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本頁翻譯進度

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審定:無
翻譯:蕭玉雪(簡介並寄信)
編輯:林山源(簡介並寄信)


下面所列的閱讀資料是這門課程的基礎。這奡ㄗ悀@些期刊文章在PubMed(一個提供生物醫學文獻出處的線上資料庫)的摘要。

The readings listed below are the foundation of this course. Where available, journal article abstracts from PubMed (an online database providing access to citations from biomedical literature) are included.

Bayley, P., R. O. Hopkins和 L. R. Squire. 〈內顳葉損傷失憶症病人對遠端自傳式記憶的成功回憶〉,《神經元》38 (2003): 135-144.
Bayley, P., R. O. Hopkins, and L. R. Squire. "Successful Recollection of Remote Autobiographical Memories by Amnesic Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Lesions." Neuron 38 (2003): 135-144.

PubMed摘要:當前關於人類記憶組織的觀點,對內顳葉的損傷後遠端自身記憶的完整性做出了令人訝異的不同預測。我們對記憶受損的、並且具有神經心理和神經解剖資訊的病人的敘述內容做了一個詳細的分析。所有8位病人都能夠回憶起他們早年的生活。病人和25名匹配的對照者的回憶具有相同數量的細節(+/-5%),並且在其他一些測試中具有相似結果。結果支持一種觀點,認為隨著學習後的時間流逝,自傳式記憶變得獨立於內顳葉。其他的一些想法提出,新皮質從根本上支持回憶遠端自傳式記憶的能力。
PubMed abstract: Current views about the organization of human memory make strikingly different predictions about the integrity of remote autobiographical memory following damage to the medial temporal lobe. We have carried out a detailed analysis of narrative content in memory-impaired patients for whom neuropsychological and neuroanatomical information is available. All eight patients were able to recall detailed memories from their early lives. The recollections of the patients and the recollections of 25 matched controls contained the same number of details (+/-5%) and were also similar by several other measures. The results support the view that autobiographical memories eventually become independent of the medial temporal lobe as time passes after learning. A number of other considerations suggest that the neocortex ultimately supports the capacity for recollecting remote autobiographical memory.

Corkin, S. 〈雙側內顳葉切除的持續結果:病人H.M.的臨床歷程和實驗發現〉, Semin Neurol 4 (1984): 249-59.
Corkin, S. "Lasting Consequences of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy: Clinical Course and Experimental Findings in HM." Semin Neurol 4 (1984): 249-59.

Fink, R. Gereon, J. Hans Markowitsch, Mechthild Reinkemeier, Thomas Bruckbauer, Josef Kessler, and Wolf-Dieter Heiss. 〈大腦對一個人的過去的表徵:自傳式記憶所涉及的神經網路〉,《神經科學學報》16 (1996): 4275-4282.
Fink, R. Gereon, J. Hans Markowitsch, Mechthild Reinkemeier, Thomas Bruckbauer, Josef Kessler, and Wolf-Dieter Heiss. "Cerebral Representation of One's Own Past: Neural Networks Involved in Autobiographical Memory." The Journal of Neuroscience 16 (1996): 4275-4282.

