21H.418 / CMS.880 From Print to Digital: Technologies of the Word, 1450-Present

Fall 2005

A portable ebook reader.A portable ebook reader. (Photo courtesy of Matthias Zirngibl.)

Course Highlights

This course features all homework and paper topics in assignments and an extensive list of readings.

Course Description

There has been much discussion in recent years, on this campus and elsewhere, about the death of the book. Digitization and various forms of electronic media, some critics say, are rendering the printed text as obsolete as the writing quill. In this subject, we will examine the claims for and against the demise of the book, but we will also supplement these arguments with an historical perspective they lack: we will examine texts, printing technologies, and reading communities from roughly 1450 to the present. We will begin with the theoretical and historical overviews of Walter Ong and Elizabeth Eisenstein, after which we will study specific cases such as English chapbooks, Inkan knotted and dyed strings, late nineteenth-century recording devices, and newspapers online today. We will also visit a rare book library and make a poster on a hand-set printing press.


Subject Requirements

Active class participation is central to our work together. Attendance is mandatory, and students are expected to arrive in class on time and prepared to discuss common readings. A student who misses two or more class sessions will automatically fail the subject. At the beginning of most class sessions, students will hand in two-page papers that address issues from that week's readings; the questions will be distributed in advance. A ten-page paper will be due in class in Lec #6, and a five page paper due on the last day of classes, five days after Lec #12. I will hand out instructions for these assignments later in the semester. There will be no exams and no final. Each assignment will be weighted as follows in the calculation of the final grade, although these calculations will also take into account improved performance during the course of the semester:

Class Participation40 points
Homework (8 Assignments)40 points (5 points each)
Ten-page Paper80 points
Five-page Paper40 points
Total200 points

Statement on Cheating and Plagiarism

The Web now hosts many sites which offer college-level papers of varying quality on a variety of topics. I am well acquainted with these sites, and with others that offer detection services to professors. Buying a paper and submitting it as your own work is cheating. Copying sections from someone else's print or online work into your own without an acknowledgement is plagiarism. MIT has strict policies against both activities that I will fully enforce. For the appropriate MIT definitions and policies, visit the following Web sites. If you are uncertain about what constitutes cheating or plagiarism, please contact me before submitting the work in question.

  • MIT Online Writing Communication Center

  • Avoiding Plagiarism


1Introduction: The Perpetually Imminent Demise of the Book
2Theorizing Orality and LiteracyHomework 1 due
3Was There a "Printing Revolution"?Homework 2 due
4English ChapbooksHomework 3 due
5A Visit to the Burndy LibraryHomework 4 due
6Critiquing Early Printing AssignmentsTen-page paper due
8An Alternative to the Technologized Word: The Inkan Khipu (Guest: Prof. Gary Urton, Anthropology, Harvard)Homework 5 due
9The Technologized Word in the Nineteenth CenturyHomework 6 due
10Consultations with Instructor
11Reading Communities TodayHomework 7 due
12Reading OnlineHomework 8 due
13ConclusionFive-page paper due 5 days after Lec #12


Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book from, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.

This section features the assigned readings and required and recommended texts for the course. Readings by session are available below.

Required Texts

Amazon logo Ong, Walter. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. New York, NY: Menthuen, 1982. ISBN: 9780416713701.

Amazon logo Eisenstein, Elizabeth. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1984. ISBN: 9780521258586.

Amazon logo Gitelman, Lisa. Scripts, Grooves, and Writing Machines: Representing Technology in the Edison Era. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780804732703.

Amazon logo Long, Elizabeth. Book Clubs: Women and the Uses of Reading in Everyday Life. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780226492612.

Amazon logo Boczkowski, Pablo. Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780262025591.

Recommended Texts

Amazon logo Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-Chia Hsia, and Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. ISBN: 9780312183707.

Readings by Session

1Introduction: The Perpetually Imminent Demise of the BookMurphy, Priscilla Coit. "Books Are Dead, Long Live Books." Cambridge, MA: MIT Communications Forum, 1999.

