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審定:無
翻譯:黃秀惠(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)

下面是這門課程的一個範例試題。每個問題要求約1-3頁的充分回答。
Below is an example exam for this course. Each question requires approximately 1-3 pages to answer it sufficiently.


範例試題︰ 充分理解問題
Example Exam: Take-Home Problems

  1. 比較Lorenz的學習觀點,或者,如果你也可以比較他的一部分學習觀點與一個行為學家如B.F.Skinner或者M.E.Bitterman的學習觀點。 把這些觀點的差別及其顯現的思想學派聯繫起來。一名社會生物學家會怎樣回應這兩種不同的觀點?
    Compare Lorenz's view of learning, or, if you prefer, one part of his view of learning, with that of a behaviorist such as B. F. Skinner or M. E. Bitterman. Relate the differences in these views to the schools of thought from which they emerged. How would a "sociobiologist" react to these two different views?

  2. 比較黑猩猩和大猩猩的進食及覓食的行為。討論其相似和差別,又他們如何怎影響每個物種的適應性,特別是當人類侵入牠們的棲息地時。包含此類的主題如吃的食物種類,與地盤有關的食物利用,分享食物及學習。
    Consider the feeding and foraging behavior of chimpanzees and mountain gorillas. Discuss the similarities and differences, and how they affect the adaptiveness of each species, particularly in view of human encroachment into their habitats. Include such topics as types of food eaten, foods used in relation to territoriality, sharing of food, and learning.

  3. 比較一些不同物種躲避掠食者的策略︰ 老鼠,草原犬鼠,地松鼠,海島貓鼬,岩羚或其他羚羊或鹿和草原猴。 討論至少4 個不同的物種,每個物種不同行為可能演化的方法和原理。
    Compare the anti-predator strategies of several different species: rat, prairie dog, ground squirrel, meerkat, gazelle or other antelope or deer, and vervet monkey. Discuss, for at least four different species, how and why the different behaviors for each species might have evolved.

  4. 選兩個有親緣關係的物種,一物種展現出同種異形,另一個則無(例如,知更鳥和冠藍鴉)。 比較兩個物種形態上和行為上的差異,並討論性別上同種二形的特性可能演化的方法和原理。解釋此類特性的利與弊。解釋這兩個物種如何適應性別上同種二形性的普遍理論和它演化的原因。
    Pick two related species, one which exhibits sexual dimorphism and one which does not (e.g., robins and blue jays). Compare the physical and behavioral differences of the two species, and discuss how and why the sexually dimorphic characteristics might have evolved. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of such characteristics. Explain how these two species fit into a general theory of sexual dimorphism and why it has evolved.

  5. 比較和對比老鼠和倉鼠的社會性行為。包含每個物種怎樣使用牠的生存空間。討論這兩個物種的差異性可能影響在實驗室裡將要或者應該如何安置牠們的方法。
    Compare and contrast the social behaviors of rats and hamsters. Include how each species uses its living space. Discuss how the differences in these two species might affect the way one would, or should, house them in a laboratory setting.

  6. 在動物行為研究過程中以不同的方式使用「領域」這個術語。討論不同類型的領域,遍及不同的物種也包含單一物種,至少使用一些特殊的例子。
    The term "territory" is used in several different ways in studies of animal behavior. Discuss the different types of territory, across different species and also within a single species, using at least a few specific examples.

  7. 在行為模式演化的討論過程中,「解放」意味著什麼? 引用一些具體的例子。原先的行為模式如何能改變?注意到這個概念與人類行為學的關聯性。
    In discussions of the evolution of behavior patterns, what is meant by "emancipation"? Cite some specific examples. How can the original behavior pattern change? Note the relevance of this concept to human ethology.

  8. 什麼涉及野生動物的「馴化」?為什麼有些物種比其它物種容易馴服?馴化和馴養之間有什麼差別?
    What is involved in the "taming" of a wild animal? Why are some species easier to tame than others? What is the difference between taming and domestication?

  9. 討論可以動物行為學方法有效地分析人類行為方面的一個主題,但是到目前為止已經幾乎不以這種方法研究了。 其他靈長類的研究如何在理解這個主題的過程中派上用場?
    Discuss one topic in human behavior that may be usefully analyzed with an ethological approach, but which thus far has been little studied in this way. How would studies of other primates be useful in the understanding of this topic?

  10. 「空曠地帶」活動試驗經常被使用在行為藥物學方面和在大腦與行為的研究過程中。討論這些你所選擇的兩個不同物種試驗中使用「空曠地帶」圈地可能有的不同涵義。
    The "open field" activity test is frequently used in behavioral pharmacology as well as in studies of brain and behavior. Discuss the different meanings the "open field" enclosure used in these tests may have for two different species of your choice.



 
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