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燈號說明

審定:丁賢偉(簡介並寄信)
翻譯:莊雅善(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)

以下所列為學習與記憶研究領域額外的參考資料,範圍包括專業領域知識(附連結)與一般性的簡介,其中有許多資料可供個人深入研究,亦可在課堂上進行講授。


認知領域

「美國認知神經科學協會」 致力於研究心智與腦部的發展,著重探討認知的心理學、計算能力與神經科學的基礎層面。

「美國心理學學會」 致力於推廣心理學,希望謀得心理學研究領域、應用層面與教育方面的最大成就,以增進全體人類福祉。

「人類腦圖組織」 提供教育資源交流的管道,讓研究人員彼此可以透過公開研討會探討人類腦圖並交換彼此最新的重大研究成果。

「行為心理學和認知科學聯盟」 由許多成員組織結合而成,其中包括各大學心理學系、教育單位、研究中心、地區性心理學協會和「美國心理學協會」(American Psychological Association,APA)等。

「美國神經成像學會」為國際性專業組織,組織成員來源包括神經科專科醫師、神經外科醫師、神經放射線研究人員、與其它致力於改良神經系統檢測技術的神經科學家。

Interdisciplinary Society of Biological Psychiatry

神經科學領域

「美國神經科學學會」 投身於研究腦部發育、感覺能力、洞察能力、學習與記憶、運動、睡眠、壓力、老化及神經系統方面的精神疾病,並從分子、細胞與基因的層次來探究相關的神經作用過程。

「美國年長者研究協會」致力於研究老化的自然機制,以追求人類積極健康人生的目標。

「國際腦研究組織」成立宗旨在於增進全球腦科學研究資源的流通與利用。

「美國國家衛生組織」 負責管理美國醫學與行為領域研究,該組織由「美國衛生及公共服務部」直接管轄。

「美國國家科學基金會」 的目的在於促進美國與其它國家的科學家和工程師彼此間科學資源的分享。

「國際神經網路學會」 致力於生物神經網絡與人工人神經網絡的相關研究。

「國際運動障礙醫學會」 為國際性專業學會,成員主要包括研究帕金森氏症、神經退化或神經發育的相關疾病、運動機能亢進疾病及肌張力與動作控制的異常情形等的臨床研究醫師、科學家及其它醫護專家。

「神經科學研究院」 為一非營利性研究中心,其進行高風險性的研究工作,目的在於深入探索人腦複雜功能的生物機制。

「美國行為神經內分泌學會」 為一科學學會,目的在於研究行為與神經內分泌功能之間的關連性,並進而對行為神經內分泌學進行更深入地探討。

「美國國家失語症協會」 的成立目的在於宣導大眾了解失語症,並鼓勵相關研究工作,同時更致力於協助病患及其家屬爭取平等對待的權利。

「美國國家神經損傷學會」 提供公開討論的管道以加強研究人員間彼此的溝通,並支援世界各國研究計劃,目的在於增進神經損傷研究領域的進展。

「聽神經瘤協會」 提供相關資訊給一般民眾,並對已診斷出罹患聽神經瘤或其它影響到腦神經的缺陷的病患進行協助。

果蠅研究

「果蠅庫」為果蠅遺傳分子研究資料庫,包括果蠅科的各種果蠅的相關資料,但其中以黑腹果蠅的研究資料為主。

「柏克萊果蠅基因組計劃」的目的在於完整定序黑腹果蠅常染色體上的基因,並進而對這些序列進行分析,以找出相關的基因功能。

「布魯明頓果蠅庫存中心」 收集、保存各類黑腹果蠅並進行分類,以供研究之用。

「果蠅腦部簡圖」 提供使用者各類相關資訊,以建立果蠅神經系統的基本概念。

*註:「超文件」(hypertext)指的是用HTML寫成的文件,即一般常見的網頁。

序列比對程式「BLAST」®是一套序列相似性搜尋程式,主要功能為搜尋所有資料庫,以找出相符合的DNA或蛋白質序列。

貝勒醫學院搜尋引擎 仍在持續開發當中,其主要目的在於將分子生物學相關資訊與網路上各種功能不同的分析服務加以彙整,以建立統一的搜尋系統。

蛋白家族資料庫(Pfam)基於隱馬爾可夫模型,包含蛋白質結構域或蛋白保守區的多重比對資訊,該資料庫提供了蛋白質結構、多重比對、蛋白質結構域構建和物種分布等資訊。

蛋白質結構域資料庫(ProDom) 包含各種蛋白質結構域資料,這些資料會由SWISS-PROT和TrEMBL這兩個序列資料庫自動提供。

瑞士大學生物資訊研究所蛋白質體服務站(ExPASy) (Expert Protein Analysis System)主要目的在於進行蛋白質序列與結構的分析工作。

標準程序

「生物標準技術」(bioprotocol) 中介紹數個優質網站,對生命科學研究者乃至其它生物技術、生物醫學領域的研究者都有莫大的幫助。

「美國國家研究資源中心」支援各類基礎研究,以建構重要資源、模型與技術。

「線上神經科學」 為一具搜尋引擎並對外開放的線上神經科學資源索引,涵蓋神經生物學、神經學、神經外科、精神病學、心理學、認知科學等學門領域中相關的人類神經疾病資料。


