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The readings listed below are the foundation of this course. Where available, journal article abstracts from PubMed (an online database providing access to citations from biomedical literature) are included.


Meltzoff, Julian. 《學術研究的批判思考》. 華盛頓特區: 美國心理學協會, 1998.
Meltzoff, Julian. Critical Thinking About Research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1998.

Holcomb, Zealure C. 《基本統計學的詮釋》 - 一本以摘錄期刊文章為主的入門書. 洛杉磯: Pyrczak Publishing, 1998.
Holcomb, Zealure C. Interpreting Basic Statistics - a guide based on excerpts from journal articles. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 1998.

《美國心理學會出版手冊》. Arlington, VA.
The publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Arlington, VA.

Experimental papers to be distributed in class.

Dutton, D.G. 與 A.P. Aron, 〈部分證據顯示高度的焦慮會提升性的吸引力.《人格與社會心理學期刊》, 1974. 30(4): 510-7頁.
Dutton, D.G. and A.P. Aron, "Some evidence for heightened sexual attraction under conditions of high anxiety." J Pers Soc Psychol, 1974. 30(4): p. 510-7.

Kim, I.K. 與 E.S. Spelke, 〈嬰兒是否能敏銳察覺出重力對可見物體運動的影響.《實驗心理學期刊:人類知覺的表現》, 1992. 18(2): 385-93頁.
Kim, I.K. and E.S. Spelke, "Infants' sensitivity to effects of gravity on visible object motion." J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform, 1992. 18(2): p. 385-93.

PubMed 摘要:探測嬰兒對於斜面上物體運動之感知的一種偏好方法。嬰兒觀看觀看錄影的事件,其中一個球朝下滾動(或朝上),同時加快速度(減慢速度)。然侯嬰兒將被以那些事件測試,球朝著對立方向,以恰當或不恰當加速度運動。嬰兒在7個月大時,而非5個月大,觀看測試事件,不恰當的加速運動,更長時間,因此而顯示了一種對重力之初現的感受性。一個進一步的研究是測試嬰兒是否能察知一個靜止的物體在斜坡上放開,將朝下移動而非朝上;我們再次發現7個月大的嬰兒有此表現,而5個月大的嬰兒則無。最後的研究提供了證據,5個月大的嬰兒仍然能區別朝下與朝上的運動,以及在錄影帶中與現實事件中之相關的朝下運動。對於重力之特定作用的感受性,顯示為在嬰兒期時得到發展。
PubMed abstract: A preference method probed infants' perception of object motion on an inclined plane. Infants viewed videotaped events in which a ball rolled downward (or upward) while speeding up (or slowing down). Then infants were tested with events in which the ball moved in the opposite direction with appropriate or inappropriate acceleration. Infants aged 7 months, but not 5 months, looked longer at the test event with inappropriate acceleration, suggesting emerging sensitivity to gravity. A further study tested whether infants appreciate that a stationary object released on an incline moves downward rather than upward; findings again were positive at 7 months and negative at 5 months. A final study provided evidence, nevertheless, that 5-month-old infants discriminate downward from upward motion and relate downward motion in videotaped events to downward motion in live events. Sensitivity to certain effects of gravity appears to develop in infancy.

Introduction to experimental research and problems of control

Weiss, J.M., 〈壓力因應的效果.《比較生理心理學期刊》, 1968. 65(2): 251-60頁.
Weiss, J.M., "Effects of coping responses on stress." J Comp Physiol Psychol, 1968. 65(2): p. 251-60.

Sigall and Ostrove , 〈在陪審團審判中,犯罪者的魅力以及犯罪本質所造成美麗但卻危險的影響.〉 《人格與社會心理學期刊》, 1975, Vol. 31, 1975
Sigall and Ostrove , "Beautiful but Dangerous Effects of Offender Attractiveness and Nature of the Crime on Juridic Judgment." J. Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, Vol. 31, 1975

實驗設計- I
Experimental design - I

Blakemore, C. and G.F. Cooper, 〈腦部的發展端賴週遭的視覺環境《自然》, 1970. 228(270): 477-8頁.
Blakemore, C. and G.F. Cooper, "Development of the brain depends on the visual environment." Nature, 1970. 228(270): p. 477-8.

