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專題


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:章彤輝(簡介並寄信)
翻譯:游佩芬(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)

我們建議使用微軟的Powerpoint® 軟體瀏覽本課程的.pps檔案。免費的微軟Powerpoint®瀏覽軟體亦可用於瀏覽.pps檔案。
Microsoft® Powerpoint® software is recommended for viewing the .pps files found on this course site. Free Microsoft® Powerpoint® viewer software can also be used to view the .pps files.

學生體驗
THE STUDENT EXPERIENCE

本節的目的以實例示範在這個學期中課程的展現並包含以下的例子:專題與寫作作業、幫助學生展開研究過程的補充教材、寫作作業及報告的回覆以及期終報告實例
This section aims to illustrate how the course unfolds throughout the semester and includes examples of the following: project and writing assignments, materials designed to help students get started with their research process, feedback documents on student writing assignments and presentations, and an actual student final paper.

概論:學生專題的開始
INTRODUCTION: Launching into the Student Projects "Hit the ground, running..."

在本課程的一開始,從所給予的專題目錄中﹐學生將被要求選出部分他們感興趣的題目。為了於每學期有多變化的題目,Lessard博士考量學生最初的興趣而後訂定專題作業。
At the beginning of the course, students are presented with a list of projects and are asked to choose a subset of those that interest them from the list. In order to have a diverse set of projects per term, Dr. Lessard makes the final project assignments based on initial student interest.

Lessard博士:以往,一般學生會以他們最初選擇的專題,包括隨意選擇的題目- 不論為嚐試新的或盡可能規避特別的題目,或者選擇從事他們所熟悉的題目。
Dr. Lessard: In the past, criteria students have used to make their initial project selections included random selection, a desire to try something new or desire to avoid, at all costs, a specific topic, or to work on something they are familiar with.

學生們兩人一組從事專題研究,於課程中分擔實驗工作與責任以培養群體研究的合作精神。流程圖將於選定專題時發下,大致描述專題如何隨著學期進度而開展。
Students work in groups of two on a selected project to foster the spirit of collaboration in the group investigative effort while sharing laboratory work and responsibilities with others in the class. While choosing project assignments, a flowchart is provided as a general description of how the project may unfold as the semester progresses.

Lessard博士: 本課程的豐富性及獨特性的一部分在於許多學生將發現他們的題目將會演變的與最初所預測極為不同。
Dr. Lessard: Part of the richness and uniqueness of this course is that many students will find that their project will evolve quite differently than what was originally projected.

隨著實驗工作進行,學生必須閱讀藉由查詢網路上各種不同的科學及醫學圖書館文獻資源所得的論文以熟悉他們的研究領域。教師為每位學生最初的文獻蒐集準備一份專有名詞建議單,以提供每個選定的題目一份參考架構。
Alongside laboratory work, students are required to gain a command of their research area by reading journal articles found from literature searches using the vast array of scientific and medical library resources on the web. To provide a frame of reference for a selected topic, the teaching staff prepares a suggested list of terms for each student's initial literature search effort.

Lessard博士:許多學生對展開一個新的研究專題並無經驗,我們提供每一組一份用於文獻查詢的建議關鍵字以幫助學生入門。
Dr. Lessard: Given that most students have no prior experience to overcome the activation energy of getting started on a new research project, we provide each group with suggested keywords to use in their literature searches, as a way to get their foot in the door.

每組學生分別與教師面談以學習相關的動手操作的實驗詳細過程以及其專題的整個使命和重要性。於此,學生討論並計劃策略並找出他們對於專題中特殊問題的解答。
Each group meets individually with the teaching staff in order to learn the relevant hands-on laboratory details involved as well as the overall mission and significance of their project. During this session, students also discuss and plan a strategy and have their specific questions about the project answered.

對於尚未與教師面談的學生,我們會提供一份實驗室應做事項以幫助他們開展實驗工作。
Student groups who are waiting for their individual session with the teaching staff are provided with a lab TO DO list that helps them get started with their laboratory work.

Lessard博士:這個大約要半小時的面談結果是要讓學生於追求他們的研究目標時覺得輕鬆。實驗室應做事項是另一個初始導引以幫助學生開始他們的專題。舉例來說,它列出學生為第一次準備真正實驗該培養哪些菌株,該配製哪些試劑。一但與教師面談後學生將明白菌株及試劑的作用。這學期剩餘的大部分實驗工作進行是隨各組學生進展速度而設定。
Dr. Lessard: The outcome of this meeting which takes about half an hour or so is that the students should feel comfortable in pursuing their research goals. The lab TO DO list is another jumpstart suggestions guide to help students get started with their projects. For example, this list would tell students which strains they need to culture and which reagents they need to prepare in anticipation of the first actual experiments. The purpose of the strains and reagents will be clear once they have had this meeting with the teaching staff. The bulk of the laboratory work for the rest of the semester is set by each student group's pace.