Amazon logo Mitchell, William. "Homer to Home Page: Designing Digital Books." City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, February 1996. ISBN: 9780262631761.
2Theorizing Orality and LiteracyAmazon logo Ong, Walter. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. New York, NY: Menthuen, 1982, pp. 1-138 and 156-179. ISBN: 9780416713701.


Amazon logo McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994, pp. 3-73. ISBN: 9780262631594.
3Was There a "Printing Revolution"?Amazon logo Clancy, Michael T. "Looking Back From the Invention of Printing." In Literacy in Historical Perspective. Edited by Daniel P. Resnick. Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, pp. 7-22. ISBN: 9780844404103.

Amazon logo Eisenstein, Elizabeth. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1984, pp. 3-90. ISBN: 9780521258586.

Grafton, Anthony T. "The Importance of Being Printed." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 11 (Autumn 1980): 265-286.

Tan, Philip. "Little Leadings." 1998 (Student cyber-fiction set in a sixteenth-century printshop).

Video: "The Renaissance Book." (To be shown in class).

The Society for the History of Authorship, Reading, and Printing

The Lindisfarne Gospels (Digital reproduction of a famous medieval manuscript.)

Oxford Medieval Manuscript Collection (Online manuscript collection of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, UK.)
4English ChapbooksAmazon logo Spufford, Margaret. Small Books and Pleasant Histories: Popular Fiction and Its Readership in Seventeenth-Century England. Reprint ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 1-82 and 156-193. ISBN: 9780521312189.

Amazon logo Thompson, Roger, ed. Samuel Pepys' Penny Merriments. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 102-113 and 247-263. ISBN: 9780231042802.

Read a seventeenth-century chapbook at Harvard's Houghton Library or a work in the Early English Books Online (EEBO) database. Details to be provided in class.

Hausman, Nicholas. Chapbook Analysis. (Student analysis of Guy of Warwick)
5A Visit to the Burndy LibraryThorndike, Lynn, ed. The Sphere of Sacrobosco and Its Commentators. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1949, pp. 118-123.

Grafton, Anthony. "Introduction to the AHR Forum: How Revolutionary Was the Print Revolution?" American Historical Review 107 (February 2002): 84-86.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth. "An Unacknowledged Revolution Revisited." American Historical Review 107 (February 2002): 87-105.

Johns, Adrian. "How to Acknowledge a Revolution." American Historical Review 107 (February 2002): 106-125.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth. "Reply." American Historical Review 107 (February 2002): 126-128.

Printing: Renaissance and Reformation (Examples of late manuscript and early print culture.)

Burndy Library (MIT)


Amazon logo Eisenstein, Elizabeth. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1984, pp. 185-252. ISBN: 9780521258586.
6Critiquing Early Printing AssignmentsIn-class exercises.

Early English Books Online (EEBO)

Houghton Library (Harvard)
7TypesettingA Visit to the Bow and Arrow Press at Adams House, Harvard University.

Read about the press in The Harvard Gazette (2002) and The Harvard Crimson (2006)
8An Alternative to the Technologized Word: The Inkan Khipu (Guest: Prof. Gary Urton, Anthropology, Harvard)Amazon logo Urton, Gary. Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records. 1st ed. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2003, pp. 1-88. ISBN: 9780292785397.

Conklin, William J. "A Khipu Information String Theory." In Narrative Threads: Accounting and Recounting in Andean Khipu. Edited by Jeffrey Quilter and Gary Urton. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2002, pp. 53-86.

The Khipu Database Project
9The Technologized Word in the Nineteenth CenturyAmazon logo Gitelman, Lisa. Scripts, Grooves, and Writing Machines: Representing Technology in the Edison Era. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780804732703.
10Consultations with Instructor
11Reading Communities TodayAmazon logo Long, Elizabeth. Book Clubs: Women and the Uses of Reading in Everyday Life. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780226492612.

Houston Book Club

Oprah's Book Club
12Reading OnlineAmazon logo Boczkowski, Pablo. Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780262025591.

New York Times Technology Section online

The Houston Chronicle "Virtual Voyager."

New Jersey Online's Community Connection
13ConclusionAmazon logo Salomon, Frank. The Cord Keepers: Khipus and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004, pp. 209-236 and 292-293. ISBN: 9780822333791.


