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Essay 1

Write a 3 page essay on one of the following topics (draw on at least three of the readings).

  1. 思考在至少兩個不同的社會中,殖民政策已如何改變性別關係?在殖民政策前兩性關係是什麼樣子?在殖民時期關係如何改變?就你的觀點,男女之間權力的改變又帶來什麼樣的衝擊?
    Consider how colonialism has transformed gender relationships in at least two different societies. What were gender relationships like before colonialism? How were such relationships transformed during the colonial era? In your view, what impact did such transformations have on power dynamics between women and men?

  2. 在過去與現今,男女相對地位上的跨文化辯論始終反覆多變。作業請從性別之於歐洲殖民計畫的重要性開始,探討現今愈來愈多針對性別的跨文化辯論如何不同於早期?或是有何相似處?就你的觀點,什麼才是最有成效的討論方向?(此問題很明顯地並無正確答案,而僅為一個讓你探討並對此議題闡述個人見解的機會。然而,務必在文中提及你所閱讀的教材)。
    Cross-cultural debates over the relative status of women in relation to men have been volatile both in the past and in the present. Begin your essay by considering the symbolic importance of gender to the European colonial project. How do more recent cross-cultural debates over gender differ from or parallel earlier debates? In your view, what is the most productive direction for such discussions? (There is obviously no right or wrong answer here. This question is an opportunity for you to explore and develop your own perspective on this topic. Make sure, however, you spend at least part of your answer addressing the readings).

Essay 2

Drawing upon the readings for the class, examine ideas of development in the post-colonial period for a specific country or countries. How do people relate to the concept of development and/or specific development projects in their day-to-day lives? For example, depending on the readings you choose, you might consider how people define or use the concept of development and how "development" is either something they desire or resist. Do ideas of development at the "local" level differ from or resemble ideas of development in a national or international context? Depending upon which readings you choose, you may also want to consider how such ideas shift over time.

至於此篇作業,你必須參考Dorothy Hodgson的著作《曾為勇敢無畏的戰士》,以及另兩篇你認為合適的課堂選讀文章。務必在作業中引用文章細節。
For this essay, you must utilize the book Once Intrepid Warriors by Dorothy Hodgson as well as two other articles from this section of the class that you feel would be appropriate. Make sure you use lots of specifics in your essays.

Essay 3

Answer two of the following questions (one chosen from each category). Each of your two essays should be 4-5 pages in length. For these final essays, you have a great deal of freedom in shaping how you want to answer the questions. You are responsible for coming up with a thesis or argument largely dependent on your own interests and ideas. If you need help in formulating your thesis, come see me or visit the Writing Center.

  1. (a) 我們已知著重在許多發展計畫上的科技中心如何混淆人們生活的其他層面,這些對於瞭解貧窮的存在可能很重要。請撰寫一篇報告,為某些永遠無法擺脫貧困的族群探討其中一些因素(請留意性別動態)。此類議題可以包含(但不侷限於)國家的歷史過程、等級制度(該國之內或跨國之間),接受教育情況、尤其是家庭的形成、政府的角色、以及經濟動態範疇從不同國家之間的關係到生計維持或勞工的不足等等。選擇兩種(若選擇三種,請言簡意賅)你有興趣更進一步探討的動態,並思考他們如何可以(或不可以)在某些特定地方與持續不斷的貧窮問題密切相關。請從閱讀教材或影片當中,尤其是課程後半部,挑選出一些特殊例子佐證。
    (a) We've considered how the technocentric focus of many development projects obscures other aspects of people's lives that may be important in understanding why poverty exists. Write an essay that explores some of the factors that may be relevant in perpetuating poverty for certain groups of people (giving some attention to gender dynamics). Such issues may include, but are not limited to, historical processes, class hierarchies within or between countries, access to education, particular family formations, the role of the government, and economic dynamics ranging from the relationships between various countries to the inadequacy of either subsistence or wage labor. Choose two dynamics (or three if you're succinct) that you are interested in exploring further and consider how they may (or may not) be relevant to ongoing poverty in particular places. Draw on specific examples from the readings or films, particularly materials from the latter half of the course.

    (b) 就上一階段課堂中探討的議題,選擇其一進行辯論:第一與第三世界之關係、人口動態、或者環境議題,試探討其角色與貧窮問題之關連性。請從整門課程中所有的閱讀教材及影片中舉例以佐證你的觀點。勿讓你的論點僅停留在抽象階段,而要根據這些教材思考人民的日常生活。
    (b) Choose one of the following issues for debate explored in the last section of class - the relationship between First and Third Worlds, population dynamics, or environmental issues. Explore its role in relation to issues of poverty. Draw upon readings and films from throughout the course to substantiate your point of view. Make sure your argument works not simply at an abstract level but considers people's daily lives as based on such materials.

  2. (a) 設計一個可創造某種社會變遷的計畫(無論發展或其他)。試描述此計畫在何地執行、目的為何,以及你欲如何將想像落實?你想會有什麼樣的問題?以及你將如何處理?請盡量發揮你的創造力,但切勿讓你的報告流於含糊不明確,盡可能讓計畫落實於世界日常生活中。
    (a) Design a project (either development or otherwise) intended to create some form of social change. Describe where this project would take place, what its goals were and how you would want to go about putting your vision into practice. What kinds of problems would you envision and how would you go about addressing them? Feel free to be as creative as you wish but make sure your essay isn't overly vague; situate it in the world of everyday life as far as possible.

    (b) 在思考討論了一個學期的「發展」之後,你個人對於此概念的意見想法為何?你認為有用抑或無用?請解釋原因。假若你認為有用,請描述你欲如何定義與利用?假若你認為無用,請建議替代概念或思考世界的新方法,能更有助於思考社會變遷。
    (b) After a semester of pondering "development," what are your personal views on the concept. Do you see it as useful or not useful? Explain why. If you see the term as useful, describe how you would like to see it defined and used. If you do not find the term useful, suggest an alternate concept or way of thinking about the world that you find more helpful in thinking about social change.

    (c) 設計你的問題(假若你選擇此題,請盡快與我討論你的構想)。
    (c) Design a question of your own (if you choose this option, please discuss your idea with me as soon as possible).

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