解剖學領域

「發育中老鼠的加註組織切片」 提供老鼠發育過程中的詳細圖解,並提供如原位基因表現與細胞譜系等空間結構資料。

「鼠腦立體圖解」(以核磁共振MRI為基礎)提供鼠類胚胎的大腦皮質立體結構,包括此結構的重建過程與整個胚胎的重建過程。

「線上神經解剖學與病理學」 為一術語搜尋引擎,主要提供給醫學生、住院醫生與其它醫護人員使用。

線上參考資料

「人腦」 為美國愛荷華大學所建立的網路虛擬醫院,內容包括人類中樞神經系統自嬰兒期到成年期發育過程中各式各樣的圖片。

「全腦」 為美國哈佛醫學院設立來提供各種腦部疾病自核磁共振MRI到功能性核磁共振fMRI圖片的網站。

計算相關

智力基本上是指結合已知與新知的能力, 「NATO進階學習理論與應用研究院」 主要在於進行學習能力與歸納能力缺陷的相關研究。

「FoCM學習理論工作坊」 成立目的在於逶過研討會支援並推廣計算式數學的相關研究,涉及的領域包括數學、資訊科學與其它計算科學領域等。




The links below are online references for additional resources in the field of learning and memory. These range from professional societies that maintain links to areas that any reader can explore in the field of learning and memory. Many of the linked sites provide resources for further study, as well as downloadable resources that can be used for classroom teaching.


Cognition

The Cognitive Neuroscience Society is committed to the development of mind and brain research aimed at investigating the psychological, computational, and neuroscientific bases of cognition.

The American Psychological Society promotes, protects, and advances the interests of scientifically oriented psychology in research, application, teaching, and the improvement of human welfare.

The Organization for Human Brain Mapping provides an educational forum for the exchange of up-to-the-minute and ground breaking research across modalities exploring Human Brain Mapping.

The Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences is a coalition of Member Organizations, university departments of psychology, schools of education, research centers, regional psychological associations, and science divisions of the American Psychological Association (APA).

The American Society of Neuroimaging is an international, professional organization representing neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists and other neuroscientists who are dedicated to the advancement of techniques used to evaluate the nervous system.

Interdisciplinary Society of Biological Psychiatry

Neuroscience

The Society for Neuroscience addresses the study of brain development, sensation and perception, learning and memory, movement, sleep, stress, aging and neurological and psychiatric disorders. It also includes the molecules, cells and genes responsible for nervous system functioning.

The National Institute on Aging leads a broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of life.

The International Brain Research Organization was founded to enhance the mobilization and utilization of the world's scientific resources for research on the brain.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the United States, governed under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

The National Science Foundation fosters the interchange of scientific information among scientists and engineers in the United States and foreign countries.

The International Neural Network Society promotes the understanding of biological and artificial neural networks.

The Movement Disorder Society is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

The Neurosciences Institute is a not-for-profit research center dedicated to "high risk-high payoff" research designed to discover the biological basis of higher-level brain functions in humans.

The Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology is a scientific society committed to understanding interactions between behavior and neuroendocrine function to advance understanding of behavioral neuroendocrinology.

The National Aphasia Association promotes public education, research, rehabilitation and support services to assist people with aphasia and their families.

The National Neurotrauma Society promotes neurotrauma research by enhancing communications, providing a forum, and increasing support on the national and international level.

The Acoustic Neuroma Association provides information and support to patients who have been diagnosed with or experienced an acoustic neuroma or other benign problem affecting the cranial nerves.

Drosophila

Flybase is a database of genetic and molecular data for Drosophila. FlyBase includes data on all species from the family Drosophilidae; the primary species represented is Drosophila melanogaster.

Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP). The goals of the Drosophila Genome Center are to finish the sequence of the euchromatic genome of Drosophila melanogaster to high quality, and to generate and maintain biological annotations of this sequence.

The Bloomington Fly Stock Center collects, maintains and distributes Drosophila melanogaster strains for research.

The Basic Atlas of the Drosophila Brain provides the user with a hypertext tour guide to the basic structural elements of the Drosophila nervous system.

BLAST® (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) is a set of similarity search programs designed to explore all of the available sequence databases regardless of whether the query is protein or DNA.

The Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Search Launcher is an ongoing project to organize molecular biology-related search and analysis services available on the web by function, by providing a single point-of-entry for related searches.

Pfam is a large collection of multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models covering many common protein families.

Prodom is a comprehensive set of protein domain families automatically generated from the SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL sequence databases.

The ExPASy (Expert Protein Analysis System) proteomics server of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics is dedicated to the analysis of protein sequences and structures.

Protocol

Bioprotocol is a compendium of high quality web links of interest and use to life science researchers and others working in the areas of biotechnology and the biomedical sciences.

The National Center for Research Resources supports primary research to create and develop critical resources, models, and technologies.

Neurosciences on the Net is a searchable and browsable index of online neuroscience resources addressing neurobiology, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, psychology, cognitive science sites and information on human neurological diseases.

Anatomy

Annotated histology sections of developing mouse is a digital atlas of mouse development and a database resource for spatially mapped data such as in situ gene expression and cell lineage.

The 3D Mouse atlas (MRI based) site allows visitors to query cerebral structures of a 13.5 dpc mouse embryo and view 3-D reconstructions of those structures as well as reconstructions of the entire embryo.

Neuroanatomy and pathology on the Internet is a searchable directory compiled for medical students, residents, and other health professionals.

Online References

The Human Brain is an online virtual hospital site hosted by the University of Iowa that provides a stunning array of images of the human central nervous system from infants to adult.

The Whole Brain atlas is a site that is hosted by the Harvard medical school which displays pictures from MRI to fMRI in various disease states.

Computation

Intelligence basically means the ability to perform well on new data after learning a model on the basis of given data. The NATO Advanced Study Institute on Learning Theory and Practice conference promotes the understanding of problems of learning and generalization.

The FoCM Workshop on Learning Theory supports and promotes research on foundations of computational mathematics. It fosters interaction among mathematics, computer science and other areas of computational science through its conferences, workshops and publications.




 
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