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燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:黃秀惠(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)


前提︰ 9.20或者相等

為研究生所設計的大腦與認知科學的概論和專題。強調在自然行為模式上及實驗室工作分析方面的動物行為研究, 加上野生生物學(哺乳動物學,靈長類動物學),社會生物學及比較心理學的貢獻。著重哺乳動物行為但也包括來自其他脊椎動物和無脊椎動物研究的主要貢獻。涵蓋對神經心理學與行為藥物學的動物行為知識的一些應用。


介紹

下面是第一學期的概要。 請做如下內容︰

  • 檢視書目︰ 有多少作者/書你已讀過/看過/聽過? 你想補充哪些你擁有或已讀過的書?
  • 檢視議題列表:我們將沒有時間處理所有這些議題;我們怎樣運用我們的時間將取決于學生和教師兩方面的興趣。 歡迎增加或其它的建議。
  • 讀下面的概要,關於今天和第二學期的討論。

A 我們如何獲悉動物和牠們的行為?

  1. 寵物。
  2. 民間傳說。 (來自學生的例子?中世紀的動物寓言集。例子:R . Hendrikson,《比人狡猾︰老鼠和人的社會歷史》,Dorset出版社,紐約,1983.)
  3. 以人為取向的研究和慣例︰大多為動物的用途。 (經濟學和肉品工業;娛樂;狩獵;一些宗教。)
  4. 參見學科︰大部分也使用﹗ (生物學;比較心理學;藥物學;毒理學;神經科學)
  5. 人道社會; 「動物權利」運動︰ 以人為取向的不同切入角度。 擬人說的識別和感覺(「人類中心說」,「人類情感說」)。 考慮人和其他動物的明顯(主觀地評價)意識。
  6. 不同宗教的對比態度。猶太教/基督教和耆那教的極端。 (其他例子?)
  7. 可認為較佳者︰基礎科學方法 --以演化的觀點分析描述性和實驗性兩方面。

B 議題列表 (講義)

  1. 基本原理。
  2. 不同背景的對待? (詢問各自背景)
  3. 需要的時間﹗
  4. 專題討論會水準對大學生概論水準。

C 讀物

  1. 選擇讀物的書目(講義)︰ 注意相對重要性。
  2. 頁數? 大約估計 10-20頁/小時 × 9小時= 90-180頁/一週。
  3. 方法︰閱讀基本概念及實際例子的說明。 (我願意花錢找人說動物故事﹗)
  4. (故事︰我們怎樣因倉鼠基因而付款給M. Murphy)
  5. 下一個學期的作業︰選自K .Lorenz《動物行為學的基礎》,頁數:1-12 , 28-32 , 46-64 , ( 72-89 ) , 89-93 , ( 93-99 ) , 100-103 , 107-152。參見他的故事(額外的學分)︰《所羅門王的指環》,《Greylag 鵝的這一年》。 參見N. Tinbergen的《好奇的博物學家》。

D 學期計畫

  1. (要求)讀物的基本概念的授課/討論。
  2. 學生論文的報告或小的主題領域。 (現在︰你告訴我你所知道關於動物的一切和你如何學習)

E 要求

  1. 閱讀和簡短的報告。
  2. 研究論文和期末報告。 (與教授討論你選擇的題目.)
  3. 上學期︰讀「一隻敘利亞倉鼠生命中的四小時」的故事,且評論。

F. 動物行為研究的方法

1. 集中於個別的生物

a 「比較心理學」在美國︰ 真正的重點在人。 注意非生物學的比較,「同源」,「種系發生的規模」。
b 「動物行為學」; 一些人現在更喜歡用「行為生態學」。

  1. K. Lorenz的定義︰參見《動物行為學的基礎》,頁數1 , 3 , 65 , 101
  2. Whitman和Heinroth。 來自Lorenz的故事︰ 頁數100 , 107
  3. 參見查爾斯•達爾文。 他書裡的實例。
  4. Eibl-Eibesfeldt的「人類行為學」(參見K. L., 頁數10-11).「肢體語言」狂熱。
  5. 「神經行為學」 - 兩種層面的方法︰

