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審定:無
翻譯:林恭印(簡介並寄信)、賀陽劍(簡介並寄信)、李國玉(簡介並寄信)
編輯:侯嘉玨(簡介並寄信)

下面列出的讀物提供了這門課程的基礎。 可從PubMed(提供生物醫學文獻摘錄的線上資料庫)取得的部份節錄期刊文章,皆包含在內。
The readings listed below are the foundation of this course. Where available, journal article abstracts from PubMed (an online database providing access to citations from biomedical literature) are included.

Binder, K. S., S. A. Duffy, 與 K. Rayner合著. 〈語幹適配和語段上下文在歧義消解上的效果〉《記憶與語言雜誌》44 (2001): 297-324.
Binder, K. S., S. A. Duffy, and K. Rayner. "The effects of thematic fit and discourse context on syntactic ambiguity resolution." Journal of Memory and Language 44 (2001): 297-324.

Caplan D., G. S. Waters合著.口語工作記憶與句子理解《腦與行為科學》 (1999).
Caplan D., and G. S. Waters. "Verbal working memory and sentence comprehension." Brain and Behavioral Sciences (1999).

PubMed 摘要:這篇文章討論了在句子理解中的口語工作記憶系統。我們檢視了一個工作記憶的概念,把工作記憶當做是一個為期短暫的系統,在其中小量的資訊同時被儲存,並為了達成一個任務而被巧妙地使用。我們總結了關於在句子理解中的句法處理需要這樣的一個儲存和計算系統的爭論。然後我們質問使用於句法處理的工作記憶系統與使用於包括有意識地控制處理之口語媒介任務的工作記憶系統是否相同。支持的證據從不同來源被找出來:在工作記憶中的個別差異和句法處理效率中的個別差異之間的關係;在句法處理中同時口語記憶裝載的效果;以及在短暫記憶貧乏的病人、工作記憶貧乏的病人和失語症病人的句法處理。從對這些一般人和不同腦損傷的病人所作的實驗結果,趨向一個結論:在工作記憶系統有一個特化之處用來分派一個句子的句法結構,以及使用此結構在決定從使用句子意義之下的工作記憶系統獨立出來的句子意義以達成其他功能。我們提出了口語工作記憶系統區域的理論及有關其神經基礎之建議。
PubMed abstract: This target article discusses the verbal working memory system used in sentence comprehension. We review the concept of working memory as a short-duration system in which small amounts of information are simultaneously stored and manipulated in the service of accomplishing a task. We summarize the argument that syntactic processing in sentence comprehension requires such a storage and computational system. We then ask whether the working memory system used in syntactic processing is the same as that used in verbally mediated tasks that involve conscious controlled processing. Evidence is brought to bear from various sources: the relationship between individual differences in working memory and individual differences in the efficiency of syntactic processing; the effect of concurrent verbal memory load on syntactic processing; and syntactic processing in patients with poor short-term memory, patients with poor working memory, and patients with aphasia. Experimental results from these normal subjects and patients with various brain lesions converge on the conclusion that there is a specialization in the verbal working memory system for assigning the syntactic structure of a sentence and using that structure in determining sentence meaning that is separate from the working memory system underlying the use of sentence meaning to accomplish other functions. We present a theory of the divisions of the verbal working memory system and suggestions regarding its neural basis.

Desmet, T., 與 E. Gibson合著.〈名詞片語連接中的非歧義偏好與語料庫頻率〉《手稿審查中》., 2002.
Desmet, T., and E. Gibson. "Disambiguation Preferences and Corpus Frequencies in Noun Phrase Conjunction." Manuscript submitted for publication, 2002.

Elman, J. L.著〈分散式表示法,簡單迴圈網路與文法結構.〉《機器學習》 7, 1991, pp. 195-225.
Elman, J. L. "Distributed representations, simple recurrent networks and grammatical structure." In Machine Learning 7, 1991, pp. 195-225.

Ferreira, F著. 〈韻律學〉《認知科學百科全書》. Macmillan, 2000.
Ferreira, F. "Prosody." In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Macmillan, 2000.

Frazier, L.,與 C. Clifton Jr合著.《文化建構》,Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1996).
Frazier, L., and C. Clifton Jr. Construal Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1996).

Gibson, E.著 "語言複雜性:〈句法相關的局限性《認知 68 (1998): 1-76.
Gibson, E. "Linguistic complexity: Locality of syntactic dependencies." Cognition 68 (1998): 1-76.