PubMed摘要:我們在一些正常的志願者身上研究了情緒性自傳式記憶的功能性解剖。使用氧15的水進行正電子斷層掃描實驗,我們測量了相對的局部腦血流(rCBF)。在三種實驗情境下獲得四個rCBF的測量:靜息,亦即,受試者平躺休息(控制組);非個人,亦即,受試者聆聽一些他們在正子放射斷層攝影(PET)掃描前已經聽過但是不認識的人的事件資訊(非自傳式事件記憶啟動);個人,亦即,受試者聆聽一些包含他們過去資訊的句子(自傳式事件記憶啟動)。比較非個人與靜息狀態下(非自傳式事件記憶啟動),局部腦血流在雙側顳葉,包括顳極,內顳葉和顳上回,都出現相對的升高現象。然而,同樣的位置在比較個人與靜息狀態下(自傳式事件記憶啟動)時發現右腦有更強的啟動。而且,右側顳中、前額葉背側、後扣帶回區域和左側小腦也有激發(編:亦即,有局部腦血流改變)。個人與非個人狀態(自傳式vs.非自傳式事件記憶)的比較則顯示出了右側半腦較多的激發,主要包括右側顳中、顳側皮層、後扣帶回、腦島和前額葉區域。右側顳中的激發包括海馬回、海馬旁回和杏仁核。這些結果表明右腦半球的顳葉網路與後葉、扣帶回、前額葉一起參與了情緒性自傳式訊息的啟動。
PubMed abstract: We studied the functional anatomy of affect-laden autobiographical memory in normal volunteers. Using H2 15O positron emission tomography (PET), we measured changes in relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Four rCBF measurements were obtained during three conditions: REST, i.e.,, subjects lay at rest (for control); IMPERSONAL, i.e., subjects listened to sentences containing episodic information taken from an autobiography of a person they did not know, but which had been presented to them before PET scanning (nonautobiographical episodic memory ecphory); and PERSONAL, i.e., subjects listened to sentences containing information taken from their own past (autobiographical episodic memory ecphory). Comparing IMPERSONAL with REST (nonautobiographical episodic memory ecphory) resulted in relative rCBF increases symmetrically in both temporal lobes including the temporal poles and medial and superior temporal gyri. The same loci, however, with a stronger lateralization to the right hemisphere were activated in the comparison PERSONAL to REST (autobiographical episodic memory ecphory). In addition, the right temporomesial, right dorsal prefrontal, right posterior cingulate areas, and the left cerebellum were activated. A comparison of PERSONAL and IMPERSONAL (autobiographical vs nonautobiographical episodic memory ecphory) demonstrated a preponderantly right hemispheric activation including primarily right temporomesial and temporolateral cortex, right posterior cingulate areas, right insula, and right prefrontal areas. The right temporomesial activation included hippocampus, parahippocampus, and amygdala. These results suggest that a right hemispheric network of temporal, together with posterior, cingulate, and prefrontal, areas is engaged in the ecphory of affect-laden autobiographical information.

Maguire, E. A., F. Vargha-Khadem, and M. Mishkin. 〈雙側海馬損傷對記憶提取時的功能性核磁共振局部激發和交互作用的影響〉, 《大腦》124 (2001): 1156-70.
Maguire, E. A., F. Vargha-Khadem, and M. Mishkin. "The Effects of Bilateral Hippocampal Damage on fMRI Regional Activations and Interactions during Memory Retrieval" Brain 124 (2001): 1156-70.

