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翻譯:張宇(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)

課程單元 課堂講稿
1 課程介紹
Course Introduction
2 在政府和商業部門中運用的不同決策制定模型
Alternative Models of Decision Making in Government and Business
本節介紹了解釋關鍵決策與政策制定者怎樣制定決策的幾個模型。這些模型包括公司的組織決策制定垃圾桶模型、漸進主義模型與公共政策的議程設定過程模型。
Alternative explanations of how decisions are made by key decision and policy makers will be presented. These include the garbage can model of organizational decision making in the firm, incrementalism and the agenda setting process in public policy.
3 管理不確定性:商業策略規劃
Managing Uncertainty: Strategic Planning in Business
私營公司,特別是交通領域中的私營公司,對他們所處運營環境的改變十分敏感。成功的決策制定者必須嘗試預測與管理不確定性。策略規劃就是這樣一個由公司使用並在動態環境中指導資源計畫與操作的工具。本節會描述並討論使用SWOT(優勢,弱點,機遇與威脅分析)以及場景設定作為交通公司管理不確定性的工具。
Private firms, particularly in transportation, have significant sensitivity to changes in their operating environment. The successful decision maker must attempt to anticipate and manage uncertainty. Strategic planning is one tool used by firms to guide resource planning and operations in a dynamic environment. The use of SWOT - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis - and scenario building, as tools for transportation firms to manage uncertainty will be described and discussed.
4 管理投資者以及問題定義:政府策略規劃
Managing Stakeholders and Problem Definition: Strategic Planning in Government
儘管公共交通部門也必須管理不確定性,但他們的成功更經常的取決於他們管理不同資金組的技能,這些資金組對未來預算、操作範圍以及制定規範的權利起著關鍵性的作用。美國交通部長使用以策略規劃進行投資價值分析的方法,以此來吸引並獲取交通投資者的廣泛支持。本節以此作為公共策略管理中的一個案例加以陳述。
Although public transportation agencies must manage uncertainty, their success is more often defined by their skills in managing various stakeholder groups that are key to future budgets, scope of operations and regulatory power. The use of strategic planning and stakeholder valuation by the Secretary of the US Department of Transportation as a method of appealing and acquiring the support of a wide array of transportation stakeholders is presented as a case in public strategic management.
5 交通行業中的政府-商業部門之間的關係:衝突(〈矛盾〉?)與合作的模式
Government-Business Relations in Transportation: Patterns of Conflict and Cooperation
政府與商業部門之間在交通領域堛疑鰜Y隨問題與國家而變,不過也存在一些模式。與像日本和歐盟等其他國家的合作式政府商業關係相比,在美國,政府與產業間是一種不穩定的關係。這種關係將用一個動態衝突模型加以解釋。
Government and business relations in transportation vary by issue and by country, however, patterns do emerge. A Dynamic Conflict Model will be presented to explain the uneasy relationship of industry and government in the United States in contrast with a Corporatist Model (partnership) of government-business interaction in other nations, such as Japan and the European Union. The discussion will include a variety of concepts including competing definitions of the firm, corporate social responsibility and regulatory capture in transportation regulation.
6 政府-商業部門之間的衝突:調控交通安全
Government-Business Relations in Conflict: Regulating Transportation Safety
本節以課堂討論方式進行,需運用前面所學概念來理解美國的汽車安全規範是怎樣管理與發展的。
A class led discussion will apply the concepts presented in the previous lecture to understand how the regulation of automobile safety is governed and has evolved in the United States.
7 政府-商業部門之間的矛盾:規範由交通對環境所造成的影響
Government-Business Relations in Conflict: Regulating Transportation's Influence on the Environment
課上將討論美國與其他一些國家的交通環境規範是怎樣管理的。內容包括這種關係怎樣產生了由規章制度造成的僵局、高操作成本和不時強迫技術產生革新。
The class will discuss how environmental regulation of transportation is governed in the United States and selected other countries - including how this relationship can generate regulatory gridlock, high operating costs and sometimes force technological innovation.
8 政府-商業部門之間的合作:交通研究與發展
Government-Business Relations in Cooperation: Transportation Research and Development
與衝突的模式相對,在日本、歐洲與美國,交通領域堿F府與商業之間的關係是合作的。這種合作關係在對交通企業引入技術革新,例如高效節能汽車(PNGV)與智慧交通系統,起著關鍵性的作用。存在不同的交通研究與發展政策國家模型,如美國的〈操縱與領導〉模型、歐洲的工業與政府合作和共同投資模型。
In contrast with patterns of conflict, transportation government-business relations will be shown to be cooperative and crucial to introducing technological innovation, such as energy efficient vehicles (PNGV) and intelligent transportation systems (ITS) to the transportation enterprise Japan, Europe and the United States. Different national models of transportation R&D policy - US-based model of "steering and leading" and the European model of industry-government partnership and co-investment.