PubMed 摘要:這篇文章提出了一個句子處理機轉和可用計算資源間關係的新理論。這個理論--句法預測地區理論(SPLT)--具有兩個要素:一個整合成本要素,和一個與記錄必要句法需求有關的記憶成本要素。記憶成本被假設成能以完成將現在輸入字串轉成合文法的句子所需的句法範疇數量之形式進行量化。此外,依照工作記憶文獻的結果,記憶成本和整合成本皆被假設成會嚴重地受到地區影響。在預測被符合之前記憶中所必須保持的預測範疇越長,維持該預測的成本越大;以及進來的字彙和最本地端或視其接在什麼之後而定的距離越遠,整合成本就越大。SPLT可解釋範圍寬廣的,非先前在一個單一理論下可說明的處理複雜性現象,包括(1)與受詞抽離關係子句相較,主詞抽離關係子句的低複雜度,(2)為數眾多的跨語言間的處理超載效果,包括多層中心嵌入架構的不可接受性,(3)相對於中心嵌入依賴性,跨序列依賴性的低複雜度,(4)當較大的片語放在後面時,使句子較易理解之沈重效果,以及(5)許多的模糊效果,例如那些被爭論為主動充填理論之證據者。
PubMed abstract: This paper proposes a new theory of the relationship between the sentence processing mechanism and the available computational resources. This theory--the Syntactic Prediction Locality Theory (SPLT)--has two components: an integration cost component and a component for the memory cost associated with keeping track of obligatory syntactic requirements. Memory cost is hypothesized to be quantified in terms of the number of syntactic categories that are necessary to complete the current input string as a grammatical sentence. Furthermore, in accordance with results from the working memory literature both memory cost and integration cost are hypothesized to be heavily influenced by locality (1) the longer a predicted category must be kept in memory before the prediction is satisfied, the greater is the cost for maintaining that prediction; and (2) the greater the distance between an incoming word and the most local head or dependent to which it attaches, the greater the integration cost. The SPLT is shown to explain a wide range of processing complexity phenomena not previously accounted for under a single theory, including (1) the lower complexity of subject-extracted relative clauses compared to object-extracted relative clauses, (2) numerous processing overload effects across languages, including the unacceptability of multiply center-embedded structures, (3) the lower complexity of cross-serial dependencies relative to center-embedded dependencies, (4) heaviness effects, such that sentences are easier to understand when larger phrases are placed later and (5) numerous ambiguity effects, such as those which have been argued to be evidence for the Active Filler Hypothesis.

------.〈附屬位置理論:一種基於距離的語言複雜度理論〉《圖像,語言及大腦》. 由 Y. Miyashita, A. Marantz, 與 W. O'Neil編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.
------. "The dependency locality theory: A distance-based theory of linguistic complexity." In Image, language, brain. Edited by Y. Miyashita, A. Marantz, and W. O'Neil. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.

Gibson, E., 與 C. Schutze合著.〈名詞片語連接中的非歧義偏好沒有反映語料庫頻率〉《記憶與語言雜誌》 40 (1999): 263-279.
Gibson, E., and C. Schutze. "Disambiguation preferences in noun phrase conjunction do not mirror corpus frequency." Journal of Memory and Language 40 (1999): 263-279.

Gibson, E., 與 N. Pearlmutter合著. 〈句子理解的限制〉《認知科學趨勢》 2 (1998): 262-268.
Gibson, E., and N. Pearlmutter. "Constraints on sentence comprehension." Trends in Cognitive Science 2 (1998): 262-268.

Gibson, E., 與S. Tunstall合著.〈未知偶然頻率資訊中的句子理解〉《手稿審查中》., 2001.
Gibson, E., and S. Tunstall. "Sentence comprehension without keeping track of contingent frequency information." Manuscript submitted for publication, 2001.

Gibson, E., 與 T. Warren合著.〈長距離相關中居中語言結構的心理實境〉《手稿》, 1998.
Gibson, E., and T. Warren. "The psychological reality of intermediate linguistic structure in long-distance dependencies." Manuscript, 1998.

Gibson, E., N. Pearlmutter, E. Canseco-Gonzales,與 G. Hickok合著. 〈人類句子處理機制中的最近優先選擇《認知》59 (1996): 23-59.
Gibson, E., N. Pearlmutter, E. Canseco-Gonzales, and G. Hickok. "Recency Preference in the Human Sentence Processing Mechanism." Cognition 59 (1996): 23-59.