PubMed摘要:使用功能性核磁共振,通過與健康的控制組受試者對比,我們觀察因產期缺氧而得選擇性雙側海馬病理的病人Jon對真實記憶的成功提取。與健康的控制組受試者一樣,Jon在記憶提取時啟動了同樣的腦區,包括左腦中部以及側部。與控制組不同的是,Jon還啟動了很多右側相對應的區域。儘管他雙側海馬已經各失去50%的容量,Jon的記憶提取伴隨著海馬激發的增加。而且,如同對照組,其海馬的活動在自傳式事件、公眾事件以及常識這幾種記憶類型中是不同的,它主要是對自傳式事件產生反應。Jon能分辨一些控制組受試者不能分辨的事件,即一些他清楚記得的自傳式和公眾事件,和其他他只是知道但不能清楚記憶的事件。與那些知道相關內容、但記不得經歷過的事件相比,他在記起一些清晰和有意識回憶的事件時,海馬和額內側皮質明顯地變得更加活躍。儘管Jon與控組組受試者一樣啟動了相同的腦部區域網路(雖然是雙側的),並且海馬具有相同的回應模式,但在海馬-皮層的連通性上,這些區域之間的溝通與控制組不同。在控制組中,特別是在自傳式事件記憶提取時,海馬旁回和海馬間有增強的有效聯結。相反,這種增加在Jon身上沒有出現,而是在自傳式事件記憶提取時引發海馬和retrosplenial皮質層之間以及retrosplenial皮質層和額內側皮質之間較強的相互作用。這項研究強調用功能性核磁共振在病人執行作業時掃描的價值,這使我們能夠確定受損傷的海馬剩餘組織的功能,並使我們了解到控制組受試者所不能得到的區別(記憶和知道)的神經基礎。除了精煉了我們對海馬在自傳式事件記憶作用的認識外,這項還研究指出了記憶提取中運用的雙側區域和腦中一些區域之間的有效聯結的改變可能是記憶混亂的重要指標。
PubMed abstract: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined successful retrieval of real-world memories in a patient (Jon) with selective bilateral hippocampal pathology resulting from perinatal hypoxia compared with healthy control subjects. Jon activated the same brain regions during memory retrieval as control subjects, both medial and lateral on the left. In contrast to controls, Jon also activated many homologous regions on the right. In spite of having 50% volume loss bilaterally in his hippocampi, retrieval in Jon was associated with increased activation of the hippocampi. Furthermore, hippocampal activity, as with the controls, was differential, being most responsive to retrieval of autobiographical events compared with other memory types (autobiographical facts, public events, general knowledge). Jon made a distinction between events that the control subjects did not make, namely that some of the autobiographical and public events he clearly remembered, while others he found that he knew about but did not truly remember. His hippocampi and medial frontal cortex were significantly more active during retrieval of events for which he had clear and conscious recollection compared with those he knew as much about, including the context, but could not remember experiencing. Although Jon activates the same network of brain regions as the controls (albeit bilaterally), and with the same pattern of response in the hippocampus, the communication between regions differs from controls with regard to hippocampal-cortical connectivity. In controls there was increased effective connectivity between parahippocampal cortex and hippocampus, specifically during the retrieval of autobiographical events. In contrast, this increase was not apparent in Jon; rather, retrieval of autobiographical events elicited greater interaction between the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex, and also increased interaction between retrosplenial and medial frontal cortex. This study underlines the value of scanning patients using fMRI while they undertake tasks they can perform, in this case allowing us to confirm the functionality of remaining tissue in the damaged hippocampi, and to appreciate the neural basis of a distinction (remember/know) that control subjects do not make. Besides refining our knowledge of the hippocampal role in autobiographical event memory, this study indicates that recruitment of bilateral regions during memory retrieval, and altered patterns of effective connectivity between brain regions may be important indicators of disordered memory.

Maguire, E. A., R. N. A. Henson, C. J. Mummery, and C. D. Frith. 〈隨著記憶遙遠度的增長,前額葉皮層(非海馬)的活動呈參數變化〉,《認知神經科學和神經心理學》12 (2001): 441-444.
Maguire, E. A., R. N. A. Henson, C. J. Mummery, and C. D. Frith. "Activity in Prefrontal Cortex, not Hippocampus, Varies Parametrically with the Increasing Remoteness of Memories." Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology 12 (2001): 441-444.

PubMed摘要:在記憶提取中,海馬回與新皮質參與的時間尺度常易引起爭議。我們通過事件相關功能磁共振造影觀察回憶從最近發生的到很久之前的自傳式和公共的事件記憶是否與大腦活動中的活動呈參數變化相聯。前額葉腹外側對記憶的年限敏感,顯示出提取最近的自傳式事件時腦部活動上升和之後隨遙遠度下降。當我們觀察到海馬活動對記憶類型(特別是自傳式事件)的調節時,仍沒有證據表明這個區域對記憶年限敏感。這些發現與一種認為海馬回在整個生命過程中參與自傳式記憶提取的觀點相一致。
PubMed abstract: The time-scale of hippocampal and neocortical involvement in memory retrieval is keenly debated. Using event-related fMRI we examined whether recollecting autobiographical and public event memories, ranging from the recent to the very remote, was associated with parametric changes in brain activity. A ventrolateral prefrontal region was sensitive to memory age, showing increased activation during retrieval of recent autobiographical events and subsequent parametric decrease with remoteness. While we observed modulation of hippocampal activity in relation to memory type (autobiographical events in particular), there was no evidence for sensitivity of this region to memory age. These findings are concordant with a view of hippocampal involvement in autobiographical memory retrieval throughout the lifetime.

