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審定:無
翻譯:陳京菁(簡介並寄信)
編輯:劉夏泱(簡介並寄信)


問答題1

3至5頁

請回答下列兩問題中的任意一個:

  1. 本課中我們通過學習Donald Worster所著的《自然經濟體系:生態觀念歷史》來探討諸如蘭納、梭羅和達爾文等歐美學者的觀點。這些學者和智士將他們對自然的想法置入廣泛的社會和歷史環境中進行思考,請比較這些觀點的異同。你也可以探討:這些學者如何給自然下定義?在他們的觀點中,人類與自然或其他生物的聯繫如何?人類和自然又與上帝、與科學有何種關係?他們所處的社會環境發生了怎樣的變化,能促使他們去思考這些術語?反之,他們的思考又對其他人產生了何種影響?

  2. 《這片土地上的變化:印第安人,殖民地居民,暨新英格蘭地區生態學》》一書中,作者William Cronon探究了生活在早期新英格蘭的美洲土著居民與英國殖民者,對於土地和生物截然不同的觀念和利用方式。請探討這些區別。這些人群以怎樣不同的方式利用自然環境,為什麼他們的方式有如此顯著的不同?更確切的說,他們如何定義土地和動物,又如何利用它們?他們如何理解財產,這種理解又有何含意?殖民者在新英格蘭統治地位的日益穩固,對當地土著以及新英格蘭地區的生態學又產生了怎樣的影響?

請確保你的論文觀點陳述清晰,論證詳細準確。

問答題II 

5至7頁

1968年,Garett Hardin在他深具影響力的文章《公用地的悲劇》中提出接近自然資源的「公用地」 環境將不可避免地遭到破壞。因為對於個殊的人來說,過度開發這些資源正是他們謀求私利的最佳手段。Hardin集中探討了行動個體以及應對各種情況的可行方案,但他卻忽視了建立在社會基礎上的思想和實踐對於「公共」自然資源使用的影響。在課程閱讀的基礎上思考這種社會動力學因素(你可以參考Cronon、 Agrawal、Walley、Hecht和Cockburn等人的觀點)。閱讀中你發現了哪些有關公共資源的觀點?這些觀點與「資本主義」社會中私有財產的觀念有何不同?自然資源「所有權」的構想與實踐對各種社會形態的社會階級或階層有何影響?換言之,在各種自然資源的使用和佔有的體制中,究竟誰在獲利,誰又失利?隨著時間推移,不同社會形態中動力學因素的轉變在閱讀材料中如何體現?這些對於使用和「佔有」的不同觀念與環境有何牽連?在閱讀材料的基礎上回答你是否贊同Hardin的推斷,說明理由。

期末問答題

寫兩篇各4-5頁長度的論文。

請在下列三個問題中任選兩個作答:

  1. 1. 環境掙扎亦可反映出人類的科技形態。從該角度出發,思考Adriana Petryna筆下(《暴露下的生活: 切爾諾貝利核電廠災變事件後的生物實驗公民》)1986年切爾諾貝利核電站事故的後果。Petryna認為這起核事故對烏克蘭居民產生了什麼影響?思考如下問題:居民的身份在事故之後是如變更的?為定位事故影響,國家制訂了哪些政策?這些政策究竟是何動機,又產生了怎樣的影響?科學在事故影響的斷定中扮演著怎樣的角色?什麼樣的社會經濟學因素和政治因素在起作用?而烏克蘭居民對於事故的描述又是受到何種外力的影響?Petryna使用「生物身份」這一術語,又有何種含義?

  2. 2. 環境保護論的話題既是學術資源,也是一個政治辯護的動機。雖然課程選擇的大部分書籍具有理論傾向,一些材料則是從更加實際的角度出發,明確地謀求社會改變和環境改變。通過討論《下游生活》《藍色的乙烯基》,思考「辯護」在有關環境的著作中扮演的角色。在論述有害污染物和人類健康聯繫的論據中,你認為哪些最具或最欠說服力?詳細例證。有關環境的著作中,你大體上覺得哪些論據最具說服力?如果你打算動手寫書或拍攝電影,你會使用哪些策略鼓勵別人改進環境?你認為理由成立最重要的因素是什麼?科學的資料、生動的敍述、平實的風格、詳細的資料或是其他?為什麼?(你也可以參考其他相關資料。)

  3. 選擇一個與你有關的環境掙扎並加以分析。思考這種環境衝突與何相關?這種掙扎衝突發生在哪里?涉及哪些人或團體?他們各自有何風險?環境又面臨哪些危機?確保內容詳盡,並參考至少兩本課程涵蓋的資料,以幫助你從理論上理解材料。


 

First Essay Question

3-5 pages

Please answer one of the following two questions.

