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10.491 Integrated Chemical Engineering II

Spring 2006

FutureGen is a zero-emissions, coal power plant.FutureGen is a zero-emissions, coal power plant. The plant produces electricity and hydrogen from coal (the lowest cost and most abundant domestic energy resource), while storing the carbon dioxide in geologic formations such as oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline reservoirs. (Image courtesy of the U. S. Department of Energy.) 

Course Highlights

This course features an extensive set of readings and selected student design problems in the projects section.

Course Description

This course introduces students to methods and background needed for the conceptual design of continuously operating chemical plants. Particular attention is paid to the use of process modeling tools such as Aspen that are used in industry and to problems of current interest. Each student team is assigned to evaluate and design a different technology and prepare a final design report.

For spring 2006, the theme of the course is to design technologies for lowering the emissions of climatically active gases from processes that use coal as the primary fuel.





Syllabus

Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at Amazon.com! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to Amazon.com to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book from Amazon.com, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.

A list of topics covered in the course is presented in the calendar below.



Introduction

Fossil fuels have driven the industrial revolution and will continue to fuel the world economy well into the 21st century. Of all our fossil fuel resources (coal, oil, gas), coal is by far the biggest. In the developed world, it is mostly used for electricity production, employing pulverized coal boilers and steam turbines. In the developing world, similar trends are seen, but coal still has significant usage in the industrial and domestic sectors. One consequence of burning carbon based fuels is the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) that in turn leads to global warming. While alternatives like solar, wind and biomass have some attractions, they do not, even with large scale expansion, have the potential to address the basic energy, fuel and chemical needs that are currently based on oil and gas. The problem for this class is to address the dilemma: how to burn fossil fuels without the associated environmental impacts?



Course Description

This course introduces students to methods and background needed for conceptual design of continuously operating chemical plants. Particular attention is paid to the use of process modeling tools such as AspenPlus® that are used in industry and to problems of current interest. Each student team is assigned to evaluate and design a different technology and prepare a final design report.



Prerequisites

This course is a senior design course and requires that a student has taken 10.490 Integrated Chemical Engineering I.



Textbooks

This course has no required text. Two references that you might find useful are:

Amazon logo Douglas, J. Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 1988. ISBN: 9780070177628.

Amazon logo Seider, W. D., J. D. Seader, and D. R. Lewin. Product and Process Design Principles: Synthesis, Analysis, and Evaluation. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471216636.



Organization

At the beginning of the term the course will meet for four 1-hour lectures per week. There are two class sessions one from 10-11 and another 11-12. The same material is covered in both classes. After three weeks the Friday class will be used for meetings of each student group and with the instructor. Occasionally classes will be held in the Department of Chemical Engineering Computer Laboratory. Laboratory sessions will begin on the second week of the term and continue until the end of the module.



Homework, Final Report, and Presentation

There will be approximately 6 homework sets during the beginning of the semester. The homework sets will be due approximately one week after being issued. We strongly encourage students to work in teams. The final solution must be your own work. Shortly after the beginning of the semester you will be formed into teams of four students to work on a design project. Each team will be assigned a different technology to develop/design/evaluate. Each team will write a design report and give a 30-minute presentation to the class and clients.



Policy For Academic Conduct

The homework, weekly summaries of progress and the final report have the primary function of helping you learn the material. The secondary function of these assignments is to aid the staff in assessing your understanding of the material, in particular when the time comes to provide a final grade for the course. To this end, the extent to which you collaborate with your colleagues in preparing this material must be understood and agreed upon by both the student team and the staff. The homework assignments are intended nearly exclusively to serve as a learning tool. As such, we are comfortable with collaboration amongst students on the solving of these assignments provided all collaborators are equal contributors to the solution of the problems. You must be prepared to defend your solutions in person if asked by the instructor.

During the final semester of senior year you may be involved in job interviews, visits to graduate school and as a result you may not be able to attend all classes or have timing conflicts with homework and project meetings. Please make sure that the instructor is made aware in advance of these conflicts, particularly if there is likely be any delays in turning in homework or in meeting with your project team.



Grading Policy

The course grade is based on 200 points. Description of the activities can be found in assignments and projects.

