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教學大綱


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:謝怡玲(簡介並寄信)
翻譯:周蔚倫(簡介並寄信)、林山源(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)


要求

必要閱讀

報告:期末報告是本課程的主要評量依據。 所有課程中的閱讀和互動欲幫助學生了解人類動物行為學,以及人類動物行為學與其報告主題的關係。

課程概論:第一節

以下為第一節的大綱,請做下列事項:
  • 請檢閱書單:有哪些作者(或書)是你讀過、看過或聽說過的?有哪些你擁有或讀過的書應該被加入?
  • 請檢閱主題清單。我們沒有足夠的時間討論到所有的主題,時間的運用將依據學生們及講師的興趣,我們歡迎其他的意見。
  • 請閱讀下列大綱,將於前兩堂課中討論。

A. 我們如何從動物本身以及其行為中學習?

  1. 寵物。
  2. 民間傳說。(來自學生的例子?中世紀的小動物。參考R. Hendrikson 1983年出版的《比人類狡詐:老鼠與人類的社會史》Dorset Press)
  3. 以人類為目的的研究或實習:大多數使用動物。(經濟以及肉品工業、運動、狩獵、某些宗教)
  4. 科學:多數使用動物。(生物學、比較心理學、藥理學、毒物學、神經科學)
  5. 人文社會;「動物權利」運動:人性導向的不同方式。擬人主義的體認以及感覺。對於人類以及其他動物的表象(主觀測量)意識的關照。
  6. 不同宗教間的不同態度。猶太教/基督教以及耆那教的極端。(其他例子?)
  7. 被認為較適當:基礎科學取向-包括描述與試驗,採用演化觀點。

B. 主題目錄 (提綱)

  1. 原理
  2. 論述層次?(詢問背景)
  3. 時間需求!
  4. 主題專論研討層級與大學概論層級。

C. 閱讀:

  1. 選讀書目(講義):重要性較高。
  2. 數量?大約每小時10-20頁,共九小時,總合每週90-180頁。
  3. 目標:閱讀主要概念和實例說明。(我為動物故事付出代價!)
  4. (故事:我們為倉鼠基因如何付出代價給M. Murphy?)
  5. 下堂課的作業:勞倫茲《動物行為學的基本原理》,pp. 1-12, 28-32, 46-64, (72-89), 89-93, (93-99), 100-103, 107-152. 參見他的故事(額外要求):《所羅門王的指環:與蟲、魚、鳥、獸親密對話》,參見N. Tinbergen所著《好奇的博物學家》

D. 授課計畫:

  1. 講授/討論指定閱讀中之重要概念。
  2. 學生報告文獻探討或相關主題領域議題。(今天:告訴我你對於動物已知什麼,以及你如何習得。)

E. 課程要求:

  1. 文獻閱讀以及簡短報告。
  2. 期末書面報告以及口頭報告。(將你的選擇與G. S.討論)
  3. 第一節:閱讀這個故事:「敘利亞倉鼠一生中的四個小時」,包括它的評論。

F. 動物行為研究入門:

  1. 聚焦於個別的生物
    1. 美國的「比較心理學」:實際的焦點在人類。
      注意非生物的比較,「同源」,「系統發生量表」
    2. 「動物行為學」;現在有些人稱之為「行為生態學」。
      1. 勞倫茲在他的著作《動物行為學的基本原理》p. 1, 3, 65, 101中為此下了定義。
      2. Whitman與Heinroth
        勞倫茲的故事p. 100, 107。
      3. 參見達爾文
        書中圖示。
      4. Eibl-Eibesfeldt的「人類動物行為學」(見 K. L., pp. 10-11).
        「身體語言」的風潮。
      5. 「神經行為學」--走向兩個方向的方法:
        1. 動物行為學通知(inform)大腦與行為研究。
        2. 大腦操作效果a行為組織的新資訊。
          例如:多種侵略;來自於原始或先進的行為元素(脊椎/腦幹或前腦局部化)的證據。
  2. 聚焦於社會
    1. 「社會生物學」:E. O. Wilson的定義及說明:參見《社會生物學,刪減版》pp. 3-5。
    2. 參見人類社會學,E. O. Wilson《社會生物學,刪減版》p. 4。
  3. 聚焦於棲息地和其所培育的生物,以及其間的相互影響(「平衡」)
    1. 「生態學」:例如,熱帶雨林(參見A. Forsyth及K. Miyata所著《熱帶自然界》)、熱帶平原,等等。
    2. 廣度問題:由於對所有的事都了解的太少,人們通常把生態學看作環保,然而,有許多包括動物行為的例子顯示生態學是科學。參見Bourliere的著作。
    3. 當動物的行為變得具關鍵性:「顛覆了自然界的平衡」,例如:非洲象與阿拉伯膠樹,人類的狩獵行為,污染,侵占或偷獵,「殺手」蜂,等等。
  4. 聚焦於單一物種或群體,包括生態環境及行為。
    1. 「哺乳動物學」,參見Bourliere的著作,一本較舊,另一本較新,參見目錄及例子。
    2. 「靈長類動物學」,「鯨目動物學」,「昆蟲學」,等等。
  5. 業餘的「博物學家」:訓練有素的愛好者的貢獻。(參見天文學)。當細節逐漸累積,就會變成重要的一環。

    參見勞倫茲對於業餘鳥類學家-鳥類觀察家-對早期動物行為學的貢獻之評論。 也可參見Jim Corbett的故事(《叢林知識》,牛津大學出版,1953年):關心動物的獵人的生活之例子。






Requirements

Required Readings

Paper: The final paper constitutes the majority of the grade for this course. All of the readings and interactions in this class are intended to help students focus their understanding of human ethology, and how it fits with their paper topics.