Maguire, E. A. 〈自傳式事件記憶的神經成像研究〉, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 13 (2001): 1441-1451.
Maguire, E. A. "Neuroimaging Studies of Autobiographical Event Memory." Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 13 (2001): 1441-1451.

PubMed摘要:回顧了自傳式事件記憶的神經成像研究中發現的異同。概括地說,所有與自傳式事件記憶提取有關的激發都在腦的內側和左側化。看來內額葉皮層和左側海馬回尤其對這些記憶有反應。然而,這些研究也存在矛盾,例如在海馬回和背外側前額葉皮層的激發。這很可能是由於各研究所用方法的不同而產生完全不同的發現。如何量化和評估自傳式事件記憶對包括神經成像在內的很多領域都是個挑戰。還討論了可能與對神經成像資料的解釋和未來的實驗設計有關的方法學因素。還思考了一些功能神經成像可能特別容易觀察到的記憶方面問題。這些包括評估病人受損組織的功能,以及估計相關大腦區域中區域之間的聯繫(有效聯繫)。
PubMed abstract: Commonalities and differences in findings across neuroimaging studies of autobiographical event memory are reviewed. In general terms, the overall pattern across studies is of medial and left-lateralized activations associated with retrieval of autobiographical event memories. It seems that the medial frontal cortex and left hippocampus in particular are responsive to such memories. However, there are also inconsistencies across studies, for example in the activation of the hippocampus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. It is likely that methodological differences between studies contribute to the disparate findings. Quantifying and assessing autobiographical event memories presents a challenge in many domains, including neuroimaging. Methodological factors that may be pertinent to the interpretation of the neuroimaging data and the design of future experiments are discussed. Consideration is also given to aspects of memory that functional neuroimaging might be uniquely disposed to examine. These include assessing the functionality of damaged tissue in patients and the estimation of inter-regional communication (effective connectivity) between relevant brain regions.

Moscovitch, M., T. Yaschyshyn, M. Ziegler, L. Nadel. 〈遠端事件記憶和逆溯失憶:Endel Tulving一直是對的嗎?〉 《記憶、意識與腦:Tallinn會議》, Edited by E. Tulving. New York: Psychology Press, 1999, pp. 331-345.
Moscovitch, M., T. Yaschyshyn, M. Ziegler, L. Nadel. "Remote Episodic Memory and Retrograde Amnesia: Was Endel Tulving Right All Along?" In Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Edited by E. Tulving. New York: Psychology Press, 1999, pp. 331-345.

Nadel, L., and M. Moscovitch. 〈記憶固化、逆溯失憶和海馬構成〉, Curr Opin Neurobiol 7 (1997): 217-227.
Nadel, L., and M. Moscovitch. "Memory Consolidation, Retrograde Amnesia and the Hippocampal Complex." Curr Opin Neurobiol 7 (1997): 217-227.

PubMed摘要:近來的一些逆溯失憶的研究結果,根據人類以及非人類受試者的海馬構成的損傷已經說明逆溯失憶的廣泛性並能貫穿大部分受試者的一生;遺失的程度可能依賴於受評估的記憶種類。這些以及其他的一些發現暗示,海馬以及相關結構將盡可能在其存在期間參與某些類型的記憶(例如自傳式記憶和空間記憶),並有助於腦中其他地方存儲的其他形式記憶的轉化和穩定。
PubMed abstract: Results from recent studies of retrograde amnesia following damage to the hippocampal complex of human and non-human subjects have shown that retrograde amnesia is extensive and can encompass much of a subject's lifetime; the degree of loss may depend upon the type of memory assessed. These and other findings suggest that the hippocampal formation and related structures are involved in certain forms of memory (e.g. autobiographical episodic and spatial memory) for as long as they exist and contribute to the transformation and stabilization of other forms of memory stored elsewhere in the brain.