Merikle, P.M. and H.E. Skanes, 〈潛意識裡的自助錄音帶:安慰劑效應的追尋.《應用心理學期刊》, 1992. 77(5): 772-6頁.
Merikle, P.M. and H.E. Skanes, "Subliminal self-help audiotapes: a search for placebo effects." J Appl Psychol, 1992. 77(5): p. 772-6.

PubMed 摘要:潛意識自助錄音帶用以協助減重的作用,被評價為有待確定的,如果它們顯著的效力被認定為一種安慰劑的話。所有受試者均為女性學員或職員,同時是過重而且相信潛意識錄音帶的可能效力。針對三個不同的受試群組進行:第一組收聽潛意識錄音帶,直接購買自生產商;而第二組收聽較為安慰劑性質的錄音帶;第三組則完全未收聽任何錄音帶。為各組的每位受試者進行每週秤重,為期五週。三組所有的受試者均有減重現象,而減重的平均量各組幾乎相同。這個結果顯示,並無證據支持規律性使用潛意識錄音帶,將導致安慰劑的效果。反而,此結果顯示的是,規律性使用潛意識錄音帶,將僅僅是使受試者更加注意他們的體重。
PubMed abstract: Subliminal self-help audiotapes to aid weight loss were evaluated to determine if their apparent effectiveness is due to a placebo effect. All subjects were female students or staff who were both overweight and believed in the possible effectiveness of subliminal audiotapes. Three different groups of subjects were tested: One group listened to subliminal audiotapes purchased directly from a manufacturer, the 2nd group listened to comparable placebo tapes, and the 3rd group did not listen to any tapes at all. Each subject in each group was weighed once each week for 5 weeks. All 3 groups of subjects lost weight, and the average amount of weight lost by each group was approximately equivalent. These results provide no evidence that regular use of subliminal audiotapes leads to a placebo effect. Rather, the results suggest that regular use of subliminal audiotapes may simply make subjects more conscious of their weight.

Rauscher, F.H., G.L. Shaw, and K.N. Ky, 〈音樂與空間作業的表現.《自然》, 1993. 365(6447): 611頁.
Rauscher, F.H., G.L. Shaw, and K.N. Ky, "Music and spatial task performance." Nature, 1993. 365(6447): p. 611.

Steele, K.M., T.N. Ball, and R. Runk, 〈聽莫札特的音樂並不會增強在數字回朔測驗中的表現.《知覺技能與運動技能》, 1997. 84 (第3冊 第2部分): 1179-84頁
Steele, K.M., T.N. Ball, and R. Runk, "Listening to Mozart does not enhance backwards digit span performance." Percept Mot Skills, 1997. 84 (3 Pt 2): p. 1179-84.

PubMed 摘要:Rauscher, Shaw, 和 Ky近來的報導指出,接受了莫札特簡短的樂段後,產生了一種表現在取自Stanford-Binet 智力程度-IV所指定之任務上,的暫時性增長。當今的研究檢視這樣的效果是否發生在數字回溯測驗的表現上。進行一種受試者內的設計,36位大學生收聽10分鐘,莫札特的樂段、雨聲的錄音、或沈靜。在每一段刺激後,大學生們有3個嘗試去聽和回憶不同的9個字串以倒反的順序。並沒有明顯的差異在處理的情況中被發現,只有練習而產生的顯著效應。經討論的結果為:需要去隔離各種條件,方能解釋莫札特效應的產生。
PubMed abstract: Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky recently reported that exposure to brief periods of music by Mozart produced a temporary increase in performance on tasks taken from the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-IV. The present study examined whether this effect occurred in performance on a backwards digit span task. In a within-subjects design 36 undergraduates were exposed to 10-min. periods of Mozart music, a recording of rain, or silence. After each stimulus period, undergraduates had three attempts to hear and recall different 9-digit strings in reverse order. No significant differences among treatment conditions were found. There was a significant effect of practice. Results are discussed in terms of the need to isolate the conditions responsible for production of the Mozart effect.

