run the .m files in this section.

Excel Calculator Files

Heat Exchanger Network (XLS)
Shower Controllability Analysis (XLS)

MATLAB® Files

Table for Tools MATLAB® FILES DESCRIPTIONS
calc_f.m (M) Contains a system of equations that describes the steady-state operation of a heat exchanger network.
calc_Jac.m (M) Function to calculate the Jacobian matrix for a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. A simple central differencing scheme is used.
ice_root.m (M) Calculates the RGA (relative gain array) and DC (disturbance cost) for the 10.492 heat exchanger network.
reduced_Newton.m (M) Uses a reduced-Newton algorithm with a weak line search to solve a set of non-linear algebraic equations.

「開放式學習支援網」(Open Learning Support, 簡稱OLS)是一個著眼著眼於建立「社群軟體」的研究計劃，讓非正規學習社群利用現存公開的教材而組織起來。OLS基本前提是完整的教育機會必須讓使用者 能夠與能解答其問題或提供支援的其他人建立起溝通管道。贊助者一般只能提供免費開放的網頁教材，但很難提供這樣的社群管道。社群支援必須由其他使用者提 供。因此，OLS是：

「開放式學習支援網」是由The William and Flora Hewlett 基金會贊助提供。

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