The Design Report grade will be the same for all the group members. No late reports will be accepted. The design report grade includes the presentations to class and clients (30 minutes per group).

The Personal Evaluation grade is a subjective evaluation of each group member and will be composed to two equal parts:

  1. An evaluation by the instructor of performance in the weekly design meetings.
  2. An evaluation by your team mates.

It is to your benefit neither to miss these design meetings, nor to come to them and just sit in. Also, after you submit the report, you will be able to give us your input on the performance of your group members by filling out an evaluation form. This evaluation will be held in confidence, and it will be taken into account for your subjective evaluation.


ACTIVITIESPERCENTAGES
Design Report75%
Problem Sets12.5%
Personal Evaluation12.5%





Calendar


LEC #TOPICSKEY DATES
1Introduction: Global Climate and the CO2 Problem
2Course Overview and Process Design
3Literature Sources for Processes: How to Find InformationStudents assigned to design groups
4Process Flowsheet Models: An Introduction to AspenPlus®
5Process Engineering Economics: Project Evaluation
6Physical Property Models: Which One is Best?
7How CO2 is Formed: Combustion BasicsProgress report due
8Evaluation of Alternative CO2 Removal Schemes: Comparing Efficiencies
9Hierarchical Design Methodology: Reactor Modeling
10Process Flowsheet Models: Reactor Modeling in AspenPlus®Progress report due
11Process Flowsheet Models: Introduction to Analysis ToolsProblem set 1 assigned
12Chemical Process Safety: HAZOP Analyses
13Capital Cost Estimates: Introduction to CAPCOST Software Program
14-27Team Project WorkProblem set 1 due in Lec #15

Progress report due in Lec #14, #18, and #22

Final report due in Lec #26
28-30Student PresentationsPresentations due




Readings

Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at Amazon.com! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to Amazon.com to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book from Amazon.com, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.

Class notes will be distributed for each lecture and these will be supplemented with occasional handouts. This course has no required text. Set out below are a selection of additional references organized by topical areas covered in the course. Whenever possible, the exact editions used in the course have been indicated in the list below. Two references that you might find useful are:

Amazon logo Douglas, J. Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 1988. ISBN: 9780070177628.

Amazon logo Seider, W. D., J. D. Seader, and D. R. Lewin. Product and Process Design Principles: Synthesis, Analysis, and Evaluation. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471216636.



Background Reference Materials

The undergraduate textbooks used in chemical engineering courses in chemistry, transport phenomena, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and applied mathematics are set out below.

Amazon logo Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi. Physical Chemistry. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004. ISBN: 9780471215042.

Amazon logo Smith, J. M., H. C. Van Ness, and Michael Abbott. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 2004. ISBN: 9780073104454.

Amazon logo Denn, M. M. Process Fluid Mechanics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979. ISBN: 9780137231638.

Amazon logo Incropera, Frank P., and David P. DeWitt. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 5th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2001. ISBN: 9780471386506. (Including software tools, users' guides and associated CD.)

Amazon logo Seader, J. D., and Ernest J. Henley. Separation Process Principles. New York, NY: Wiley, 1998. ISBN: 9780471586265.

Fogler, Scott H. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1999. ISBN: 0139737855. (Including associated CD.)



Process Design Text Books

References more closely related to process design are set out below.

Amazon logo Aerstin, F., and G. Street. Applied Chemical Process Design. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1978. ISBN: 9780306310881.

Amazon logo Branan, C. Rules of Thumb for Chemcial Engineers, A Manual of Quick, Accurate Solutions to Everyday Process Engineering Problems. 2nd ed. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company, 1988. ISBN: 9780884157885.

Amazon logo Biegler, L., I. E. Grossmann, and A. W. Westerberg. Systematic Methods of Chemical Process Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1997. ISBN: 9780134924229.

Amazon logo Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). Guidelines for Chemical Reactivity Evaluation and Application to Process Design. New York, NY: Center for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1995. ISBN: 9780816904792.

Amazon logo Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures. Book and disk ed. New York, NY: Center for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1998. ISBN: 9780816906840. (Center for Chemical Process Safety "Guidelines" Series)

Amazon logo Coker, A. K. Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants. Vol. 1. 4th ed. Gulf Professional Publishing, 2007. ISBN: 9780750677660.