資料分析 – I
Data analysis - I

Babich, F. R., A. L. Jacobson, S. Bubash, and A. Jacobson. 〈從訓練過的白老鼠中粹取的核醣核酸,注入至未受訓練的白老鼠後,行為反應也會隨之轉移.〉 刊於 《科學》149. 1965, 656-657頁.
Babich, F. R., A. L. Jacobson, S. Bubash, and A. Jacobson. "Transfer of a response to naive rats by injection of ribonucleic acid extracted from trained rats." In Science 149. 1965, pp. 656-657.

Babich, F. R., A. L. Jacobson, and S. Bubash. 〈跨物種的學習轉移:蒼鼠的核醣核酸對白老鼠行為的影響.〉 刊於 《美國國家科學院會報》 (華盛頓.) 54. 1965, 1299-1302頁.
Babich, F. R., A. L. Jacobson, and S. Bubash. "Cross-species transfer of learning: effects of ribonucleic acid from hamsters on rat behavior." In Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 54. 1965, pp. 1299-1302.

Ungar, G., and L. N. Irwin. 〈利用大腦粹取物移轉經由學習而得的訊息.〉 刊於《自然》 (倫敦.) 214. 1967, 453-455頁.
Ungar, G., and L. N. Irwin. "Transfer of acquired information by brain extracts." In Nature (Land.) 214. 1967, pp. 453-455.

Hartry, A. L., P. Keith-Lee, and W. W. Morton. 〈渦蟲: 重新檢驗記憶是否可經由同類互食得到轉移.〉 刊於《科學》 146. 1964, 274-275頁.
Hartry, A. L., P. Keith-Lee, and W. W. Morton. "Planaria: memory transfer through cannibalism re- examined." In Science 146. 1964, pp. 274-275.

Byrne, W. T., et al. 〈記憶移轉.〉 刊於《科學》 153. 1966. 658-659頁.
Byrne, W. T., et al. "Memory transfer." In Science 153. 1966. pp. 658-659.

Bransford and Johnson, 〈理解力所需的必要情境條件: 對於理解和回憶的一些研究!〉《言語學習和行為期刊》 11, 1972; 或其他變異數分析的研究
Bransford and Johnson, "Contextual Prerequisites for Understanding: Some Investigations of Comprehension and Recall!" J of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11, 1972; or other ANOVA study

實驗設計 – II
Experimental design - II

Wollen et al, 〈心像的特異性與交互作用之比較,何者為學習的決定性因素.〉 《認知心理學》 3, 1972
Wollen et al, "Bizarreness versus Interaction of Mental Images as Determinants of Learning." Cognitive Psychology 3, 1972

〈在兩種自然環境下: 地上和水底,依靠情境的記憶表現.〉 《英國呼吸心理學期刊》 66 Godden and Baddeley, 1975
Context Dependent Memory in two natural environments: On land and underwater. J BR Psychology 66 Godden and Baddeley, 1975

資料分析 - II
Data analysis - II

Riskind and Maddux, 〈幽影、無助與害怕: 整合幽影危害與自我勝任感的害怕模型.〉 《社會與臨床心理學期刊》, 第12冊, 第 1卷, 1993
Riskind and Maddux, "Loomingness, Helplessness, and Fearfulness: An Integration of Harm-Looming and Self-Efficacy Models of Fear." J of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1993

Gunter, Berry and Clifford, 〈電視新聞的順向干擾效應: 進一步的證據.〉 《實驗心理學期刊: 人類的學習與記憶》, 第 7冊, 1981
Gunter, Berry and Clifford, "Proactive Interference Effects With Television News Items: Further Evidence." J Experimental Psychology: Human Learing and Memory, vol. 7, 1981

Correlational research

Eron et al, 〈電視的暴力影像會導致侵略行為嗎?《美國心理學家》 . 每年. 1972
Eron et al, "Does Television Violence cause Aggression?" American Psychologist . Ann. 1972

Bouchard, T.J., Jr. and M. McGue, 〈智商的家族遺傳研究:文獻的回顧.《科學》, 1981. 212(4498): 1055-9頁.
Bouchard, T.J., Jr. and M. McGue, "Familial studies of intelligence: a review." Science, 1981. 212(4498): p. 1055-9.