PubMed 摘要:Cuetosc和Mitchell(1988)觀察到,在一個關係子句可以連接在兩個可能位置中的任一個位置的句法結構中,說英語者會喜歡放在較近的位置,但說西班牙語者會喜歡最遠的位置,違反了偏好最近期位置的普遍原則「晚期終止」(近期偏好)。以這個證據為基礎,Cuetos和Mitchell下結論說晚期終止不是人類句子處理機轉的普遍原則。在這篇文章中,我們提供了從包含三個可能連接位置之關係子句連接模糊性的西班牙語和英語自定步調式閱讀實驗中所得到的新證據。我們的實驗結果顯示,像晚期終止這樣的原則實際上在人類語法分析是普遍地在運用著,但它至少被另一個關係子句連接模糊性處理過程中的因子所調控。我們提出,包括在處理這些和相關結構過程中的第二個因子為述語鄰近性原則,根據被喜好的連接位置是結構上地越接近述語片語的開頭越好,同時我們更進一步地考慮到連接這兩個因子的理論之由來和預測。
PubMed abstract: Cuetos and Mitchell (1988) observed that in constructions in which a relative clause can attach to one of two possible sites, English speakers prefer the more recent attachment site, but Spanish speakers prefer the least recent attachment site, in violation of the proposed universal principle Late Closure (Recency Preference), which favors attachments to the most recent sites. Based on this evidence, Cuetos and Mitchell concluded that Late Closure is not a universal principle of the human sentence processing mechanism. In this paper, we provide new evidence from Spanish and English self-paced reading experiments on relative clause attachment ambiguities that involve three possible attachment sites. The results of our experiments suggest that a principle like Late Closure is in fact universally operative in the human parser, but that it is modulated by at least one other factor in the processing of relative clause attachment ambiguities. We propose that the second factor involved in the processing of these and related constructions is the principle of Predicate Proximity, according to which attachments are preferred to be as structurally close to the head of a predicate phrase as possible, and we further consider the origins and predictions of the theory combining these two factors.

Gibson E., T. Desmet, D. Grodner, D. Watson, 與 K. Ko合著. (閱讀英語中的關係子句)麻省理工學院《手稿》, 2001.
Gibson E., T. Desmet, D. Grodner, D. Watson, and K. Ko. "Reading relative clauses in English." MIT Manuscript, 2001.

Gordon, P. C., R. Hendrick, 與 M. Johnson合著.(語言處理中的記憶衝突)《實驗心理學雜誌:學習,記憶和認知》(2001).
Gordon, P. C., R. Hendrick, and M. Johnson. "Memory interference during language processing." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition (2001).

Grodner, D., E. Gibson, 與D. Watson合著.(句法處理中上下文對照的影響:句子理解中強烈互動的證據)《手稿審查中》, 2001.
Grodner, D., E. Gibson, and D. Watson. "The Influence of Contextual Contrast on Syntactic Processing: Evidence for Strong-Interaction in Sentence Comprehension." Manuscript submitted for publication, 2001.

Grodner, D., E. Gibson, 與 S. Tunstall合著.(歧義消解中的語法複雜性)《記憶與語言雜誌》 46 (2002): 267-295.
Grodner, D., E. Gibson, and S. Tunstall. "Syntactic complexity in ambiguity resolution." Journal of Memory and Language 46 (2002): 267-295.

Hemforth, B., L. Konieczny, 與 C. Scheepers合著.(句法連接與前方照應語分析:關係子句連接的兩端)《語言處理的結構與機制》. M. Crocker, M. Pickering, 與 C. Clifton編輯. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press(劍橋大學出版), 2000, pp. 259-281.
Hemforth, B., L. Konieczny, and C. Scheepers. "Syntactic attachment and anaphor resolution: The two sides of relative clause attachment." In Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing. Edited by M. Crocker, M. Pickering, and C. Clifton. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 259-281.

Jurafsky, D.著 (詞法與句法存取與消歧的概率模型)《認知科學》 20 (1996): 137-194.
Jurafsky, D. "A probabilistic model of lexical and syntactic access and disambiguation." Cognitive Science 20 (1996): 137-194.

Just, M. A., 與P. A. Carpenter合著.(理解力中的一種容量理論:工作記憶中的個體差異《心理學評論》99 (1992): 122-149.
Just, M. A., and P. A. Carpenter. "A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory." Psychological Review 99 (1992): 122-149.