This section contains homework assignments and instructions for the papers required in the course.


2Homework 1: Ong, Orality and Literacy (PDF)
3Homework 2: Was There a Printing Revolution? (PDF)
4Homework 3: English Chapbooks (PDF)
5Homework 4: Eisenstein's Printing Revolution Revisited (PDF)
8Homework 5: Inkan Khipus (PDF)
9Homework 6: Scripts, Grooves, and Writing Machines (PDF)
11Homework 7: Book Clubs: Women and the Uses of Reading in Everyday Life (PDF)
12Homework 8: Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers (PDF)


Together these papers constitute 60% of the final grade. Editing suggestions are available in study materials.

First paper: Ten page paper (PDF)

Second paper: Five page paper (PDF)

The following document is an exemplary second paper written by David Proudfoot. The paper appears courtesy of the author and is used with permission. (PDF)


This section includes a former student's work which has become one of the assigned readings.

Chapbook Analysis

Courtesy of Nicholas Hausman. Used with permission.

Chapbooks: Definition and Origins

A chapbook is "a small book or pamphlet containing poems, ballads, stories, or religious tracts" (dictionary) The term is still used today to refer to short, inexpensive booklets. The context I am using it in is that of the Early Modern period in England. Chapbooks were small, cheaply produced books, most often octavo or duodecimo printings of twenty-four pages, sold without a cover. Pamphlets were similar to chapbooks, but they can be divided by their content. Pamphlets generally concerned matters of the day, such as politics, religion, or current events. Chapbooks were timeless books of jest and tales that often sprang out of folklore. Chapbooks were so called because they were sold by peddlers known as chapmen. Chap comes from the Old English for trade, so a chapman was literally a dealer who sold books. Chapmen would carry boxes containing the conveniently sized editions, either in town on street corners, or traveling through the countryside. They typically sold their wares for twopence or threepence, and stocked a large variety of titles. Among the types of content contained in chapbooks were romantic tales of chivalry, religious and moral instruction, cookbooks, guides to fortune telling and magic, and bawdy stories full of innuendo.

Chapmen traveled through England as early as the 1570s (Watt) selling books to whoever they could. Chapbooks followed broadsides as early print products for people of lesser means and learning than the wealthy. Broadsides represented print for the semi-literate: two of the main forms were ballads and pictures, neither of which depended heavily on reading. Ballads would be bought and sung by musicians who could read. People who heard the songs might repeat them in alehouses or inns, relying on memory. In this way the songs could change into new songs which would later be transcribed, or devolve into a meaningless jumble of words. Broadsides containing large woodcuts were also popular. They typically featured some sort of moral lesson or biblical saying. Even those who could not read at all could make use of these broadsides by hanging them on the wall. The one line or so of text could be remembered or inferred from the picture.

At this early stage of print, text was not static. Works moved back and forth between oral and print forms. We will see an example of this movement if we trace the history of the story Guy of Warwick. It originated in the Middle Ages, when it was sung as a heroic ballad. Sometime between 1200 and 1400 it was written as a manuscript. At that point, the physical copy would have been accessible only to the scholarly and rich, but the common folk still would have known the name of Guy through hearing the song or story. The story was printed in the first decades of the 1500s for a gentry audience. The educated people who were rich enough to buy books were known to read on occasion to their less fortunate neighbors. In the late 1500s, the story was abridged into a broadside ballad, and was once again heard in song form. In the late 1600s, it was turned back into book form in twenty-four page chapbooks, and conditions at that point were allowing more people access to these inexpensive books.

Books became cheaper to print as they aged, which is one of the factors that allowed a text to pass from an expensive edition only affordable by the wealthy, to a chapbook version. As the process and machinery of printing was refined it became generally cheaper. For a particular book, woodcuts could be reused from one version to the next. Also, the upper-class literati grew bored with the same works after they went out of fashion, so printers could make more money off the same stories by vulgarizing them and selling them to the middle to lower classes.

Chapbooks saw an increasing audience between 1500 and 1700, because more people were learning to read as the literacy rate rose. Although it is impossible to figure out how many people could read that far back, we can look at general trends of schooling. More scoolteachers were employed in the early 1600s than before. Even though records of literacy tend to show us only those people who could read and write, there were probably many more people who could only read. As Spufford posits, children were receiving just enough education to teach them to read, before they were pressed into working to make money for their families. Evidence exists that members of even the poorest social classes were able to read, including laborers and women.