Nadel, L., A. Samsonovich, L. Ryan, and M. Moscovitch. 〈人類記憶的多痕跡理論:計算的、神經成像的和神經心理學的結果〉,《海馬》10 (2000): 352-68.
Nadel, L., A. Samsonovich, L. Ryan, and M. Moscovitch. "Multiple Trace Theory of Human Memory: Computational, Neuroimaging, and Neuropsychological Results." Hippocampus 10 (2000): 352-68.

PubMed摘要:記憶中海馬與新皮質的交互作用一直在記憶固化的“標準模型“中被描述。這種觀點認為,記憶存儲初期需要與離散的新皮質存儲點聯繫的海馬,但隨著時間的變化,這種需要消失,而海馬的成分也變得不必要。這種隨時間的變化的功能改變經常用來說明在海馬損傷的病人身上看到的逆溯失憶(RA)梯度。然而,近來的一些證據對此標準模型提出疑問,近來我們提出了一個新方法,叫“多記憶痕跡”(MMT)理論。這種觀點認為海馬成份常常涉及於情節資訊的存儲和提取,但經過足夠長的時間後語義(要點)資訊能在新皮質中建立,並在海馬系統的損傷中保留下來。這種方法更容易地描述了那些經常在失憶症中看到的很長的遺忘梯度。我們彙報了分析式和聯結理論模擬的結果,證明了MMT的可行性。我們也彙報了神經成像的研究,表明提取很久遠的記憶(25年前)會和提取最近的記憶引發同樣多的海馬激發。最後我們彙報,通過採用一種比以前更靈敏的測量方法對顳葉損傷病人進行研究所得的新資料,顯示出即便在很久遠的記憶中,情節和空間細節的缺乏依然可以被觀察到。總之,這些發現指出記憶固化的標準模型,即認為海馬在記憶中只是一個暫時的角色是錯誤的。相反,資料支援這種觀點——對情節和空間細節來說,海馬系統永遠是必須的。
PubMed abstract: Hippocampal-neocortical interactions in memory have typically been characterized within the "standard model" of memory consolidation. In this view, memory storage initially requires hippocampal linking of dispersed neocortical storage sites, but over time this need dissipates, and the hippocampal component is rendered unnecessary. This change in function over time is held to account for the retrograde amnesia (RA) gradients often seen in patients with hippocampal damage. Recent evidence, however, calls this standard model into question, and we have recently proposed a new approach, the "multiple memory trace" (MMT) theory. In this view, hippocampal ensembles are always involved in storage and retrieval of episodic information, but semantic (gist) information can be established in neocortex, and will survive damage to the hippocampal system if enough time has elapsed. This approach accounts more readily for the very long RA gradients often observed in amnesia. We report the results of analytic and connectionist simulations that demonstrate the feasibility of MMT. We also report a neuroimaging study showing that retrieval of very remote (25-year-old) memories elicits as much activation in hippocampus as retrieval of quite recent memories. Finally, we report new data from the study of patients with temporal lobe damage, using more sensitive measures than previously the case, showing that deficits in both episodic and spatial detail can be observed even for very remote memories. Overall, these findings indicate that the standard model of memory consolidation, which views the hippocampus as having only a temporary role in memory, is wrong. Instead, the data support the view that for episodic and spatial detail the hippocampal system is always necessary.

Piefke, M., H. P. Weiss, K. Zilles, J. H. Markowitsch, and R. G. Fink. 〈不同的遙遠度和情緒語氣調節自傳式記憶的神經相關〉,《大腦》126: 650-668.
Piefke, M., H. P. Weiss, K. Zilles, J. H. Markowitsch, and R. G. Fink. "Differential Remoteness and Emotional Tone Modulate the Neural Correlates of Autobiographical Memory." Brain 126: 650-668.