a) 動物行為學豐富大腦和行為研究。
b) 大腦操作影響 -->行為組織的新訊息。
例子︰侵略的多樣性; 原始對高級行為要素的証據(脊髓/腦幹對前腦的局部化)。

2. 集中于社會

a. 「社會生物學」︰ E.O. Wilson的定義和圖表︰參見《社會生物學》,簡易本,頁數3-5
b. 參見人類社會學。E.O. Wilson的註釋,出處同上,頁數4。

3. 集中于棲息地及其支持的物種,以及相互作用 ("平衡")

a. 「生態學」︰ 例如,熱帶雨林(參見《熱帶自然》,A. Forsyth和K. Miyata著),熱帶莽原,等等。
b. 廣度的問題︰對一切了解太少。因此,人們經常把生態學集中在自然保育上。但是作為一門科學,包括動物行為,生態學有很好的例子︰參見Bourliere的書。
c. 當動物的行為變得關鍵時︰ 「打亂自然的平衡」。例子︰非洲象和刺槐樹。人類的狩獵,污染影響,鼓勵盜獵的娛樂。非洲殺人蜂,等等。

4. 集中于單個物種或者包含生態學和行為學廣泛程度的種群。

a. 「哺乳動物學」。 注意Bourliere的書,一舊,一新。注意內容; 例子。
b. 「靈長類動物學」,「鯨目動物學」,「昆蟲學」,等等。

5. 業餘的「博物學家」︰受過訓練的愛好者的貢獻。 (參見天文學) 細節的積累在關於行為演化概念的發展過程中益發重要。

參考Lorenz關於業餘鳥類學家-鳥類觀察家對早期的動物行為學貢獻的評論。此外,Jim Corbet的故事(《叢林知識》,牛津大學出版社,,1953)︰ 來自一位關心動物的獵人的生活實例。


要求

讀物
動物實驗時間
論文r
口頭報告





Prerequisite: 9.20 or Equivalent.

Survey and special topics designed for graduate students in the brain and cognitive sciences. Emphasizes ethological studies of natural behavior patterns and their analysis in laboratory work, with contributions from field biology (mammology, primatology), sociobiology, and comparative psychology. Stresses mammalian behavior but also includes major contributions from studies of other vertebrates and of invertebrates. Covers some applications of animal-behavior knowledge to neuropsychology and behavioral pharmacology.


Introduction

Below is an outline for the first session. Please do the following:

  • Review the book list: How many of these authors/books have you read/seen/heard of? Which books which you own or have read would you add?
  • Review the topics list. We will not have time to deal with all of these topics; how we use our time will depend on both student and instructor interest. Additional or alternative suggestions are welcome.
  • Read the outline below, for discussion today and in session 2.

A. How have We Learned of Animals and Their Behavior?

  1. Pets.
  2. Folklore. (Examples from students? The medieval beastiaries. Examples from R. Hendrikson, More Cunning Than Man: A Social History of Rats and Men, Dorset Press, N.Y., 1983.)
  3. Human oriented studies and practices: mostly uses of animals. (Economics and meat industry; sports; hunting; some religions.)
  4. Cf. sciences: mostly uses as well! (Biology; comparative psychology; pharmacology; toxicology; neuroscience)
  5. Humane society; "Animal Rights" movement: human oriented in a different way. Anthropomorphism re cognition and feelings ("Anthropomentism", "Anthropaffectism"). Regard for apparent (subjectively assessed) consciousness, in humans and other animals.
  6. Contrasting attitudes in different religions. The extremes of Judaism/Christianity, and Jainism. (Other examples?)
  7. Arguably better: basic science approach -- both descriptive and experimental, and with the perspective of evolution.