Guy of Warwick: Summary of the Story

I chose to examine Guy of Warwick in particular because of its popularity and availability. It is a typical chapbook story of the romantic type, and it is often presented as indicative of the genre. Both Spufford and Watt mention it and use it as a benchmark to show the amounts of chapbook sales. Many printings were made of the Guy chapbooks, which shows that they sold well. Guy's story was a very popular one, and it has a long history. The English loved stories of their heroes in the Early Modern period, and the departure from historical fact to fantastical adventures made it exciting for readers across class boundaries.

I will now present a plot summary based on a 1700s chapbook of 144 pages. Guy was born an English gentleman. However, he had no wealth in land and was the son of a steward to Lord Roband. As a young man, Guy fell in love with Lord Roband's daughter, Phaelice, for her amazing beauty. He proposed marriage to her, but she rejected him on the basis that he is far below her in status. After making a point of the materiality and greediness of women, Guy decided to go out and make a name for himself through bravery and strength, in order that Phaelice would accept him as a husband.

So began the adventures of Guy, as he armed himself and headed for France in search of opportunities to test his arm and raise his reputation. Guy soon encountered the maiden Dorinda who had been falsely imprisoned as part of a plot. Guy fought the three men who had lied in order to pace her in prison, and he killed two of them. The other one fled. However, while sailing away, Guy's ship encountered and was attacked by the ship of Philbertus, the mastermind behind the plot. Guy singlehandedly cut a path through his enemies, and they eventually gave up and retreated. Guy next visited Germany, where he entered a tournament of jousting and martial prowess. He bested all his competitors and as a reward for winning was promised the hand of Princess Blanch. Guy remained true to his love for Phaelice and gave up the opportunity to marry Blanch, instead promising to serve her as a knight. Guy returned to England with the riches that had been the remainder of his prize. He once again proposed to Phaelice, but she turned him down again. She was not overly impressed by the deeds that he had thus far performed, and said that she could not marry him until he carried out even greater feats of heroism.

On Dunsmore-Heath in England, a gigantic cow was terrorizing the countryside and killing any man who tried to stop it. This cow was twelve feet high and eighteen feet long, and was destroying everything it saw. Guy heard reports of the beast, and went to try his luck. After a fierce battle he emerged victorious, the monster dead at his feet. The King of England was so thankful that he knighted Guy. Guy then traveled to Byzantium, to battle the heathens, and return that city to Christian control. Once again, no man could stand up to Guy's strength, and he slaughtered the Saracens and Turks, and recovered Byzantium. Some time later, Guy was walking through the woods and he came upon sixteen ruffians assaulting an Earl and Lady. The ruffians did not stand a chance. Continuing through the woods, Guy happened upon a battle between a lion and a dragon. He decided to watch the fight and aid whichever creature was losing. The lion was getting the worst of it and appeared to be almost finished. Guy stepped in and defeated the dragon. After the fight was over, the lion licked Guy's feet to show its thanks. Guy went on more adventures and killed a giant boar and the dragon of Northumberland.

After all these acts of heroism, he returned home to Phaelice, who finally agreed to marry him. The two were happily wedded. Unfortunately, soon after the marriage, Roband died. Upon the loss of his father-in-law, Guy was thrown into despair. He reflected upon his adventures, and renounced them as sins of his youth. Despite his lifelong quest for Phaelice, Guy left his new bride, and began a pilgrimage to atone for past errors. He put on the robes of a pilgrim, left his sword and armor behind, and vowed to tell no one who he was, for at that point, Guy was known throughout the land. On his pilgrimage, he ran into a man who was utterly depressed. Guy promised to help the man. It tuned out that the man's sixteen children had been taken hostage by a giant. Guy slew the giant and returned the man's children. After a few more similar adventures, Guy retired to a cave to be alone with his melancholy thoughts. When he was about to die, he found a nearby farmer and told him to take a ring to Phaelice. She received the ring and ran out to find Guy, who she had been longing for all those years. They were reunited and embraced, but Guy died in her arms. Phaelice followed him to the grave within two weeks.

