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課堂講稿


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審定:無
翻譯:李宜靜(簡介並寄信)
編輯:侯嘉玨(簡介並寄信)


課程單元 課程描述
01a 我們設計及運算所倚賴的隱喻
Metaphors We Design and Compute By
隱喻是一種強而有力、概念性的工具,能對一個未熟悉、陌生或抽象的經驗及知識領域(就說是運算吧)加以組織及思考,而成為自身熟悉且具體的。我們將用到的隱喻觀點,主要採用自當代認知語言學家喬治.萊考夫所發展出的隱喻理論。我們也將檢視各種不同的隱喻,主要著重在我們在從事運算及設計的思考時,所常使用的無意識隱喻。我們要審視這些隱喻去突顯、強調、強化某些對於運算及設計之想法,同時卻排除了、邊緣化其他想法的方式。這些考量或許可以指引我們在設計裡,看待運算的新觀點及操作運算的新方式。
Metaphor is a powerful, conceptual device for structuring and thinking about an unfamiliar, new, or abstract domain of experience or knowledge (say, computation) in terms of another domain that is more familiar or concrete. The view of metaphor that we will work from is taken from the contemporary theory of metaphor developed by George Lakoff and others. We will examine the different, mostly unconscious metaphors that we use in thinking about and doing computation and design. We will look at the ways these metaphors highlight, emphasize, and enable some ways of thinking about computation and design, while disabling or marginalizing others. These reflections may point us to new ways of seeing and doing computation in design.
01b 我們設計及運算所倚賴的隱喻(續)
Metaphors We Design and Compute By (cont.)
[回顧] 這堂課我們將進行分組,而每一組要討論學生們在各自的提案構想中,為組織他們對設計及運算的想法,所使用的各種隱喻。
[Review] The class was divided in teams and each one worked on the metaphors that the students used in their Statement of Purpose to structure their thinking about design and computation.
02a 無聲的遊戲
Silent Game
演講來賓: William Porter
Guest Speaker: William Porter

在體驗無聲的遊戲裡,我們的目的是提供一個舞台,這個舞台可以用來直接且集體地體驗某些從設計與解讀基本人工產品中,浮現之溝通上的弔詭現象。無聲的遊戲提供了對事物的意義如何被嵌進記憶、被傳播的探索,並揭露了在一個人工產品的建構者與讀者之間的溝通議題。無聲的遊戲提供一個塑造、體驗這些現象,並目擊他們互動的機會,進而啟發創作與辨識的技巧。
In playing out the Silent Game, our intention is to provide a stage for experiencing directly and collectively some of the communication paradoxes that emerge from the design and reading of simple artifacts. The silent game allows exploration of how meaning gets embedded in, and conveyed through, form, and reveals issues of communication between builders and readers of an artifact. The Silent Game provides an opportunity to model some of these phenomena, play them out, and witness their interactions, thereby enlightening the mechanics of creation and recognition.
02b 無聲的遊戲(續)
Silent Game (cont.)
演講來賓: William Porter
Guest Speaker: William Porter

講評來賓: Edith Ackermann
Guest Critic: Edith Ackermann

[回顧]在體驗無聲遊戲的課程與閱讀完Habraken《概念設計電腦遊戲─第二冊》之後,同學們必須有系統地闡述一個的議題,這個議題在同學們心裡必須是於無聲遊戲中,尚未被清晰揭露的,而同學們想要藉由對電腦遊戲之精巧的變化以探索之議題。這個議題可以與特定策略或設計意圖的確認、信賴的開發、角色設定的差異以及設計風格等,有所關聯。
[Review] After playing the Silent Game in class and after reading Habraken's Concept Design Games, Book Two, students were to formulate an issue that, in their minds, was not clearly revealed in the Silent Game, an issue that they wanted to explore through some ingenious variation of the game. The issue could be related to areas such as confirmation of specific moves or of design intent, development of trust, differentiation of roles, design styles, etc.
03a 設計,規則,認知
Design, Rules, and Cognition
講評來賓: Takehiko Nagakura
Guest Speaker: Takehiko Nagakura