PubMed 摘要:一個關於工作記憶容量如何限制理解力的理論被提出。這個理論認為處理和儲存兩者都以活化為媒介,且工作記憶中的可用活化總數量會因人而異。語言的工作記憶容量之個體差異可以說明在大專生年紀的成人在語言理解許多面向上的質和量上的差異。其中一個面向是句法模組化:某些個人的較大的容量允許句法和實用資訊間的交互作用,所以他們的句法處理不是資訊性地封裝。另一個面向是句法模糊性:某些個人的較大的容量允許他們保持多種的詮釋。這個理論被當成是製造系統模型的例子,在該模型中可用活化的數量影響了其對於在理解過程中發生的短暫計算和儲存需求的調適方式。
PubMed abstract: A theory of the way working memory capacity constrains comprehension is proposed. The theory proposes that both processing and storage are mediated by activation and that the total amount of activation available in working memory varies among individuals. Individual differences in working memory capacity for language can account for qualitative and quantitative differences among college-age adults in several aspects of language comprehension. One aspect is syntactic modularity: The larger capacity of some individuals permits interaction among syntactic and pragmatic information, so that their syntactic processes are not informationally encapsulated. Another aspect is syntactic ambiguity: The larger capacity of some individuals permits them to maintain multiple interpretations. The theory is instantiated as a production system model in which the amount of activation available to the model affects how it adapts to the transient computational and storage demands that occur in comprehension.

Kaan, E., A. Harris, E. Gibson, 與 P. Holcomb合著(句法整合的困難指標─P600.)《語言與認知過程》 15 (2000): 159-201.
Kaan, E., A. Harris, E. Gibson, and P. Holcomb. "The P600 as an index of syntactic integration difficulty." Language and Cognitive Processes 15 (2000): 159-201.

Lewis, R. L.著(短期記憶中的衝突:句子處理中神奇的順位2(或3)《心理語言學研究雜誌》 25 (1996): 93-117.
Lewis, R. L. "Interference in short term memory: The magical number two (or three) in sentence processing." Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 25 (1996): 93-117.

PubMed 摘要:為了解釋嵌入結構的困難,提出了很多理論,大多數理論把這一問題歸因於某種短期記憶的受限能力。然而,這些理論已經發展成為獨立於傳統記憶研究的主要部分,而傳統記憶研究關注的是揭示如打亂和衝突這一類的普遍規則。通過將一些有趣的核心句子處理現象解釋為在嚴格受限的句法工作記憶中衝突的結果,這篇文章試圖在一定程度上統一這一研究。受限的情況包括困難的和恰當的嵌入,也包括一些對歧異消除的限制、花園路徑結構中的長度效應和句法結構中的近距離制約。這些理論表現為建築體系的剖析形式,即在同一句法關係下,只能索引出兩個要素。在許多另外的口語短期記憶任務中,同樣還出現兩三項制約因素。
PubMed abstract: Many theories have been proposed to explain difficulty with center embedded constructions, most attributing the problem to some kind of limited-capacity short-term memory. However, these theories have developed for the most part independently of more traditional memory research, which has focused on uncovering general principles such as chunking and interference. This article attempts to gain some unification with this research by suggesting that an interesting range of core sentence processing phenomena can be explained as interference effects in a sharply limited syntactic working memory. These include difficult and acceptable embeddings, as well as certain limitations on ambiguity resolution, length effects in garden path structures, and the requirement for locality in syntactic structure. The theory takes the form of an architecture for parsing that can index no more than two constituents under the same syntactic relation. A limitation of two or three items shows up in a variety of other verbal short-term memory tasks as well.

MacDonald, M.著〈從缺口到前提的啟動效應〉《語言與認知過程》 4 (1989): 35-56.
MacDonald, M. "Priming effects from gaps to antecedents." Language and Cognitive Processes 4 (1989): 35-56.

MacDonald, M. C., 與 M. Christiansen.合著〈無工作記憶中的個體差異〉《心理學評論》(in press).
MacDonald, M. C., and M. Christiansen. "Individual differences without working memory." Psychological Review (in press).

MacDonald, M., N. Pearlmutter, 與 M. Seidenberg合著.〈句法歧義消解中的辭彙性質《心理學評論》 101 (1994): 676-703.
MacDonald, M., N. Pearlmutter, and M. Seidenberg. "The lexical nature of syntactic ambiguity resolution." Psychological Review 101 (1994): 676-703.

PubMed 摘要:歧義消解是語言理解中的一個主要問題。一般來說,都假設詞彙和句法的歧義包括不同類型的知識表徵,並由不同的機制來消除。還有一種說法認為,兩種類型的歧義源自詞彙表徵的不同方面,並由相同的處理機制解決。重新解釋句法歧義消解,將其作為詞彙歧義消解的一種形式,避免了為說明句法解析參數而制定特殊分詞原則的需求,解決了很多在句子處理時在詞彙和上下文資訊的角色之間有明顯衝突的結果,解釋了在消除的簡化方面歧義之間的不同,為句子理解提供了比以前更統一的標準。
PubMed abstract: Ambiguity resolution is a central problem in language comprehension. Lexical and syntactic ambiguities are standardly assumed to involve different types of knowledge representations and be resolved by different mechanisms. An alternative account is provided in which both types of ambiguity derive from aspects of lexical representation and are resolved by the same processing mechanisms. Reinterpreting syntactic ambiguity resolution as a form of lexical ambiguity resolution obviates the need for special parsing principles to account for syntactic interpretation preferences, reconciles a number of apparently conflicting results concerning the roles of lexical and contextual information in sentence processing, explains differences among ambiguities in terms of ease of resolution, and provides a more unified account of language comprehension than was previously available.