隨著學期進行: 實驗與溝通『設定進度…』
AS THE SEMESTER PROGRESSES: Laboratory and Communication "Setting the pace..."

雖然學生大部分的時間花在實驗工作上,在整個學期中他們亦參與及發展溝通技巧。
Although a greater part of the student's time is spent in the laboratory, students also practice and develop their communications skills throughout the semester.

口頭溝通
ORAL COMMUNICATION

在這個學期的初期,會舉辦一個口頭報告的工作坊。學生需對他們論文研討課程中所做的文獻搜尋提出一份評論報告。
Early on in the term, a workshop is given on how to give Oral Presentations. Students are asked to present a review of articles extracted from their literature searches in a journal club forum with the class.

學期近尾聲時,每一組學生對班上提出他們的進度報告描述研究目標、資料以及目前對實驗資料的解釋。
Towards the end of the term, each student group gives a progress report presentation describing the goals of their research, data, and current interpretations of the data to the class.

關於如何改進演說技巧,在每次口頭報告後教師會給予清楚而個人化的回覆。
After each oral presentation, the teaching staff provides explicit and personalized feedback to each student as to how they can improve their speaking skills.

寫作
WRITING

Melvold博士在學期開始會單獨指導科學論文的構成。三個寫作作業於學期中指定,其重點關注於科學研究論文每個特殊段落的格式及內容。這些段落包含介紹、材料及方法、結果與討論等段落。
Dr. Melvold gives a tutorial on the components of the scientific paper, also early on in the term. The three interim writing assignments that are given thereafter and throughout the term, focus on the style and content of each specific section of a scientific research paper. They include the Introduction, Materials & Methods, Results, and Discussion sections.

在學生繳交作業後,Lessard與Melvold博士會舉辦一個寫作工作坊以學生作業為實例說明常見的主題以及學生寫作時會碰到的問題。
After students hand in their writing assignments, Dr. Lessard and Dr. Melvold conduct a writing workshop using student samples to illustrate common themes and issues that students struggle with in their writing.

Lessard博士: 我們會針對每個學生提出深入及個人化的建議。而於寫作工作坊中我們會著墨於多數學生在論文中碰到的常見問題。
Dr. Lessard: We make extensive, individualized comments on each student's paper for their specific benefit. Then, in the writing workshop, we address some of the more common problems that many students encounter in their papers.

如何閱覽寫作工作坊教材範例:寫作工作坊教材是一份互動式的PowerPoint顯示文件副檔名為.pps。
Instructions for Viewing the Writing Workshop Material: The writing workshop material is an interactive PowerPoint show document with a *.pps file extension.

  • 如果你有微軟的PowerPoint®軟體:點擊兩次檔案連結以於瀏覽器中啟動軟體。使用左右箭頭鍵或滑鼠左鍵閱覽資料。將檔案儲存於你的電腦再開啟瀏覽更好。
    If you have Microsoft® PowerPoint®: double click on the file link to launch the presentation into a slide show view in your web browser. Use the right and left arrow keys or left-mouse click to walk through the presentation. For best results, save this file to the local computer and open using PowerPoint.
  • 如果你沒有微軟的PowerPoint®軟體:到這個連結下載PC或麥金塔免費的PowerPoint®瀏覽軟體。
    If you Don't have Microsoft® PowerPoint®: Go here for links where you can download a free PowerPoint viewer for your PC or MAC.
  • 非互動式的寫作工作坊教材版本亦可以PDF檔方式閱覽。
    The non-interactive version of the Writing Workshop Material may also be viewed as a PDF file.
    (英文PDF)、 (繁體PDF)、 (簡體PDF)、 (英文PPT)、 (繁體PPT)、 (簡體PPT)

期末報告
FINAL PAPERS

期末報告是學生於這學期中課程內的三次寫作作業的最高潮。因為他們的專題會有相當的演變,我們期望學生於整理他們的期末報告時對於初期的寫作成品做大幅度的修正。這些修正需符合發表於國際科學期刊的格式。
The final paper is the culmination of the three writing assignments students have worked on over the course of the semester. Since their projects will have evolved quite a bit, major revisions of the initial written work are to be expected as students tailor their final paper. These are expected to be in a format suitable for publication in international scientific journals.

Lessard博士:這項工作並非是將三個寫作作業剪貼成期終報告那麼簡單。 通常研究進展的焦點與實驗會隨著過程而改變。舉例來說,一些學生會在學期結束前放棄他們最初所寫的介紹而重新寫一份。
Dr. Lessard: It's not as simple as a cut and paste of the three writing assignments into the final paper. Often the focus or experiments change over the course of the research process. For example, some students throw out their initial introductions and write entirely new ones by the time the semester ends.

Microsoft® and PowerPoint®是微軟企業在美國或其他國家所註冊之商標
Microsoft® and PowerPoint® are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.


 
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