PubMed 摘要:111研究的摘要辨識出,在衡量智力之家族相似性的全球文獻中,揭露了平均相關的輪廓,與遺傳的多起源模式相一致。在家族的群組內,存在著一個相互關聯的異質性之顯著差異,並未因家族配對的性別,或所使用之智力測驗的形態而減緩。
PubMed abstract: A summary of 111 studies identified in a survey of the world literature on familial resemblances in measured intelligence reveals a profile of average correlations consistent with a polygenic mode of inheritance. There is, however, a marked degree of heterogeneity of the correlations within familial groupings, which is not moderated by sex of familial pairing or by type of intelligence test used.

Small N designs

Wagaman, J.R., R.G. Miltenberger, and R.E. Arndorfer, 〈治療口吃小孩簡易療程的分析.《應用性行為分析期刊》, 1993. 26(1): 53-61頁.
Wagaman, J.R., R.G. Miltenberger, and R.E. Arndorfer, "Analysis of a simplified treatment for stuttering in children." J Appl Behav Anal, 1993. 26(1): p. 53-61.

PubMed 摘要:我們探究孩童口吃治療的簡易方案之有效性。簡易療程包括了察覺力訓練,其中受侍者學習去檢查口吃的每一次發生;訓練一種不伴隨著口吃的反應,包括當說話時的放鬆和氣流流經喉頭時的規律性;以及社會性的支持,包含了父母所傳達的激勵,和在每天的環境中,孩童對於技巧之使用的稱讚。8位孩童在他們的家中被以簡易療程進行治療,以一種跨越不同受試者多重基準線的實驗設計,並且所有受試者均達到少於3%詞語口吃的判準。另外,口吃減少的情況仍適用於在學校環境中以及維持到治療後(10到13個月)。受試者的談話速度在基準線和治療中保持穩定狀態。治療前與治療後,由父母所進行的評量顯示,他們發現治療是既可被接受以及信賴的。最後,社會的有效性衡量揭露了在受試者言談上,對父母和語言病理學家們一項值得注意的改善。
PubMed abstract: We investigated the effectiveness of a simplified program for the treatment of stuttering in children. The simplified treatment included awareness training, in which the subjects learned to detect every occurrence of stuttering; training a response incompatible with stuttering, which involved relaxation and regulation of air flow over the larynx when speaking; and social support, which involved parent-delivered prompts and praise of children's use of the techniques in everyday environments. Eight children were treated in their homes with the simplified treatment, in a multiple baseline across subjects design, and all reached the criterion level of less than 3% words stuttered. In addition, the reduction in stuttering generalized to the school setting and was maintained at posttreatment (10 to 13 months). The subjects' rates of speech remained stable throughout baseline and treatment. Pretreatment and posttreatment ratings by the parents showed that they found treatment to be both acceptable and credible. Finally, social validity measures revealed a noticeable improvement in the subjects' speech to parents and speech pathologists.

De Luca, R.V. and S.W. Holborn, 〈不定配給食物的強制時間表搭配不停變換的運動基準,它們對肥胖男孩和非肥胖男孩的影響.《應用性行為分析期刊》, 1992. 25(3): 671-9頁.
De Luca, R.V. and S.W. Holborn, "Effects of a variable-ratio reinforcement schedule with changing criteria on exercise in obese and nonobese boys." J Appl Behav Anal, 1992. 25(3): p. 671-9.

PubMed 摘要:變率強化安排,對於踩踏一台固定的運動單車的影響被檢驗。有三位肥胖和三位非肥胖的11歲男孩,個別被每週測試五次,進行最長12週。一份變動的運動基準設計,其中每項連續的運動基準被增加直到超過前階段的平均表現率大約15%。連續運動基準的偶然性,導致所有孩童運動量的系統性增加。最後的變率,有高於那些在先前研究中適用固定變率者的比例,約有大約三分之二的肥胖男孩,有近似於非肥胖男孩的表現。
PubMed abstract: The effects of a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement on pedaling a a stationary exercise bicycle were examined. Three obese and three nonobese 11-year-old boys were individually tested five times weekly for approximately 12 weeks. A changing-criterion design was used in which each successive criterion was increased over mean performance rate in the previous phase by approximately 15%. The contingencies of the successive criteria resulted in systematic increases in rate of exercise for all children. Final variable-ratio rates were higher than those under fixed ratios found in previous research, with rates for 2 of the 3 obese boys approximating those of the nonobese.