Overview of the Class: Session 1

Below is an outline for the first session. Please do the following:
  • Review the book list: How many of these authors/books have you read/seen/heard of? Which books which you own or have read would you add?
  • Review the topics list. We will not have time to deal with all of these topics; how we use our time will depend on both students' and instructor's interest. Additional or alternative suggestions are welcome.
  • Read the outline below, for discussion in the first two sessions.

A. How have we learned of Animals and their Behavior?

  1. Pets.
  2. Folklore. (Examples from students? The medieval beastiaries. Examples from R. Hendrikson, More Cunning Than Man: A Social History of Rats and Men, Dorset Press, N.Y., 1983.)
  3. Human oriented studies and practices: mostly uses of animals. (Economics and meat industry; sports; hunting; some religions.)
  4. Cf. sciences: mostly uses as well! (Biology; comparative psychology; pharmacology; toxicology; neuroscience)
  5. Humane society; "Animal rights" movement: human oriented in a different way. Anthropomorphism recognition and feelings ("anthropomentism", "anthropaffectism"). Regard for apparent (subjectively assessed) consciousness, in humans and other animals.
  6. Contrasting attitudes in different religions. The extremes of Judaism/Christianity, and Jainism. (Other examples?)
  7. Arguably better: basic science approach -- both descriptive and experimental, and with the perspective of evolution.

B. Topics List (Handout):

  1. Rationale.
  2. Levels of treatment? (Ask re backgrounds.)
  3. Time needed!
  4. Special topics seminar level vs. undergraduate survey level.

C. Readings:

  1. List of books for selected readings (handout): Note relative importance.
  2. Amount? approx. 10-20 pp/hr x 9 hr = 90-180 pp/wk.
  3. Approach: Read for key concepts and their illustration in actual examples. (I pay for animal stories!)
  4. (Story: How we paid M. Murphy for hamster genes.)
  5. Assignment for next session: Selections from K. Lorenz, The Foundations of Ethology, pp. 1-12, 28-32, 46-64, (72-89), 89-93, (93-99), 100-103, 107-152. Cf. his stories (extra credit): King Solomon's Ring, The Year of the Greylag Goose. Cf. N. Tinbergen's Curious Naturalists.

D. Session Plan:

  1. Lecture/discussion of key concepts in readings (required).
  2. Student presentations of papers or small topic areas. (Today: you tell me what you already know about animals, and how you learned it.)

E. Requirements:

  1. The readings and short presentations.
  2. Project paper and presentation at end of term. (Discuss your chosen topic with G. S.)
  3. For session 1: Read the story: "Four hours in the life of a Syrian hamster", with commentary.

F. Approaches to the study of animal behavior:

  1. Focus on the Individual Organism
    1. "Comparative Psychology" in America: The real focus was/is on man.
      Notes on non-biological comparisons, "homologies", "phylogenetic scale".
    2. "Ethology"; some people now prefer "behavioral ecology".
      1. Definition by K. Lorenz: see The Foundations of Ethology, p. 1, 3, 65, 101.
      2. Whitman and Heinroth.
        Stories from Lorenz: p. 100, 107.
      3. Cf. Charles Darwin
        Illustrations from his book.
      4. "Human ethology" of Eibl-Eibesfeldt (see K. L., pp. 10-11).
        The "body language" craze.
      5. "Neuroethology"-- an approach that goes two ways:
        1. Ethology informs brain & behavior studies.
        2. Brain manipulation effects --> new info. on behavioral organization.
          Examples: multiple kinds of aggression; evidence of primitive vs. advanced behavioral elements (spinal/brainstem vs. forebrain localization).
  2. Focus on Societies
    1. "Sociobiology": E. O. Wilson's definition and diagram: See Sociobiology, The Abridged Edition, pp. 3-5.
    2. Cf. human sociology. Notes from E. O. Wilson, Ibid., p. 4.
  3. Focus on Habitat and the Species it Supports, and Interactions ("Balance")
    1. "Ecology": E.g., Tropical rainforest (see Tropical Nature, by A. Forsyth and K. Miyata ), Tropical savannah, etc.
    2. The problem of breadth: Knowing too little about everything. Hence, people often think of ecology as focused on conservation. But there are good examples of ecology as a science that includes animal behavior: See Bourliere's book.
    3. When the behavior of animals becomes critical: "Upsetting the balance of nature." Examples: African elephants and the acacia trees. Man's hunting, pollution effects, pleasures that encourage poaching. "Killer" bees. etc.
  4. Focus on Single Species or Groups of Species in a Broad Way that Includes Ecology and Behavior.
    1. "Mammology". Note Bourliere's books, one older, one recent. Note contents; examples.
    2. "Primatology", "cetology", "entymology", etc.
  5. The amateur "naturalists": The disciplined hobbyist's contributions. (Cf. astronomy.) Details, when amassed, have been important in the development of ideas about behavioral evolution.

    See Lorenz's comments about the contributions of amateur ornithologists -- bird watchers -- to early ethology. Also, Jim Corbett's stories (Jungle Lore, Oxford Univ. Press, 1953): Examples from the life of a hunter who cared about animals.






 
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