McKoon, G., R. Ratcliff, 與 D. Albritton.合著〈以跨感官取代目視過程,句法對辭彙判定的影響《實驗心理學雜誌:學習,記憶和認知》 22 (1996): 1494-1497.
McKoon, G., R. Ratcliff, and D. Albritton. "Sentential context effects on lexical decisions with a cross-modal instead of an all-visual procedure." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 22 (1996): 1494-1497.

PubMed 摘要:J. L. Nicol 和D. Swinney (1989)的報告指出,如動詞的隱含對像(WH句型),跨感官詞彙判定的簡化在理解過程中得以還原。G. McKoon和R. Ratcliff (1994)發現,在隱含對像缺省的情況下,啟動效果相同,並認為這種效果除歸因於填補隱含對象的句法處理外,還應歸因於其他因素。J. L. Nicol, J. D. Fodor和 D. Swinney (1994)對McKoon 和 Ratcliff的這一發現提出質疑,因為他們的發現是通過完全可視化的方式獲得而不是通過跨通道呈現獲得的。在兩個實驗中,作者們利用跨通道詞彙判定重複了McKoon 和 Ratcliff的結果。
PubMed abstract: J. L. Nicol and D. Swinney (1989) reported facilitation in a cross-modal lexical-decision task as evidence that implicit objects of verbs (WH-traces) are reinstated during comprehension. G. McKoon and R. Ratcliff (1994) found the same priming effects in the absence of implicit objects, suggesting that the effects are attributable to some factor other than a syntactic process that would fill in implicit objects. J. L. Nicol, J. D. Fodor, and D. Swinney (1994) questioned the relevance of McKoon and Ratcliff's findings because they were obtained with all-visual rather than cross-modal presentation. In 2 experiments, the authors replicated McKoon and Ratcliff's results using cross-modal lexical decision.

Mitchell, D. C., F. Cuetos, M. M. B. Corley, 與 M. Brysbaert合著〈人類語法分析中的揭露模型︰普遍深入(非詞彙)統計記錄使用之證據 〉《心理語言學研究雜誌》 24 (1996): 469-488.
Mitchell, D. C., F. Cuetos, M. M. B. Corley, and M. Brysbaert, "Exposure-based models of human parsing: Evidence for the use of coarse-grained (non-lexical) statistical records." Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 24 (1996): 469-488.

Ni, W., S. Crain, 與 D. Shankweiler.合著〈回避花園幽徑:評估消解歧義過程中語法,語義和可信性的作用 〉《語言與認知過程》 11 (1996): 283-334.
Ni, W., S. Crain, and D. Shankweiler. "Sidestepping garden-paths: Assessing the contributions of syntax, semantics and plausibility in resolving ambiguities." Language and Cognitive Processes 11 (1996): 283-334.

Osterhout, L.著〈當作工具的事件相關大腦電位波 〉《句子處理中的觀點》. C. Clifton, L. Frazier, 與 K. Rayner. Lawrence Erlbaum合著, 1994, pp. 15-44.
Osterhout, L. "Event-related brain potentials as tools." In Perspectives in Sentence Processing. By C. Clifton, L. Frazier, and K. Rayner. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994, pp. 15-44.

Patel, A. D., E. Gibson, J. Ratner, M. Besson,與 P. Holcomb.合著〈語言與音樂中之處理文法關係:一種事件相關電位研究《認知神經科學雜誌》 10 (1998): 717-733.
Patel, A. D., E. Gibson, J. Ratner, M. Besson, and P. Holcomb. "Processing grammatical relations in language and music: An event-related potential study." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 10 (1998): 717-733.