Hume, K.M. and J. Crossman, 〈音樂對競賽型游泳者練習行為的強化.《應用性行為分析期刊l》, 1992. 25(3): 665-70頁.
Hume, K.M. and J. Crossman, "Musical reinforcement of practice behaviors among competitive swimmers." J Appl Behav Anal, 1992. 25(3): p. 665-70.

PubMed 摘要:這份研究確定是否音樂可以被使用作為強化劑,針對6位彼此競賽的游泳者,在練習課中的陸上部份,增加成效性和減少非成效性行為。游泳者們被隨機指派至,偶然強化組,接受可促進成效性行為的音樂;或是非偶然組,接受無關於他們訓練之成效性的音樂。經過一種ABAB的設計顯示,偶然組相較於對照組,大量和立即地增加了成效性練習行為,並減少了非成效性練習。受試者贊同音樂性的強化作用,並選擇持續此過程。
PubMed abstract: This study determined whether music could be used as a reinforcer for increasing productive and decreasing nonproductive behavior of 6 competitive swimmers during the dry-land portion of practice session. The swimmers were randomly assigned to either the contingent reinforcement group, who received music for productive behavior, or the noncontingent group, who received music regardless of their training productivity. An ABAB design showed that a large and immediate increase in productive practice behavior and decrease in nonproductive practice behavior occurred during the contingent phase compared to the baseline phase. Subjects rated the musical reinforcement favorably and elected to have the procedure continued.

Quasi-experimental designs/ Applied research/ Descriptive research

Wood, J.M., et al., 〈1989年舊金山大地震對惡夢發生頻率以及惡夢的內容的影響.《變態心理學期刊》, 1992. 101(2): 219-24頁.
Wood, J.M., et al., "Effects of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake on frequency and content of nightmares." J Abnorm Psychol, 1992. 101(2): p. 219-24.

PubMed 摘要:在一份自然災害對惡夢之影響的系統性評估中,1998年Loma Prieta大地震後,據發現指出:針對舊金山灣區92名大學生所作的紀錄,惡夢頻率兩倍於97名亞利桑那州土桑市的對照組。在加州的受試者,不只是作了一般性的惡夢,而且還具體地作了更多關於地震的惡夢。超過三週的期間,大約有40%的在舊金山灣區的受試者,回報有一次或更多次關於地震的惡夢,相較於亞利桑那州則約只有5%的受試者如此。然而,關於地震的惡夢並未在情緒的強度上超過其他種類的惡夢。這些發現支持了,潛在地創傷性的事件將可導致更多頻率的惡夢,這種長久被持有的觀點,尤其關於事件本身。但是卻反駁了廣泛的認知,即關於這類事件的惡夢將帶來不尋常的情緒強度。
PubMed abstract: In a systematic evaluation of the effects of a natural disaster on nightmares, nightmare frequency was found to be about twice as high among 92 San Francisco Bay area college students as among 97 control subjects in Tucson, Arizona, after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Subjects in California had not only more nightmares in general but substantially more nightmares about earthquakes. Over a 3-week period, about 40% of those in the San Francisco Bay area reported one or more nightmares about an earthquake, as compared with only 5% of those in Arizona. However, nightmares about earthquakes were not more emotionally intense than other nightmares. These findings support the long-held view that the experience of a potentially traumatic event can result in more frequent nightmares, particularly about the event itself, but contradict the common opinion that nightmares about such events are unusually intense.

Hall and Veccia, 〈更多'動人'的觀察: 對於男性、女性以及人與人之間互相觸摸的新看法.〉《人格與社會心理學》 第59冊, 1990
Hall and Veccia, "More 'Touching' Observations: New Insights on Men, Women, and Interpersonal Touch." J Personality and Social psychology vol.59, 1990

Ulrich, R.S., 〈從窗戶向外探望會影響病人手術後的康復.《科學》, 1984. 224(4647): 420-1頁.
Ulrich, R.S., "View through a window may influence recovery from surgery." Science, 1984. 224(4647): p. 420-1.

