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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

翻譯:江式鴻(簡介並寄信)
編輯:侯嘉玨(簡介並寄信)


此為研究所建築學程之第二學期所提出的建築結構課程。主題內容之進行將從4.462所說明之材料開始,透過載重追蹤、所有結構行為、各種材料之性質與設計潛能,以及上部結構與外部圍封兩者之關係,來探討結構系統的設計與分析。

將特別強調對於上部結構與外部圍封兩主要建築系統間之關係。此外,本課程將經由對每個組件其內在之性能要求與設計潛能的審視,來檢查此兩系統的必要集合過程。焦點將放在對服務於每一系統之元件其使用規格與設計之科技,以及影響那些元件外形和最終形態之要素其實作知識的完整瞭解。相關之科技複雜性的評鑑,應能帶動探查兩系統整合機會之高水平能力的發展。建築物科技之分析方法與建築設計之綜合過程間關係的整合模式,可能導引一有較高超創造力的設計程序。

本學期的安排分為五個段落,而每三個禮拜為一段落;其中兩個段落為結構講稿(S1及S3),另兩個段落則專注於外部圍封及進階營建方法(C2及C4)。最後三星期之統合將致力於期末計畫報告的設計及說明文件,而該期末計畫報告係以上部結構與外部圍封此兩系統間之整合的實作機會為目標。該期末計畫報告將由Ⅱ級研究室之計畫的設計關頭推衍而出。

作業將是問題集、小型計畫案(在課堂或其他方面)、參與和閱讀,以及期末計畫報告之構想與發展的組合。它將與Ⅱ級研究室密切協調配合。


引言

「我們所創造之結構的抵抗長處係依據其形態;它是經由其形態來穩定,而非因為材料的不適當積累。沒有比此更崇高與雅緻的聰明觀點:透過形態來抵抗。」—艾拉迪歐•迪斯特,烏拉圭籍工程師。

主題

科學的: 結構形態相對幾何形態。
虎克•羅伯特,《拱頂依懸鍊而立》,西元1675年。

社會的: 透過工程永續設計。
設計目標:經濟、材料有效使用、形態優雅。

象徵的: 以預先無法想到的形態來創造新藝術。
評估與批判結構的能力。



評估結構之詢問

  • 支配載重為何?
  • 形態是否已反映支配載重?
  • 結構形態是否已明確? 亦即,力量之傳導是否明顯?
  • 材料是否已有效使用?
  • 營建是否是經濟的?
  • 形態是否優雅?有何改進之處?


家庭作業

將有五個家庭作業,其權重如下:

結構(3個)...........................30%
圍封(1個)..............................15%
營建程序(1個).......15%



期末計畫報告

每一位學生將提出由被認可之設計關頭所產生的期末計畫報告(很可能來自Ⅱ級研究室)。

期末計畫報告將呈現:

  • 上部結構與圍封間關係的明確理解
  • 結構形態與設計的知識
  • 連結細部的清楚顯示
  • 各種材料使用的正當理由
  • 相關之營建程序的瞭解
  • 圍封性能的評估


教科書

必讀:

Daniels, K. 《低科技,輕科技,高科技:資訊時代之建築》,Birkhauser, 2000.

Schodek, D. L. 《結構》 第四版,Prentice-Hall, 2000.

建議閱讀:

<容許應力設計>見《AISC鋼結構手冊》。


課程評分

家庭作業..............60%
期末計畫報告................................40%


出席方針

出席是必要的,同時對於任何同學有三次缺席或以上,則期末評分將自動地降低。



This is the second course addressing architectural structures in the graduate architecture program. The subject matter will progress from the material presented in 4.462 by investigating the design and analysis of structural systems through load tracing, holistic structural behavior, the properties and design potentials of various materials, and the relationship between the superstructure and the exterior envelope.

A particular emphasis will be the relationship between two primary building systems; the superstructure and the exterior envelope. In addition, the course will examine the processes necessary for the assembly of these two systems through an examination of the performance requirements for each and the design potential inherent in their components. The focus will be on a solid understanding of the techniques employed in the specification and design of elements that serve each system, as well as a working knowledge of the factors that influence the configuration of those elements and the resulting morphologies. An appreciation of the technical complexity involved should lead to the development of a high level of competence to be employed in the search for opportunities to integrate the two systems. It is in this integrative mode that the relationship between the analytical methods of building technologies and the synthetic process of architectural design may lead to a deeper creative design process.

The semester is organized into 5 periods of three weeks each; two periods of structural lectures (S1 and S3) and two periods dedicated to the exterior envelope and advanced construction methods (C2 and C4). The final three weeks (Integration) will be devoted to the design and documentation of a final project that aims to put into practice opportunities of integration between these two systems. This final project will be derived of a design moment resulting from the Level II studio project.

Assignments will be a combination of problem sets, smaller projects (in class and otherwise), participation and readings as well as the formulation and development of the final project. There will be close coordination with the Level II studios.


Quote

"The resistant virtues of the structures that we make depend on their form; it is through their form that they are stable and not because of an awkward accumulation of materials. There is nothing more noble and elegant from an intellectual viewpoint than this: resistance through form." -Eladio Dieste, Uruguayan Engineer.

Themes

Scientific: Structural forms versus geometrical forms.
Hooke, Robert. As Hangs the Chain, So Stands the Arch. 1675.

Social: Sustainable design through engineering.
Design goals: Economy, efficient use of materials, elegance in form.

Symbolic: Creation of a new art with previously unimagined forms.
Ability to evaluate and criticize structures.



Questions for Evaluating a Structure

  • What are the dominant loads?
  • Does the form reflect the dominant loading?
  • Is it a clear structural form? i.e., is the flow of forces obvious?
  • Is it an efficient use of materials?
  • Is it economical to construct?
  • Is it an elegant form? What could be improved?


Homework Assignments

There will be five homework assignments weighted as follows:

Structures (3 HWs)...........................30%
Envelope (1 HW)..............................15%
Construction Processes (1 HW).......15%



Final Project

Each student will produce a final project resulting from an approved design moment (most likely from a Level II studio).

The final project will present:

  • a clear understanding of the relationship between superstructure and envelope
  • a knowledge of structural form and design
  • a clear demonstration of connection details
  • justification for the various materials employed
  • understanding of the construction processes involved
  • an appraisal of the envelope performance


Textbooks

Required:

Daniels, K. Low Tech, Light Tech, High Tech: Building in the Information Age. Birkhauser, 2000.

Schodek, D. L. Structures. 4th ed. Prentice-Hall, 2000.

Recommended:

"Allowable Stress Design." AISC Manual of Steel Construction.


Course Grading

Homework Assignments..............60%
Final Project................................40%


Attendance Policy

Attendance is mandatory and the final grade will be lowered automatically for any student with three absences or more.


 
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