PubMed 摘要:為了測試句法處理中某種已知神經關聯的語言特徵[事件相關腦電位(ERP)的P600成分],這份研究直接對比了由於語言和音樂中的句法不一致引起的ERP的不同。依據語言中片語結構的原則和音樂中和聲原則、調性相關原則,建構了一種序列,其中,單一元素與前述結構脈絡呈現一致,或中度不一致,或是非常不一致的關係。由15個受音樂教育的成年人組成的被試樣本內設計表明,在規定的反應時間範圍內,語言和音樂的結構不一致導致在統計上不明顯的陽性。相對地,音樂類型的ERP成分被認為是前顳的右腦半球佔優勢。這些結果反對P600的語言特徵,並認為語言和音樂能夠被並行研究,以便在認知處理中發現神經特徵的問題。
PubMed abstract: In order to test the language-specificity of a known neural correlate of syntactic processing [the P600 event-related brain potential (ERP) component], this study directly compared ERPs elicited by syntactic incongruities in language and music. Using principles of phrase structure for language and principles of harmony and key-relatedness for music, sequences were constructed in which an element was either congruous, moderately incongruous, or highly incongruous with the preceding structural context. A within-subjects design using 15 musically educated adults revealed that linguistic and musical structural incongruities elicited positivities that were statistically indistinguishable in a specified latency range. In contrast, a music-specific ERP component was observed that showed antero-temporal right-hemisphere lateralization. The results argue against the language-specificity of the P600 and suggest that language and music can be studied in parallel to address questions of neural specificity in cognitive processing.

Pearlmutter, N., 與 E. Gibson.合著〈動詞片語與最近片語的連接《實驗心理學雜誌:學習,記憶和認識》 (2001).
Pearlmutter, N., and E. Gibson. "Recency and verb phrase attachment." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition (2001).

PubMed 摘要:四個實驗研究了結構中的聯接偏好,結構包括被一個隸屬修飾語修飾的3個動詞短語(VPs)。一般讀者喜歡聯結最近的動詞短語。一般來說,讀者喜歡聯接勝過最近的(最低的)動詞短語,且偏愛把修飾語附著中間的動詞短語勝過最高的動詞短語,論證了一個單調的基於近因的(Recency-Based)偏愛序。這個模式不能被歸因於詞彙的或基於似然性(plausibility-based)的偏愛。這個結果與關係從句連接3個可能的名詞短語位置的模式形成了對比,那個模式中偏愛序是非單調的(e.g., E. Gibson, N. J. Pearlmutter, E. Canseco-Gonzalez, & G. Hickok, 1996), 且支持E. Gibson 和 N. J. Pearlmutter(1998) 描述的多重限制理論,該理論主張近因/位置和一個次級因素—謂詞接近性(predicate proximity)結合詞彙的,文法的,作詩法的(prosodic),和上下文的限制決定聯接偏好。
PubMed abstract: Four experiments investigated attachment preferences in constructions involving 3 verb phrases (VPs) followed by an attaching modifier. Readers preferred attachment to the most recent (lowest) VP site overall and preferred to attach the modifier to the middle VP over the highest VP, demonstrating a monotonic recency-based preference ordering. This pattern could not be attributed to lexical or plausibility-based preferences. The results contrast with the pattern for relative clause attachment into 3 potential noun phrase sites, where the preference ordering is nonmonotonic (e.g., E. Gibson, N. J. Pearlmutter, E. Canseco-Gonzalez, & G. Hickok, 1996), and support the multiple-constraint theory described by E. Gibson and N. J. Pearlmutter (1998), which proposes that recency/locality and a secondary factor, predicate proximity, combine with lexical, grammatical, prosodic, and contextual constraints to determine attachment preferences.

Pearlmutter, N. J.與 A. Mendelsohn.合著〈串列式相對並行式之句子理解〉《手稿審查中》, 1999.
Pearlmutter, N. J., and A. Mendelsohn. "Serial versus parallel sentence comprehension." Manuscript submitted for publication, 1999.

Pearlmutter, N. J., 與 M. C. MacDonald.合著 〈句法歧義消解中的個體差異與機率性約束.〉《記憶與語言雜誌》 34 (1995): 521-542.
Pearlmutter, N. J., and M. C. MacDonald. "Individual differences and probablistic constraints in syntactic ambiguity resolution." Journal of Memory and Language 34 (1995): 521-542.

Pickering, M., 與G. Barry.合著〈無語類的句子處理〉《語言與認知過程》 6 (1991): 229-259.
Pickering, M., and G. Barry. "Sentence processing without empty categories." Language and Cognitive Processes 6 (1991): 229-259.

Rohde, D., 與 D. Plaut.合著〈缺乏明確否定證據的語言採集:從小開始有多重要﹖《認知》72 (1999): 67-109.
Rohde, D., and D. Plaut. "Language acquisition in the absence of explicit negative evidence: how important is starting small?" Cognition 72 (1999): 67-109.