Analysis of the Story in Terms of Orality

In his book, Orality and Literacy, Walter Ong writes about the characteristics of orally based thought that are distinct from chirographically (writing) or typographically based thought. I will now examine the story of Guy of Warwick for evidence of oral thought, based on Ong's characteristics.

The story contains many features of orally based thought: both words as power and actions, and memory aids, the two main categories distinct to oral thinking. The characters exist on the level of actions and words, not introspective abstraction. Except for the stage in Guy's life when he decides to repent for his violence, actions dominate the book. Even dialog between characters is rare, and not very realistic. For example, when Guy first speaks to Phaelice, he gives a monologue of several paragraphs. The natural back and forth is absent. Also, the characters are flat. We do not see into their heads; they are basically type characters. We never find out what drives them, or the complex Web of thoughts that causes them to take certain actions. Likewise, description in the book is sparse. The dragons are not detailed in all their terrible features; instead the author calls up the already developed image of a dragon into the mind of the viewer. The concrete nature of the story points to oral thought. Abstraction and psychological ideas are products of print culture. Their absence is easily noticeable to readers today, because in our heavily print-based society, we have become accustomed to seeing abstract ideas and descriptions. Without them, the story seems simple and flat. To a member of a culture without much print or writing, the story would have seemed different. In Ong (53-54), people from predominantly oral cultures had trouble defining words. They assumed that everyone already knew, for example, what a tree was. Oral people would have an image of a dragon or a giant in their minds, and only unusual features that affect the story would need to be noted. Actions and words were the important elements for people from oral cultures. The verbal and physical conflict between characters was what made up the mental life of these people.

Praise was another feature that came from oral culture. Guy is praised for his sword of flame, and his overpowering strength and bravery. These words seem trite and insincere to us today, but as Ong writes, "...Praise goes with the highly polarized, agonistic, oral world of good and evil, virtue and vice, villains and heroes" (45). Praise was part of an oral western rhetorical tradition, and it made its way into print in this story. Praise went along with the designation of Guy as a "heavy" character, or one who is larger than life. Characters of this type were important in oral cultures, because their heroic features aided memory. When nothing could be recorded, things had to stand out to be remembered. Guy has the strongest arm, and the best blade. He literally seems to be larger than other characters in the story, perhaps approaching the height of a giant. Guy's enemies also had to be unusual to stand out. The giant cow of Dunsmore-Heath is a good example of a bizarre crature that aids memory. Other examples in Guy of Warwick are a giant boar, and the fight between the dragon and the lion. Stories in oral cultures were episodic, and the story of Guy incorporates this element as well. Certain episodes could be inserted or deleted based on the memory of the storyteller, in an oral culture. The ability to lengthen or shorten a story without affecting the plot is also useful in print culture. One of the chapbook versions cuts a 232 page book down to twenty-four pages without changing the story much. A later chapbook then expanded it back to 144 pages. The story could be easily changed based on the audience the printer was aiming at. Redundancy was a key element to oral storytelling, because it was necessary to repeat things that the audience might have missed. Several of Guy's adventures are repetitive: he fights two dragons, and two giants. The differences between the episodes are small, so this feature probably came from the oral tradition. Another memory aid was the use of common numbers. Guy saves a man's sixteen children and defeats sixteen ruffians. The number sixteen must have had some significance to people of the time.

Three Editions: Evolution of a Book

I looked at three editions of Guy of Warwick at the Houghton Library at Harvard. One was an expensive bound edition from the 1500s, one was a short chapbook from 1695, and the third was a longer chapbook from the 1700s. The differences between the three editions show us something about oral residue in printed works, as well as the role print played in fixing the English language as standard and unchanging.

The earliest version that I examined was a bound book of 282 pages from the 1500s. It would have been affordable only to the rich, and it was written in verse and difficult language. Its intended audience was the educated, upper-class man. Its print conventions display its extravagance, as well as the changes in print between the Sixteenth Century and today. The text was entirely in gothic print, with large letters and margins. The lines were justified only on the left, leaving lots of white space to the right of the words. Page numbers were not printed, and only a few woodcuts were included. The large amount of empty space and large type were signs of luxury. Paper was the most expensive part of the book, so to leave parts of it empty showed that one had money to spare.