Amazon logo Douglas, J. Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 1988. ISBN: 9780070177628.

Amazon logo Duncan, T. M., and J. A. Reimer. Chemical Engineering Design and Analysis: An Introduction. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780521639569.

Amazon logo Erwin, D. L. Industrial Chemical Process Design. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002. ISBN: 9780071376204.

Amazon logo Koolen, J. L. A. Design of Simple and Robust Process Plants. Chichester, UK: Wiley-VCH, 2000. ISBN: 9783527297849.

Amazon logo Ludwig, E. E. Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants. Vol. 1. 3rd ed. Houston, TX: Gulf Professional Publishing, 1995. ISBN: 9780884150251.

Amazon logo Murphy, R. M. Introduction to Chemical Processes: Principles, Analysis, Synthesis. Dubuque, IA: McGraw Hill, 2005. ISBN: 9780072849608.

Amazon logo Ray, M. S., and M. G. Sneesby. Chemical Engineering Design Project: A Case Study Approach. 2nd ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1998. ISBN: 9789056991364.

Amazon logo Rudd, D. F., G. J. Powers, and J. J. Siirola. Process Synthesis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1973. ISBN: 9780137233533.

Amazon logo Seider, W. D., J. D. Seader, and D. R. Lewin. Product and Process Design Principles: Synthesis, Analysis, and Evaluation. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471216636.

Amazon logo Smith, R. Chemical Process: Design and Integration. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. ISBN: 9780471486817.

Amazon logo Turton, R., R. C. Bailie, W. B. Whiting, and J. A. Shaeiwitz. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1997. ISBN: 9780135705650. (Prentice Hall International Series in the Physical and Chemical Engineering Sciences)

Amazon logo Woods, D. R. Process Design and Engineering Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1994. ISBN: 9780138057558.



Product Design

Amazon logo Cooper, R. G. Winning at New Products: Accelerating the Process from Idea to Launch. 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Perseus Books Addison-Wesley, 1993. ISBN: 9780201563818.

Amazon logo Cussler, E. L., G. D. Moggridge, and A. Varma. Chemical Product Design. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780521796330.

Amazon logo Magrab, E. B. Integrated Product and Process Design and Development: The Product Realization Process. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780849384837.

Amazon logo McConnell, S. Rapid Development. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1996. ISBN: 9781556159008.

Amazon logo Ulrich, K. T., and S. D. Eppinger. Product Design and Development. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2003. ISBN: 9780072471465.



Process and Engineering Economics

Amazon logo Brennan, D. Process Industry Economics: An International Perspective. Rugby, UK: Institution of Chemical Engineers, 1998. ISBN: 9780852953914.

DeGarmo, E. P., W. G. Sullivan, J. A. Bontadelli, and E. M. Wicks. Engineering Economy. 10th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997. ISBN: 0133831935.

Amazon logo Park, C. S. Fundamentals of Engineering Economics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2003. ISBN: 9780130307910.

Amazon logo Peters, M. S., K. D. Timmerhaus, R. E. West, and M. Peters. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 2002. ISBN: 9780072392661.

Amazon logo Sullivan, W. G., E. M. Wicks, and J. Luxhoj. Engineering Economy. 12th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002. ISBN: 9780130673381.

Amazon logo Ulrich, G. D., and P. T. Vasudevan. Chemical Engineering Process Design and Economics: A Practical Guide. 2nd ed. Durham, NH: Ulrich/Process Publishing, 2004. ISBN: 9780970876829.



Process Safety

Amazon logo Crowl, D. A., and J. F. Louvar. Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 2001. ISBN: 9780130181763.

Amazon logo Kletz, T. A. What Went Wrong?: Case Studies of Process Plant Disasters. 4th ed. Houston, TX: Gulf Professional Publishing, 1998. ISBN: 9780884159209.



Process Technology Descriptions and Handbooks

Amazon logo Moulijn, J. A., M. Makkee, and A. van Diepen. Chemical Process Technology. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., 2001. ISBN: 9780471630098.