PubMed摘要:自傳式記憶依賴於情節記憶內容、相關情緒和個人生命歷程的時間軸中一種自我延續感覺之間複雜的交互作用。自傳式記憶的神經相關主要發現在前額葉皮層、顳葉皮層內部和側部、後扣帶回與後夾肌皮質。相反,編碼和(或)存儲的參數,例如被提取的記憶中的情緒語氣、或資訊初始編碼與提取之間的時間間隔長度,它們的作用還有待澄清。採用組塊設計的功能磁共振成像和統計參數製圖,我們研究了遙遠度(因素1:遠、近)和情緒誘發力(因素2:積極、消極)對自傳式記憶提取的神經相關的影響。自傳式記憶的神經活動變化(p<0.05,修正後)與基線對照(不考慮遙遠度和情緒語氣),發生在顳葉皮層內部和側部、枕顳交界、後扣帶回和前額葉皮層。新近(相較於久遠)的記憶伴隨不同的神經活動出現在雙側後夾肌皮質和海馬皮層;而久遠(相較於新近)記憶未表現出任何統計上顯著的神經活動差別。正向(相較於負向)記憶在雙側額眶皮層、顳極,以及顳區內部有激發,而激發的最高值在內鼻葉區域。相比之下,負向(相較於正向)記憶的情況不同,它只在右側顳中回表現出增加的神經活動。這些資料說明,在自傳式記憶提取中,顳葉、前額葉和後夾肌皮質區域隨著記憶提取時遙遠度和情緒的不同而扮演不同的功能角色。特別的是,我們的發現支持傳統的長期記憶處理模型,它認為海馬在記憶固化中有著有限時間的差異化參與。有意思的是,海馬在記憶固化過程中所表現出的時間依賴性與在精神病人身上觀察到的逆溯失憶一致。這些病人的新近記憶在疾病的早期階段丟失,當顯著的神經原纖維變化主要限定於海馬和海馬旁回區域。只有在後面的階段,即當神經原纖維變化擴散到新皮層相關區域時,遠端記憶才也受損。我們的結論是,自傳式記憶提取涉及的腦區受觸發記憶時的情緒顯著性以及受它們與個體時間軸的關係影響。
PubMed abstract: Autobiographical memory relies on complex interactions between episodic memory contents, associated emotions and a sense of self-continuity along the time axis of one's life history. The neural correlates underlying autobiographical memory are known to primarily comprise areas of prefrontal cortex, medial and lateral temporal cortex, as well as posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortex. By contrast, the effect of encoding and/or storage parameters such as the emotional tone of the memories retrieved or the length of the time-interval between the initial encoding of information and retrieval remains to be clarified. Using blocked design functional MRI and statistical parametric mapping, we investigated the impact of remoteness (factor 1: recent, remote) and emotional valence (factor 2: positive, negative) on the neural correlates of autobiographical memory retrieval. Changes in neural activity (P < 0.05, corrected) related to autobiographical memory retrieval (irrespective of remoteness and emotional tone) relative to baseline were observed bilaterally in medial and lateral temporal, temporal-occipital, posterior cingulate and frontal cortices. Recent (relative to remote) memories were associated with differentially increased neural activity bilaterally in the retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal region, whereas remote (relative to recent) memories did not show any statistically significant differential neural activations. Positive (relative to negative) memories bilaterally activated the orbitofrontal cortex, the temporal pole, as well as medial temporal areas, with the activation peak being in the entorhinal region. By contrast, negative (relative to positive) memories differentially increased neural activity in the right middle temporal gyrus only. The data suggest differential functional roles for temporal, prefrontal and retrosplenial regions during autobiographical memory retrieval depending on the remoteness and the emotional valence of the memories retrieved. In particular, our findings support the 'classic' model of long-term memory processing, which suggests a time-limited differential involvement of the hippocampus in memory consolidation. Interestingly, the observation of such a time-dependent involvement of the hippocampal region in memory consolidation corresponds to the course of retrograde amnesia observed in demented patients, with the loss of recent memories appearing during early stages of the disease when conspicuous neurofibrillary changes are restricted mainly to the hippocampal and parahippocampal regions. Only during later stages, as the neurofibrillary changes spread out to neocortical association areas, do remote memories also become impaired. We conclude that the brain regions involved in autobiographical memory retrieval are influenced by the triggered memories' emotional significance and their relationship to the individual time axis.