PubMed 摘要:記錄1972-1981年間,在一所賓夕法尼亞州郊區的醫院中,病患在膽囊切除術後的復原情況,檢視並確定是否指定到一個有對外自然環境窗景的病房,將產生有益於病情復原的影響。23位外科病患指定要有可對外看見自然景觀的病房,縮短了他們手術後的住院時間;在護士的記錄中收到較少的負面評語,並且也少了23位服用強效止痛劑者,相較於住在相似病房,窗外面對的是建築物磚牆的相應病患。
PubMed abstract: Records on recovery after cholecystectomy of patients in a suburban Pennsylvania hospital between 1972 and 1981 were examined to determine whether assignment to a room with a window view of a natural setting might have restorative influences. Twenty-three surgical patients assigned to rooms with windows looking out on a natural scene had shorter postoperative hospital stays, received fewer negative evaluative comments in nurses' notes, and took fewer potent analgesics than 23 matched patients in similar rooms with windows facing a brick building wall.

Ethics in conducting and reporting research

Middlemist, R.D., E.S. Knowles, and C.F. Matter, 〈廁所中個人空間的侵犯:覺醒所扮演的可能證據.《人格與社會心理學期刊》, 1976. 33(5): 541-6頁.
Middlemist, R.D., E.S. Knowles, and C.F. Matter, "Personal space invasions in the lavatory: suggestive evidence for arousal." J Pers Soc Psychol, 1976. 33(5): p. 541-6.

PubMed 摘要:個人空間受到侵入產生緊張的假設,在臨床實驗中被探究。一個男性的廁所提供一種對隱私之顯著規範的設計,其中個人空間受到侵入可能發生在男性排尿的情況中,並且對於侵入之補償性回應的機會是極小的,而鄰近誘發緊張則可以被測量。對於排尿的研究指出,社會壓力禁止了外尿道括約肌的鬆弛,所以延遲了排尿的開始,而且增加了膀胱內的壓力,縮短了下一次開始排尿的期間。記錄60位廁所使用者,被隨機地指定三種程度之人際間距離中的一種,以及他們排尿的時間。在一所三個尿斗的廁所裡,使用者直接比鄰著另一個使用者;然後移開一個尿斗;或再移開另一個尿斗。相應於這種導向研究的關聯性結果,人際間距離越靠近,則開始排尿的時間延長,並且排尿的持久性降低了。這些發現,為個人空間的被侵入將產生心理上伴隨著緊張的變化,提供了客觀性的證據。
PubMed abstract: The hypothesis that personal space invasions produce arousal was investigated in a field experiment. A men's lavatory provided a setting where norms for privacy were salient, where personal space invasions could occur in the case of men urinating, where the opportunity for compensatory responses to invasion were minimal, and where proximity-induced arousal could be measured. Research on micturation indicates that social stressors inhibit relaxation of the external urethral sphincter, which would delay the onset of micturation, and that they increase intravesical pressure, which would shorten the duration of micturation once begun. Sixty lavatory users were randomly assigned to one of three levels of interpersonal distance and their micturation times were recorded. In a three-urinal lavatory, a confederate stood immediately adjacent to a subject, one urinal removed, or was absent. Paralleling the results of a correlational pilot study, close interpersonal distances increased the delay of onset and decreased the persistence of micturation. These findings provide objective evidence that personal space invasions produce physiological changes associated with arousal.

Christensen, 〈心理學研究中的欺瞞: 什麼時候使用才合理?〉 《人格與社會心理學公報》, 第 14冊 第4卷, 1988
Christensen, "Deception in Psychological Research:When Is Its Use Justified?" Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol 14 No.4, 1988

發生謬誤的文章 - I
Flawed papers - I

Meltzoff 書中的第1-5章
Meltzoff, 1-5

發生謬誤的文章 - II
Flawed papers - II

Meltzoff 書中的第6-10章
Meltzoff, 6-10

發生謬誤的文章 - III
Flawed papers - III

Meltzoff 書中的第11-15章
Meltzoff, 11-15

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