Amazon logo Othmer, D. F., and Raymond E. Kirk. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 27 vols. 5th ed. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, 2004. ISBN: 978-0471488101.

Amazon logo Perry, R. H., D. W. Green, and J. O. Maloney. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1997. ISBN: 9780070498419.

Amazon logo Bohnet, M., et al. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 7th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2006. ISBN: 9783527313181. (Software ed.)

Ullmann, F., W. Gerhartz, Y. S. Yamamoto, F. T. Campbell, R. Pfefferkorn, and J. F. Rounsaville. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 5th ed. Deerfield Beach, FL: VCH, 1985. ISBN: 0895731517.



Problem Solving Strategies

Amazon logo Fogler, H. S., and S. E. LeBlanc. Strategies for Creative Problem Solving. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PTR Prentice-Hall, 1994. ISBN: 9780131793187.





Assignments

Problem Sets

There are 6 problem sets covering the units in class. We strongly encourage students to work in teams. The final solution must be your own work.


ASSIGNMENTSTOPICS
Problem Set 1Order of Magnitude Estimation; Energy to Generate Electricity and to Separate CO2 from a Gas Stream; A First Order Model of a Power Plant (PDF)





Some Caveats

This class is about process design. One of the most important features of solutions to design problems is that the answers are typically not unique - usually there is no 'correct answer' nor is the answer in the back of the book. The design process is further complicated by missing or conflicting information, ambiguous objectives, and no clear problem statement. As a result:

  • document them, understand the implications and then move on.

  • time limit imposed by the units allocated to this class - the goal is to do the best that you can in the allocated time, not to exhaust yourself. Time management is critical.

  • team effort, plan and allocate the work across all members, meet regularly and iterate the design concepts.





Projects

The design project is the opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills acquired over the undergraduate years in the Chemical Engineering department. As a team, you will develop a solution to a real design problem.



Progress Reports

The progress reports consist of a meeting with the instructor with a one page summary of progress on design project. The weekly progress report should be signed by all group members. (The meeting times will be assigned to avoid class conflicts so that all team members can be present.) Active participation during the meetings is encouraged, because the subjective evaluation by the instructor and team mates is partially based on these meetings.



Report Guidelines

The report should be typewritten, although it may be handwritten in ink, if done neatly.

For the Design Report grade, we will not be able to double check your numbers, but we can decide if we believe in them by examining your report. Allow time to write this report. It pays to start early because writing the report often exposes oversights and inconsistencies which may be easily corrected if time exists.

The grade will be the same for all the group members.

No late reports will be accepted.

Read carefully the Design Report Handout (PDF)



Presentation Guidelines

Presentations to class and clients should last 30 minutes per group.



Evaluation of Team Members

After you submit the report, you will be able to give us your input on the performance of your group members by filling out an evaluation form. This evaluation will be held in confidence, and it will be taken into account for your subjective evaluation.



Some Caveats

This class is about process design. One of the most important features of solutions to design problems is that the answers are typically not unique - usually there is no 'correct answer' nor is the answer in the back of the book. The design process is further complicated by missing or conflicting information, ambiguous objectives, and no clear problem statement. As a result:

  • document them, understand the implications and then move on.

  • time limit imposed by the units allocated to this class - the goal is to do the best that you can in the allocated time, not to exhaust yourself. Time management is critical.

  • team effort, plan and allocate the work across all members, meet regularly and iterate the design concepts.



2006 Projects

The design problems are different for each team. Each team is sworn to secrecy about its project so that the solutions will be unique and original. The problem topics are listed below along with a brief memorandum.


TEAMSDESIGN PROBLEMS
1Ammonia Stripping (PDF)
2IGCC As a Way to Control Hg, NOx, and SOx (PDF)
3Assessment of the IGCC Concept (PDF)
4Amine Stripping (PDF)
5Retrofitting Options for CO2 Capture (PDF)
6Chemical Looping Combustion (PDF)
7CO2 Liquefaction (PDF)
8Oxyfiring (PDF)
9Polygeneration (PDF)
10Water Gas Shift Reaction (PDF)
11Retrofitting of Existing Power Plants (PDF)
12Chemical Looping Combustor (PDF)
13Amine Stripping Alternatives (PDF)



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