Reed, J. M., and L. R. Squire. 〈對事實和事件的逆溯失憶:對四個新病例的研究發現〉,《神經科學學報》18 (1998): 3943-54.
Reed, J. M., and L. R. Squire. "Retrograde Amnesia for Facts and Events: Findings from Four New Cases." J. Neurosci 18 (1998): 3943-54.

PubMed摘要:有兩個被推定有海馬結構損傷的病人和兩個大面積顳葉損傷的病人,他們被發現患上失憶症的年份可以被確認,分別進行了順行性和逆行性記憶功能測試。兩個海馬結構損傷的病人有相當嚴重的順行性遺忘和一點逆溯失憶,而這種逆溯失憶最多溯及病發之前十年的事實和事件。內容分析不能把病人的自傳式記憶和對照受試者的記憶區分開來。兩個大面積顳葉損傷的病人具有嚴重的順行性遺忘和廣泛的事實和事件逆行性記憶丟失。結果暗示,逆溯失憶的存在是有限時間的還是廣泛取決於損傷是否被限定在海馬結構中,還是還涉及到另外的顳葉皮層。
PubMed abstract: Two patients with presumed hippocampal formation lesions and two patients with more extensive temporal lobe damage, all of whom became amnesic in a known year, were given tests of anterograde and retrograde memory function. The two patients with hippocampal formation lesions had moderately severe anterograde amnesia and limited retrograde amnesia for facts and events that affected, at most, the decade preceding the onset of amnesia. Content analysis could not distinguish the autobiographical recollections of the patients from the recollections of control subjects. The two patients with more extensive temporal lobe damage had severe anterograde amnesia and extensive retrograde memory loss for both facts and events. The results suggest that whether retrograde amnesia is temporally limited or very extensive depends on whether the damage is restricted to the hippocampal formation or also involves additional temporal cortex.

Squire, L. R., and S. M. Zola. 〈情節記憶、語義記憶和失憶症〉,《海馬》8 (1998): 205-211.
Squire, L. R., and S. M. Zola. "Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia." Hippocampus 8 (1998): 205-211.

PubMed摘要:情節記憶和語義記憶是陳述性記憶的兩種形式。在它們的區別怎樣表現在腦中記憶功能組織這一問題上,有兩種主流觀點。一種觀點認為,情節記憶和語義記憶都依賴顳葉內部和間腦中線結構,預言顳葉內部、間腦損傷的失憶症病人的情節和語義記憶會相應比例地被削弱。另一種觀點認為,在與情節記憶相關的失憶症中,語義記憶能力是被保留的,或部分被保留的。本文回顧了兩種相關的資料:1)對發生在童年早期、在個體語義知識習得之前的失憶症案例研究;2)對失憶症病人的事實和事件學習,記得和知道,以及久遠記憶進行實驗性研究。資料並未為這一觀點提供說服性的支持:情景和語義記憶在顳葉內部、間腦失憶症中受到不同的影響。可是,在前額葉有額外受過嚴重傷害的失憶症病人中情景和語義記憶可能是分離的。
PubMed abstract: Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

Rosenbaum, R. S., G. Winocur, and M. Moscovitch. 〈舊記憶,新觀點:對海馬結構的腳色的重新估計〉,《行為大腦研究》 Behav Brain Res <編: 期刊名請補譯>127 (2001): 183-97.
Rosenbaum, R. S., G. Winocur, and M. Moscovitch. "New Views on Old Memories: Re-evaluating the Role of the Hippocampal Complex." Behav Brain Res 127 (2001): 183-97.