  1. In this class, we have used the book Nature's Economy by Donald Worster to discuss the ideas of European and American thinkers such as Linneaus, Thoreau and Darwin. Compare and contrast the ideas about nature offered by these scholars/intellectuals locating them in their broader social and historical context. You might want to explore such questions as: How did these thinkers conceptualize nature? In their views, what was the position of humans in relation to nature/other living creatures? What were the relationships of both humans and nature to God? To science? What changes were occurring in their broader social worlds that encouraged them to think in these terms and what influence, in turn, did their ideas have upon others?

  2. In his book, Changes in the Land, William Cronon has explored the very different conceptions of, and uses of, the land/living creatures between Native Americans and English settlers in early New England. Explore these differences. How and why did these groups utilize their natural environments in such different ways? More specifically, how did they conceptualize and make use of land? Of animals? How did they conceive of property and what implications did this have? As settlers became increasingly dominant in New England, what effect did the transformations that settlers brought with them have upon both Native Americans and upon the ecology of New England?

Make sure your essays have clear thesis statements and specific examples to illustrate your points.

Second Essay Question 

5-7 pages

Garett Hardin in his influential 1968 article "The Tragedy of the Commons" theorized that a "commons" approach to natural resources inevitably leads to environmental degradation since it is in the best interest of individuals to overexploit such resources in pursuing their own advantage. Although Hardin focuses on individual actors and upon the possible action of states, he fails to explore societally-based ideas and practices that also affect "communal" natural resource use. Based on the readings from this class (you may utilize, for example, Cronon, Agrawal, Walley and Hecht and Cockburn) consider such social dynamics. What are the range of ideas about communal resources found in the readings? How do such ideas compare with ideas of private property commonly found in "capitalist" societies? How do ideas and practices of "ownership" over natural resources affect the degree of social stratification or hierarchy found within particular societies? In other words, who benefits or loses from various systems of natural resource use and ownership? According to the readings, how have such dynamics shifted over time within particular societies? What are the environmental implications of these differing conceptions of use and "ownership"? Based on the readings, do you agree or disagree with Hardin's assessment? Why or why not?

Final Essay Question

Write two essays of 4-5 pages each in length.

Answer two of the following three choices.

  1. Environmental struggles can also emerge over forms of science and technology created by humans. Consider the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident, described by Adriana Petryna in Life Exposed: Biological Citizens after Chernobyl, in such terms. According to Petryna, what was the impact of this nuclear accident on residents of the Ukraine? Consider questions such as the following: How were the identities of residents re-worked in subsequent years? What kinds of state policies were created to address the impact of the accident? What was the motivation for such policies and their impact? What role did science play in arbitrating the effects of the accident? What were the larger socioeconomic and political factors at work and what impact did these forces have upon how Ukranian residents interpreted the accident? What does the term biological citizenship mean for Petryna?

  2. The topic of environmentalism is both a source of scholarly interest and a cause of political advocacy. Although most of the books for this class have been academic in orientation, some of the materials have taken more activist positions that explicitly seek to generate social and environmental change. Consider the role of advocacy in work about the environment through a discussion of Living Downstream and Blue Vinyl. In these accounts, what kinds of arguments did you find most or least persuasive regarding the linkages between toxic pollutants and health? Give detailed examples. In general, what kinds of arguments do you find persuasive in work about the environment? If you were planning to write a book or make a film intended to create environmental change, what kinds of strategies would you use to motivate others? What would you consider most important in creating such an account - scientific information, an engaging narrative, accessibility, particular kinds of data or something else? Why? (You may mention other materials for the class here if you find it relevant.)

  3. Choose an environmental struggle of your own to analyze. Consider what the environmental conflict is about. Where does the struggle take place? Who are the various parties involved? What is at stake for each of these groups? What is at stake in environmental terms? Make sure that you have lots of specifics and reference at least two of the readings from over the course of the class as a way to help you theoretically approach this material.

 
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