B. Topics List (Handout)

  1. Rationale.
  2. Levels of treatment? (Ask re backgrounds.)
  3. Time needed!
  4. Special topics seminar level vs. undergraduate survey level.

C. Readings

  1. List of books for selected readings (handout): Note relative importance.
  2. Amount? approx. 10-20 pp/hr x 9 hr = 90-180 pp/wk.
  3. Approach: Read for key concepts and their illustration in actual examples. (I pay for animal stories!)
  4. (Story: How we paid M. Murphy for hamster genes.)
  5. Assignment for next session: Selections from K. Lorenz, The Foundations of Ethology, pp. 1-12, 28-32, 46-64, (72-89), 89-93, (93-99), 100-103, 107-152. Cf. his stories (extra credit): King Solomon's Ring, The Year of the Greylag Goose. Cf. N. Tinbergen's Curious Naturalists.

D. Session Plan

  1. Lecture/discussion of key concepts in readings (required).
  2. Student presentations of papers or small topic areas. (Today: you tell me what you already know about animals, and how you learned it.)

E. Requirements

  1. The readings and short presentations.
  2. Project paper and presentation at end of term. (Discuss your chosen topic with the Professor.)
  3. For session 1: Read the story: "Four Hours in the Life of a Syrian Hamster," with commentary.

F. Approaches to the Study of Animal Behavior

1. Focus on the Individual Organism

a. "Comparative Psychology" in America: The real focus was/is on man. Notes on non-biological comparisons, "Homologies", "Phylogenetic Scale".
b. "Ethology"; some people now prefer "Behavioral Ecology".

  1. Definition by K. Lorenz: see The Foundations of Ethology, pp. 1, 3, 65, 101.
  2. Whitman and Heinroth. Stories from Lorenz: pp. 100, 107.
  3. Cf. Charles Darwin. Illustrations from his book.
  4. "Human Ethology" of Eibl-Eibesfeldt (see K. L., pp. 10-11). The "Body Language" craze.
  5. "Neuroethology"-- an approach that goes two ways:

a) Ethology informs brain & behavior studies.
b) Brain manipulation effects --> new info. on behavioral organization.
Examples: multiple kinds of aggression; evidence of primitive vs. advanced behavioral elements (spinal/brainstem vs. forebrain localization).

2. Focus on Societies

a. "Sociobiology": E. O. Wilson's definition and diagram: See Sociobiology, The Abridged Edition, pp. 3-5.
b. Cf. Human Sociology. Notes from E. O. Wilson, Ibid., pp. 4.

3. Focus on Habitat and the Species it Supports, and Interactions ("Balance")

a. "Ecology": E.g., Tropical rainforest (see Tropical Nature, by A. Forsyth and K. Miyata ), Tropical savannah, etc.
b. The problem of breadth: Knowing too little about everything. Hence, people often think of ecology as focussed on conservation. But there are good examples of ecology as a science that includes animal behavior: See Bourliere's book.
c. When the behavior of animals becomes critical: "Upsetting the balance of nature." Examples: African elephants and the acacia trees. Man's hunting, pollution effects, pleasures that encourage poaching. "Killer" bees, etc.

4. Focus on Single Species or Groups of Species in a broad way that includes Ecology and Behavior.

a. "Mammology". Note Bourliere's books, one older, one recent. Note contents; examples.
b. "Primatology", "Cetology", "Entymology", etc.

5. The Amateur "Naturalists": The Disciplined Hobbyist's Contributions. (Cf. astronomy.) Details, when amassed, have been important in the development of ideas about behavioral evolution.

See Lorenz's comments about the contributions of amateur ornithologists -- bird watchers -- to early ethology. Also, Jim Corbett's stories (Jungle Lore, Oxford Univ. Press, 1953): Examples from the life of a hunter who cared about animals.


Requirements

Readings
Animal Lab Time
Paper
Presentation




 
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