PubMed摘要:海馬損傷引發的短期漸進型逆溯失憶(RA)現象支持一種長期存在的觀點——記憶經過了一個固化過程,其中記憶在新皮質區域不斷得到修改,直到它們獨立於海馬(HPC)複合體。這種觀點的支持來自動物和人類RA的文獻,儘管結果不盡一致。特別地,固化理論沒有考慮到人類情節(細節)資訊和動物情境依賴性資訊的丟失,而這些經常會延伸回大部分的生命時間。我們討論另外一種方法——多痕跡理論,它提出海馬複合體對新近和久遠的情節以及情境依賴性記憶的提取起作用。根據這個觀點,這些記憶痕跡在海馬和新皮質表現為空間上交錯分佈的交互作用,那些記憶存在多久這些痕跡就存在多久。另一方面,不依賴於情境的語義記憶在固化理論中被預言是獨立於海馬的。為了支援這種觀點,我們報告了近來的論述,關於自傳式和空間細節丟失的病人和雙側海馬大面積損傷的動物模型相對平緩的逆溯失憶梯度。通過對比,在語義的、不依賴於情境的記憶測試中可看到短期漸進型逆溯失憶。我們還報告了神經成像的研究,其中,在自傳式記憶回憶期間海馬的活動在情節記憶的遠近之間沒有差別。我們在討論中提出了一些辦法,調和文獻中的歧異並引導預測海馬損傷後遠端情節及語義記憶丟失的平坦及短期有限梯度。
PubMed abstract: Evidence of temporally graded retrograde amnesia (RA) following hippocampal damage has fuelled the long-standing belief that memory undergoes a consolidation process, whereby memories are progressively modified in neocortical regions until they are independent of the hippocampal (HPC) complex. Support for this position derives from both the animal and human RA literature, although the results are not consistent. Specifically, consolidation theory does not account for loss of episodic (detail) information in humans and context-dependent information in animals, which often extend back for much of the life span. We discuss an alternative approach, the Multiple Trace Theory, which suggests that the HPC complex contributes to the retrieval of recent and remote episodic and context-dependent memories. According to this view, such memory traces are represented as spatially distributed interactions between the HPC and neocortex that persist for as long as those memories exist. On the other hand, semantic, or context-free, memories can become independent of the HPC as consolidation theory predicts. In support of this view, we report recent accounts of relatively flat RA gradients in autobiographical and spatial detail loss in patients and animal models with extensive bilateral HPC lesions. By comparison, temporally graded RA was observed in tests of semantic and context-free memory. We also report neuroimaging studies in which hippocampal activity, elicited during recollection of autobiographical memories, did not distinguish recent from remote episodes. Our discussion suggests ways to reconcile discrepancies in the literature and guide predictions of the occurrence of flat versus temporally limited gradients of remote episodic and semantic memory loss following lesions to HPC.

Tulving, Endel. 〈情節記憶:從心智到大腦〉,《心理學年度回顧》53 (2002): 1-25.
Tulving, Endel. "Episodic Memory: From Mind to Brain." Annu. Rev. Psychol 53 (2002): 1-25.

PubMed摘要:情節記憶是一種神經認知(腦/心智)系統,與其他記憶系統有獨特的區別,它能夠使人類記起以往的經歷。情節記憶的觀念大約在30年前被首次提出。那時它被按照材料和作業來定義。隨後它根據想法來被提煉和詳細闡述,例如自身、自己的時間和自主意識。本章提供一個情節記憶概念的簡史,描述它從最初開始是如何變更(其實有很大變化),考慮對它的批評,並討論支持的證據,取自a)中對由於腦損傷引發的記憶模式損害的神經心理學研究;b)在不同的記憶作業中,正常受試者大腦活動模式的功能神經成像研究。我還要提出,情節記憶是真實的,即使這觀點不被一般人所接受。
PubMed abstract: Episodic memory is a neurocognitive (brain/mind) system, uniquely different from other memory systems, that enables human beings to remember past experiences. The notion of episodic memory was first proposed some 30 years ago. At that time it was defined in terms of materials and tasks. It was subsequently refined and elaborated in terms of ideas such as self, subjective time, and autonoetic consciousness. This chapter provides a brief history of the concept of episodic memory, describes how it has changed (indeed greatly changed) since its inception, considers criticisms of it, and then discusses supporting evidence provided by (a) neuropsychological studies of patterns of memory impairment caused by brain damage, and (b) functional neuroimaging studies of patterns of brain activity of normal subjects engaged in various memory tasks. I also suggest that episodic memory is a true, even if as yet generally unappreciated, marvel of nature.




 
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