在這堂課裡,課程進入了更著重運算的階段。這個階段,閱讀與口頭報告的方式將至少分成兩個層次:一個是「(相)對應」的層次,另一個是「技術上或方法上」的層次-甚至更多是介於這兩者之間的層次。在反思自身的層次上,將著重於設計裡環繞在某個特定運算方式上的非正式假設與論述。
With this module, the course enters a more computation-focused part. The approach to readings and presentations from this part and on will be on at least two levels - one "reflexive", the other "technical or methodological" - with lots of room for levels in-between. At the reflexive level, the focus will be on the informal assumptions and discourses surrounding a particular computational approach in design.其目標將會發展出對「隱喻」的批判性的體認-一種被用以架構,明白或暗示的,對設計的思考之特定手法。在技術的層次上,則將著重於演算法裡特定的、多數為正式的、方法、和對運算進路的應用,及其有效性與極限。對於某些方法,這種技術層次也將延伸到一個更理論性的層次。
The objective will be to develop a critical awareness of the metaphors that a particular approach uses to frame, explicitly or implicitly, thinking about design. At the technical level, the focus will be on the specific, mostly formal, techniques, methods, and applications of a computational approach, and the effectiveness and limitations of the approach. The technical level might also extend to a more "theoretical" level for some approaches.
03b 設計,規則,認知 (續)
Design, Rules, and Cognition (cont.)
講評來賓: Takehiko Nagakura
Guest Speaker: Takehiko Nagakura

[回顧]開放式實驗。本班分成設計師跟使用者。設計師要根據某件建築製圖,準備一套不同形狀跟組合這些形狀的規則;使用者運用這套形狀組合規則來解決某個設計問題。透過這個實驗,這個班級不僅檢視了規則在表述設計知識時所扮演的作用,也檢視了規則本身如何被以不同方式編碼,來體現這些知識。
[Review] Open Experiment. The class was divided into designers and players. The designers prepared a set of shapes and assembled rules from an architectural drawing. The players used the set to solve a design problem. Through this experiment, the class examined the roles rules can play in representation of design knowledge as well as different ways rules themselves are encoded to embody such knowledge.
03c 設計,實務,教育,文法
Design, Practice, Education, Grammars
演講者:Terry Knight教授
Speaker: Terry Knight

什麼是實務工作者進退兩難的困境,而這個困境的源頭是什麼?
What is the dilemma of the practitioner and what are its sources?

什麼樣實務上問題的特質會使問題本身無法以技巧上合理的手法解決?
What are the special attributes of problems in practice that make them non-amenable to the techniques of technical rationality?

解決問題會與設定或形成問題互相抗衡指的是什麼?
What is problem-solving versus problem setting or problem framing?

透過閱讀 Donald Schön 的著作《教育(相)對應的實務工作者》與 Terry Knight 的文章《教育與實務裡的形狀文法:沿革及遠景》,這是一些這堂課會探索的問題。
These are some of the questions that this module explored, through the reading of Donald Schön's book Educating the Reflective Practitioner and Terry Knight's "Shape Grammars in Education and Practice: History and Prospects" paper.
04 演化式計算:尖牙利爪下競爭之演算法
Evolutionary Computation: Algorithms Red in Tooth and Claw
講評來賓: Simon Greenwold
Guest speaker: Simon Greenwold

這堂課探索了演化式計算的影響力,基因程式設計與軟體代理人在建築設計上的探索。
This module explored the impact of evolutionary computation, genetic programming and software agents on architectural design exploration.
05a 視覺化計算
Visual Calculating
講評來賓: George Stiny
Guest Speaker: George Stiny