PubMed 摘要:基於提供給兒童的清晰的否定證據的明顯缺乏和Gold的證明,通常假設對學習一種自然語言來說,先天語言上的約束是必要的。這個證明是指在實際上任意的肯定表達的假設下,大多數有趣的語言類是不可學得的,然而,Gold的結果並不適用於更正確普通的假設,即語言表達的模型像一個隨機過程。實際上,Elman(Elman,J.L.,1993.Learning and development in neural networks: the importance of starting small(神經網絡中的學習和發展:初始小的重要性Cognition(認知)48,71-99)證實了在隨機環境中執行一個單詞預測任務的基礎上,一個簡單的循環連接網絡能夠學會帶有一些英語複雜度的人造語法,包括內嵌短語。然而,只有當內嵌句子在初始時被保留且被逐步導入,或者網絡本身在初始時被給與了只能逐步改進的有限記憶,這個網絡才是成功的。這個發現被當作Newport的「少一點就是多一些」觀點的支持。有限的認知資源也許能夠幫助而不是阻礙兒童語言的獲取。相反的,現在有關連接仿真的文章報告指出,在訓練學習偽自然語言的循環網絡中,以簡化輸入或有限記憶開始並不是必要的。事實上,這種約束阻礙了獲取,因為語言更多的是類似英文般由語義以及句法約束所確定。我們建議,在一個語言環境的統計模型下,Gold的定理和清晰否定證據可能的缺少並不意味著先天的、特殊語言的機制。此外,我們的仿真顯示在學習自然語言的結構中,特殊的教育方法或成熟的約束可能是不必要的。
PubMed abstract: It is commonly assumed that innate linguistic constraints are necessary to learn a natural language, based on the apparent lack of explicit negative evidence provided to children and on Gold's proof that, under assumptions of virtually arbitrary positive presentation, most interesting classes of languages are not learnable. However, Gold's results do not apply under the rather common assumption that language presentation may be modeled as a stochastic process. Indeed, Elman (Elman, J.L., 1993. Learning and development in neural networks: the importance of starting small. Cognition 48, 71-99) demonstrated that a simple recurrent connectionist network could learn an artificial grammar with some of the complexities of English, including embedded clauses, based on performing a word prediction task within a stochastic environment. However, the network was successful only when either embedded sentences were initially withheld and only later introduced gradually, or when the network itself was given initially limited memory which only gradually improved. This finding has been taken as support for Newport's 'less is more' proposal, that child language acquisition may be aided rather than hindered by limited cognitive resources. The current article reports on connectionist simulations which indicate, to the contrary, that starting with simplified inputs or limited memory is not necessary in training recurrent networks to learn pseudonatural languages; in fact, such restrictions hinder acquisition as the languages are made more English-like by the introduction of semantic as well as syntactic constraints. We suggest that, under a statistical model of the language environment, Gold's theorem and the possible lack of explicit negative evidence do not implicate innate, linguistic-specific mechanisms. Furthermore, our simulations indicate that special teaching methods or maturational constraints may be unnecessary in learning the structure of natural language.

Sedivy, J.著〈引用基於語段的對比組與消解語法歧義〉《記憶與語言雜誌》46 (2002): 341-370.
Sedivy, J. "Invoking discourse-based contrast sets and resolving syntactic ambiguities." Journal of Memory and Language 46 (2002): 341-370.

Spivey-Knowlton, M., 與 J. Sedivy.合著〈用多重約束條件消解附件歧義《認知》 55 (1995): 227-267.
Spivey-Knowlton, M., and J. Sedivy. "Resolving attachment ambiguities with multiple constraints." Cognition 55 (1995): 227-267.

PubMed 摘要:不同的句法歧義消解理論贊成不同的信息源決定其初始的分析決策。(例如,結構化定義分析原理,詞彙特殊偏向,或者參考語用學)。然而,一個「基於約束的」句法歧義消解方法認為詞彙特殊偏向和參考語用學能被領會者並行的使用。文本集分析,句子片斷填充和自我閱讀試驗被引導證實了局部信息(詞彙特殊偏向)和上下文信息(參考假設前提)都有利於前置短語連接歧義的在線消解。這裡沒有因純粹地結構定義分析原理而出現一個角色(即最小連接)。現在和先前的證據都與一個發展中的框架是一致的,在這個框架中多重約束(從下至上和從上至下)直接地相互影響決定了初始的句法約束。
PubMed abstract: Different theories of syntactic ambiguity resolution argue for different sources of information determining initial parsing decisions (e.g., structurally defined parsing principles, lexically specific biases, or referential pragmatics). However, a "constraint-based" approach to syntactic ambiguity resolution proposes that both lexically specific biases and referential pragmatics are used in parallel by the comprehender. Analyses of text corpora, sentence fragment completions, and self-paced reading experiments were conducted to demonstrate that both local information (lexically specific biases) and contextual information (referential presupposition) contribute to the on-line resolution of prepositional phrase attachment ambiguities. There does not appear to be a role for purely structurally defined parsing principles (i.e., minimal attachment). Present and previous evidence is consistent with a developing framework in which multiple constraints (bottom-up and top-down) interact immediately to determine initial syntactic commitments.

