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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:李薇薇(簡介並寄信)
編輯:林山源(簡介並寄信)


課程概述

這是一門給研究生(和得到導師允許的高年級本科生)的研究會和討論課程。

本課程的學習重點是心理與腦的模組組織。應用功能性腦成像、誘發反應電位(ERPs)資料進行研究,重點著眼於物體、數字、地和人的領域,利用來自人類嬰兒、兒童、正常成人、神經疾病患者和動物的行為研究的證據。通過閱讀和近期研究的幫助,將更廣泛的研究關於在成人行為中一般領域與特殊領域處理系統所起的作用、封閉的認知系統中先天性與可塑性的對比、這些系統依據的證據的性質,和人類靈活地跨領域聯結信息的過程。



要求

課堂參與
陳述閱讀材料
期末論文

課程主題

模組

1.一個計算性的預測
2.演化的觀點
3.來自語言心理學家的挑戰
4.來自聯結論者的挑戰
5.功能解離的加成因素取向

視覺的先天性與可塑性

1.區域畫及其發展
2.眼優勢的發展
3.感覺皮質再佈線
4.人類再佈線

物體

1.物體
2.嬰兒的物體知覺:是一個封閉機制嗎?
3.成人與嬰兒的物體追蹤:是領域專一機制嗎?
4.嬰兒的使用或不使用類別資訊來分析事物
5.成人的使用或不使用類別資訊來分析事物

人群1:面容

1 關於面容表徵的性質
2 有關面部特殊神經硬體的證據
3 經驗的作用
4 分類-一般物體表徵
5 面容識別能力的發育起源

人群2:身體部分,生物運動及行為

1 身體部分
2 生物運動
3 跟隨凝視
4 鏡像神經元和模仿
5 覺知到行為的物體導向性

人群3:心靈

1 心靈和語言理論
2 心靈和自閉症理論
3 心靈理論是人類特有的嗎?
4 心靈理論的神經成像

數字1:數字感

1 有沒有一個專門的皮質區域用於處理近似數值的呢?
2 動物的數字感
3 嬰兒的數字感
4 成人的數字感:近似數值的估計和操作
5 在心算中使用數字感
6 數字感的損害

數字2:小數位,大數位和口算

1. 動物和嬰兒的小數字表述
2. 成人和嬰兒的小數字表述(數量頓識能力)
3. 嬰兒的小數字表述:那是真正的數字嗎?
4. 關於病人的小數字描述的研究?
5. 數字和語言
6. 只有人類用語言描述大數位和精確數字嗎?

地點1:路徑整合及認知地圖

1. 病人研究
2. 動物的路徑整合
3. 成人的路徑整合
4. 更新與應用異我中心認知地圖
5. 視覺環境中導航的功能性磁共振研究

地點2:再定位

1. 動物有沒有一個單純的幾何模組?
2. 人類嬰兒有沒有單純的幾何模組?
3. 空間和語言
4. 幾何學和大腦

其他可能領域

1. 動物?
2. 水果和蔬菜?
3. 工具?
4. 食肉動物?
5. 騙子?
6. 可能性?
7. 道德感?
8. 椅子?
9. 一個“視覺字詞形狀區域”?




Course Overview

This is a seminar and discussion class for graduate students (and advanced undergraduates, by permission of the instructors).

The focus of this class will be the study of the modular organization of the mind and brain. Functional brain imaging and ERPs data will be used to focus on the domains of objects, number, places, and people, drawing on evidence from behavioral studies in human infants, children, normal adults, neurological patients, and animals. The broader questions about the role of domain-general and domain-specific processing systems in mature human performance, the innateness vs. plasticity of encapsulated cognitive systems, the nature of the evidence for such systems, and the processes by which people link information flexibly across domains will be explored with the aid of the readings and recent work.



Requirements

Class participation
Presentations of readings
Final paper

Course Topics

Modularity

1. A Computational Prospective
2. An Evolutionary Perspective
3. Challenges from Psycholinguistics
4. Challenges from the Associationists
5. Additive Factors Approaches to Functional Dissociations

Innateness and Plasticity in Vision

1. Arealization and its Development
2. Development of Ocular Dominance
3. Rewiring Sensory Cortex
4. Rewiring in Humans

Objects

1. Attentive Tracking in Adults
2. Object Perception in Infants: an Encapsulated Mechanism?
3. Object Tracking in Infants and Adults: A Domain-specific Mechanism?
4. Infants’ Use or Non-use of Kind Information to Parse Objects
5. Adults’ Use or Non-use of Kind Information to Parse Objects

People I: Faces

1. On the Nature of Face Representations
2. Evidence for Special Neural Hardware for Faces
3. The Role of Experience
4. Category-General Object Representations
5. Developmental Origins of Face Recognition Abilities

People II: Body Parts, Biological Motion, and Action

1. Body Parts
2. Biological Motion
3. Gaze Following
4. Mirror Neurons and Imitation
5. Perceiving Action as Goal-directed

People III: Mind

1. Theory of Mind and Language
2. Theory of Mind and Autism: A Specific Deficit?
3. Is Theory of Mind Specific to Humans?
4. Neuroimaging of Theory of Mind

Number I: Number Sense

1. Is there a Dedicated Cortical Region for Processing Approximate Numerosity?
2. Number Sense in Animals
3. Number Sense in Infants
4. Number Sense in Adults: Estimating and Operating on Approximate Numerosities
5. Using Number Sense in Mental Arithmetic
6. Impairments of Number Sense

Number II: Small Numbers, Large Numbers, and Verbal Counting

1. Small Number Representations in Animals and Infants
2. Small Number Representations in Adults and Infants (subitizing)
3. Small Number Representations in Infants: Is it Really Number?
4. Patient Studies of Small Number Representations?
5. Number and Language
6. Are Large, Exact Number Representations Unique to Humans with Language?

Places I: Path Integration and Cognitive Maps

1. Patient Studies
2. Path Integration in Animals
3. Path Integration in Human Adults
4. Updating vs. Using Allocentric Cognitive Maps
5. fMRI Studies of Navigation in Virtual Environments

Places II: Reorientation

1. Is there a Purely Geometric Module in Animals?
2. Is there a Purely Geometric Module in Human Infants?
3. Space and Language
4. Geometry and the Brain

Other Possible Domains

1. Animals?
2. Fruits & Vegetables?
3. Tools?
4. Predators?
5. Cheaters?
6. Probability?
7. Moral Sense?
8. Chairs?
9. A “visual word form area”?




 
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