這堂課─視覺化計算─延伸本班現在所熟悉的幾個主題,作為設計中重要的因素:有隱喻、構成、行動中的對應等等。這些都與以我們所知、或隨手可取的知識去看待事物的新(或不同)方法有關。在這堂課裡,這些主題在一種非常特定的演算脈絡中,被以形態規則的方式被重新省視。
The module Visual Calculating continues themes that the class is now familiar with - metaphor, framing, reflection-in-action, etc. as essential aspects of design. All are about new and different ways of looking at things in terms of what we already know or have at hand. In this module, these themes are revisited in a very specific computational context, that of shape grammars.
05b 視覺化計算(續)
Visual Calculating (cont.)
講評來賓: George Stiny
Guest Speaker: George Stiny

特映: 戰爭人生 (台譯);戰影浮聲(港譯)-用戰爭來比喻人生 導演:Godfrey Reggio 配樂:Philp Glass
Special Feature: Naqoyqatsi / Life as War, by Godfrey Reggio. Score by Philp Glass.
06a 數位組造
Digital Fabricating
講評來賓: Larry Sass
Guest Speaker: Larry Sass

在這堂課裡,Larry Sass將會探索面對數位組造設計的議題。運算的理論從一九八0年代早期開始被實踐,但大部分,即使不是全部地,還未在建築領域被應用。雖然建築師們使用電腦,但電腦只以繪製2D平面圖或提供組建參考的3D模型圖來為建築師表現構想。而問題在於:電腦能以其提供作為金融工業使用的方式,來為建築專業服務嗎?電腦能被不只是作為一件表現工具的設備嗎?我相信數位的組建設備是構思、任何尺度的建築與電腦之間關係的開始。這種表現的新概念如何提供建築專業使用?而什麼電腦上的方法將可以提供這三者之間關係的最佳協助?
In this module, Larry Sass will explore issues facing digital fabrication and design: Theories of computation have been in practice since the early 1980s, but most, if not all, have yet to make their way into an architectural office. Although architects use computers, computers serve to represent ideas as images in two dimensions or final models for fabrication in three dimensions. The question is: can computation serve the profession of architecture in the way that computation has served monetary industries? Can computers be used as a device that is more than a tool of representation? I believe that digital fabrication devices are the beginning of the relationship between ideas, building at any scale, and computation. How can this new concept of representation serve the profession, and what computational methods will best support the relationship between the three?
06b 數位組造(續)
Digital Fabricating (cont.)
講評來賓: Larry Sass
Guest Speaker: Larry Sass

延續在06a講座上介紹主題的討論。
Continued discussion of themes introduced in Lecture 06a.
07a 設計工具的使用
Design Tooling
講評來賓: Stelios Dritsas, Axel Kilian, Yanni Loukissas
Guest Speakers: Stelios Dritsas, Axel Kilian, Yanni Loukissas

設計工具使用網絡是,一個針對設計者使用運算於設計的知識寶庫。它想要為設計研究和教育的領域的人們,扮演一個深入技術及概念上的議題的起點。這個寶庫的目標是發展一套包括理論、概念、方法、語言和目前可行平台的不同空間尺度之地圖。
The design tooling web is a repository of knowledge about computation for designers. It is intended to act as an entry point into both technical and conceptual issues for people in design research and education. The goal of this repository is to develop a map of the heterogeneous terrain of theories, concepts, methods, languages and platforms currently available.
07b 設計工具的使用(續)
Design Tooling (cont.)
講評來賓: Stelios Dritsas, Axel Kilian, Yanni Loukissas
Guest Speakers: Stelios Dritsas, Axel Kilian, Yanni Loukissas

延續在07a講座上介紹主題的討論。
Continued discussion of themes introduced in Lecture 07a.
08 你自己的設計隱喻
Your Design Metaphor
經過這個學期,我們介紹了一系列的有關運算與設計的不同方法。每個用在概念設計上的方法,都有著一些含蓄的、不言明的、有時是效果富有力量的隱喻。同學們現在將被要求在設計上、或更特定的在運算式設計上,對應自身所用的隱喻。
A variey of different approaches to computation and design were introduced throughout the semester. Each came with overt or implicit, sometimes very powerful, metaphors for conceptualizing design. Students are asked now to reflect on their own metaphor for design, or more specifically for computational design.