9 政府-商業部門之間的合作:交通基礎設施建設
Government-Business Relations in Cooperation: Transportation Infrastructure Development
政府與工業在交通基礎設施的規劃、修建、管理與維護方面的合作對交通系統的成功起著關鍵性的作用。以丹佛機場建設為典型例子,具體案例將被討論,其中包括這種合作關係怎樣定義以及其固有的複雜性。
Government-industry cooperation in the planning, construction, management and maintenance of transportation infrastructure is crucial to the transportation system. Specific cases defining approaches to how this "partnership" is defined, and its inherent complexity as exemplified by the construction of Denver Airport will be discussed.
10 交通的私有化和外部採辦
Privatizing and Outsourcing of Transportation
交通的高運營費用以及對優化服務和使用性能的要求已經導致全球各國政府組織積極發展、採用與修正不同的私營化和外部採辦策略。完全脫離、分包、管理合同(編輯在Internet上搜索發現,contraCTL是一個專用名詞,不知道譯者是否能幫助給一個名詞對應)、長期出租選擇以及公共義務將被放在美國和發展中國家經濟背景中加以討論。
The high cost of operations and quest for optimal service and performance have caused government organizations throughout the world to develop, adopt and revise a variety of privatization and outsourcing strategies for transportation. Full divestiture, contracting out, management contraCTL, long-term lease options and public accountability are discussed in the context of the United States and developing economies.
11 撞車!交通事故中的策略管理
Crash! Strategic Management of Transportation Disaster
交通運營也許比其他活動更加頻繁地導致一些事故。這些事故經常會引起生命、財產以及環境質量的巨大損失。管理事故是交通管理的一部分。以最近發生的一些事故,如ValuJet墜機事件與Firestone 輪胎招回事件為例,一個涉及怎樣進行事故通知(在編輯所學習的新聞專業中,crisis communication是指通常意義上的〈危機溝通〉。不知道這堛構risis is communicated是否也是指這個意思?)、管理以及其對交通組織的影響的框架將被加以討論。
Perhaps more than other activities, transportation operations will result in accidents that often result the monumental loss of life, property or environmental quality. Managing disaster is part of transportation management. A framework of how crisis is communicated, managed and its affect on transportation organizations will be discussed in the context of recent disasters such as ValuJet and the Firestone Tire recall.
12 交通中的變動管理
Change Management in Transportation
技術和組織上的革新對於持續性的發展,例如費用與性能、運營安全、客戶服務等,是關鍵的。然而,新過程的的引入以及技術或管理實踐會引起一些額外費用。智慧交通系統可以被看作對公共交通組織〈傳統管理〉策略的破壞。在管理與人力資源分配中的變動同樣可以被看成是對現有組織,如航空公司,的破壞。本節討論在公共的交通部與商業航空公司中的交通組織的變動管理。
Technological and organizational innovation is critical to continual improvements, e.g., cost and performance, safety in operations, customer service. However, the introduction of new processes, technologies or management practices is not without cost. Intelligent Transportation Systems can be viewed as disruptive to the "traditional management" strategy of public transportation organizations, changes in management or human resources can be equally as disruptive to an organization, e.g., airlines. Change management in the context of transportation organizations will be discussed - in public DOTs and in a commercial airline.
13 交通中的全球化以及非政府組織
Globalization and Non-Governmental Organizations in Transportation
交通領域的成功與增長的效率也許是加速全球化世界經濟的最大因素之一。然而,在交通企業中,全球化扮演什麼角色,它怎樣對公共和私營交通組織的決策施加影響?通過本節討論,希望能夠對區域貿易聯盟的作用以及私營企業選取與重新選取工廠和倉庫位置的舉動有一定瞭解。
The success and increased efficiency of transportation is perhaps one of the greatest factors that has accelerated the globalization of the world's economy. However, what role does globalization have on the transportation enterprise and how does it affect decision making for both public and private transportation organizations. Discussion will shed specific insight into the role of regional trade alliances and the actions of private firms locating and re-locating manufacturing and distribution facilities.

 
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