This book was very hard for me to read, showing the many changes that have occurred in printing and language. The gothic text and different symbols for letters made trying to read like breaking a code. Many words present in the book have since gone out of use, and had to be inferred from the context. Spellings of words were also different from today.

The 1695 version was a twenty-four page chapbook, five and a half by seven inches. It was written in prose, and was sold for he price of 3d., which would have been in the price range of a larger audience. The story was cut down to fit the short length, and many of Guy's adventures were left out. The print in this edition was very small, with hardly any margins. The book seems to be printed as cheaply as possible, although it is still on good paper by today's standards. In contrast to the earlier version of the story, this one was easy for me to understand. The type still is made up of some gothic print, but is mainly the font we are used to today. The words and spellings were the familiar ones in current use, for the most part. Sometime between the 1500s and 1695, print stabilized the English language to the point where it has not changed significantly in three hundred years. The printing of the dictionary, and the influence of print on thought and speech combined to stop the changes that made Old English and Middle English incomprehensible to readers today.

The last version I looked at was a 144 page chapbook printed in the 1700s, three by six and a half inches. This version restored the full story for readers of lesser means. The print was small, as were the margins. Gothic type was gone, replaced by italic interspersed with the standard typeface of today. The increased number of people who could read at this time would have presented a larger audience for the book. The fact that the copy I looked at was from the eleventh printing shows that it was popular and sold well.


The interplay between oral transmission and chirographic and print copies of Guy of Warwick show the overlap between the different technologies of the word and their related thought processes in a society near the beginning of print. In the 1500s the flow back and forth between print and oral forms of the story display the influences of each culture on the other. This argument agrees with Spufford and the example of St. George, another chivalric romance that exhibits the play between print and speech. The story of St. George was printed in a chapbook, which was used to stage the Mummers' Play, and was then recorded again in print. Print shaped part of oral culture, and vice versa.

By the start of the Eighteenth Century, and the last chapbook edition, it seems that print took a firm enough hold to begin the end of oral culture in England. The standardization that comes with print was in effect and allowed print and language from that period to be understandable to English speakers today. The prose form of the story is closer to the style of today's novels. However, the 1700s chapbook still contains a story with a high oral residue. Perhaps oral culture did still have an effect on society, but it was naturally growing smaller with time, as the population moved towards being fully literate.

Study Materials

This section includes the professor's editing suggestions for paper writing.

Editing Suggestions

The writing process includes rigorous editing practices. Below are some points to keep in mind as you re-read and edit your papers before turning them in. You may also wish to look at the brief guide to writing: Strunk, William Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. New York, NY: Longman, 2000. ISBN: 020530902X.

Some Rules

  1. Avoid passive constructions. "The chair was seen by me," is not as forceful as "I saw the chair."
  2. Use the past tense when describing historical individuals and events, not the present tense.
  3. Avoid unnecessary words. After you have drafted your essay, set it aside for a day or two. Then reread it, eliminating every word that is redundant or does not add to your meaning. Prime candidates for deletion are adverbs such as "very," "quite," "extremely."
  4. Never use the phrase "I feel that...." This lends a subjective air to your argument that tends to discredit you. Write "I think that...."
  5. Learn how to use the spell-checker on your computer program.
Six Questions to Ask Before Turning in Your Paper

  1. Is the title of my essay informative?
  2. Do I state my thesis point soon enough, perhaps even in the first sentence, and keep it in view throughout the paper? Is the opening paragraph interesting, and by its end, have I focused on the topic?
  3. Is my organization clear? Does each point lead into the next, without irrelevances and without anticlimaxes?
  4. Is each paragraph unified by a topic sentence or topic idea?
  5. Are sentences concise, clear and emphatic? Are needless words and inflated language eliminated?
  6. Is the final paragraph conclusive without being repetitive?



驗證碼請輸入7 + 0 =





Creative Commons授權條款 本站一切著作係採用 Creative Commons 授權條款授權。