Spivey-Knowlton, M., 與 M. K. Tanenhaus.合著〈指示性上下文與句法歧義消解〉《句子處理中的觀點》. C. Clifton, L. Frazier, 與 K. Rayner. Lawrence Erlbaum編輯, 1994, pp. 415-439.
Spivey-Knowlton, M., and M. K. Tanenhaus. "Referential context and syntactic ambiguity resolution." In Perspectives in Sentence Processing. Edited by C. Clifton, L. Frazier, and K. Rayner. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994, pp. 415-439.

Sturt, P., M. J. Pickering, 與M. W. Crocker.合著〈語言理解中的結構變化和重析困難〉《記憶與語言雜誌》 40 (1999): 136-150.
Sturt, P., M. J. Pickering, and M. W. Crocker. "Structural change and reanalysis difficulty in language comprehension." Journal of Memory and Language 40 (1999): 136-150.

Tabor, W., C. Juliano, 與M. K. Tanenhaus.合著〈動態系統中的語法分析:句子處理中一種基於吸引者的詞彙與結構性約束交互作用的解釋 〉《語言與認知過程》 12 (1997): 211-272.
Tabor, W., C. Juliano, and M. K. Tanenhaus. "Parsing in a dynamical system: An attractor-based account of the interaction of lexical and structural constraints in sentence processing." Language and Cognitive Processes 12 (1997): 211-272.

Tanenhaus, M., M. Spivey-Knowlton, K. Eberhard, 與 J. Sedivy.合著〈口語理解中視覺與語言學資訊的整合《科學》 268 (1995): 1632-1634.
Tanenhaus, M., M. Spivey-Knowlton, K. Eberhard, and J. Sedivy. "Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension." Science 268 (1995): 1632-1634.

PubMed 摘要:心理語言學家通常假設和一條口語訊息隨著時間的過去而伸展一樣,它最初被一種語言處理模塊所構造。這個模塊從其他感知和認知系統提供的信息壓縮形成。為了測試在伴隨著口語理解的急速心理過程中相關視覺背景的影響,當被試者遵循指令操作實際對像時,頭配式眼神追蹤系統記錄他們的眼球運動。視覺背景影響口語字認知和中間的語法處理,甚至語言處理的最初瞬間。
PubMed abstract: Psycholinguists have commonly assumed that as a spoken linguistic message unfolds over time, it is initially structured by a syntactic processing module that is encapsulated from information provided by other perceptual and cognitive systems. To test the effects of relevant visual context on the rapid mental processes that accompany spoken language comprehension, eye movements were recorded with a head-mounted eye-tracking system while subjects followed instructions to manipulate real objects. Visual context influenced spoken word recognition and mediated syntactic processing, even during the earliest moments of language processing.

Trueswell, J. C.著〈語法歧義消解中辭彙頻率的角色 〉《記憶與語言雜誌》 35 (1996): 566-585.
Trueswell, J. C. "The role of lexical frequency in syntactic ambiguity resolution." Journal of Memory and Language 35 (1996): 566-585.

Trueswell, J. C., 與 M. K. Tanenhaus.合著〈針對基於約束之語法歧義消解的辭彙架構 〉《句子處理中的觀點》. C. Clifton, L. Frazier, 與 K. Rayner. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum編輯, 1994, pp. 155-180.
Trueswell, J. C., and M. K. Tanenhaus. "Toward a lexicalist framework of constraint based syntactic ambiguity resolution." In Perspectives in Sentence Processing. Edited by C. Clifton, L. Frazier, and K. Rayner. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994, pp. 155-180.

Watson, D., 與 E. Gibson.合著〈聲調表達與語法結構的關係 〉《手稿審查中》, 2001.
Watson, D., and E. Gibson. "The relationship between intonational phrasing and linguistic structure." Manuscript submitted for publication, 2001.

Warren, T., 與E. Gibson.合著〈句子複雜性於指示性處理過程影響 〉《手稿審查中》(2001).
Warren, T., and E. Gibson. "The influence of referential processing on sentence complexity." Manuscript submitted for publication (2001).

Wolf, F., 與 Gibson.合著(語法分析:概要)《認知科學百科全書》. MacMillan (即將出版).
Wolf, F., and Gibson. "Parsing: Overview." In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. MacMillan (in press).




 
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