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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:張良正(簡介並寄信)
編輯:侯嘉玨(簡介並寄信)

學期論文建議
  1. 語音產生的聲學方面的議題。可以延伸到課堂上曾討論過的議題。例如:喉頭的模型;聲道壁的效應;結合鼻子的效應;聲道衰減上的延伸討論;副聲門的共鳴。這些議題的論文很多,尤其是有關於喉頭。

  2. 和產生語句相關的議題。語調走勢的模型。句子中的時間點模型。Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel(人名)可提供相關的參考資料。這裡有些例子:

    〈在序列區段中單字結構所扮演的角色〉,Shattuck-Hufnagel, S.著,收錄於《辨識》期刊,第42期,1992年,第213到259頁(以及這篇文章的參考資料)。還有,

    〈語調合成〉,Pierrehumbert, J.著,收錄於《北美聲學協會期刊》,第70期,1981年,第985到995頁。還有,

    〈英語中區段期間在語言中的使用:聲學和接收上的證據〉,Klatt, D. H.著,收錄於《北美聲學協會期刊》,第59期,1976年,第1208到1221頁。還有,

    〈給研究聽覺上句子處理的人員一分韻律學上的導引〉,Shattuck-Hufnagel, S.與 A. E. Turk合著,收錄於《語言心理學研究期刊》,第25期,1996年,第193到247頁。

  3. 研究清晰語音與一般交談語音的相對關係。例如,請參考Picheny等的著作,收錄於《語言和聽力研究期刊》第28期的96到102頁,以及第29期的434到446頁。在非正式說話中的母音和子音的簡略。J. C. Krause最近也出了一些相關論文。

  4. 一些非英語系發音在語音學上的描述和在聲學上的分析,諸如觸聲,噴氣聲,捲舌子音,呼吸母音,鼻音母音,爆音,腔調等。如果你有接觸到其他語言的談話者,可以自行錄音並分析。

  5. 用來區別不同人的語音的聲學特性,以及聽者對聲音的認定。

  6. 嬰幼兒對語音的識別。例如,請參考:

    〈稚齡幼兒對語言和聲音的感知〉,Kuhl, P. K.著,收錄於《嬰幼兒感知力手冊》第二集,NY: Academic Press, 1987版,或

    〈六個月大的嬰兒的語言經驗對語音感知的改變〉,Kuhl, P.等著,收錄於《科學》,第255期,1992年,第606到608頁。

    Stevens教授有這些參考資料的一部分和其他的參考資料。還有,

    〈嬰幼兒對母語單字聲紋的敏感性〉,Jusczyk, P.等著,收錄於《記憶和語言期刊》,第32期,1993年,第402到420頁。

    以及一本Jusczyk所著的書,《發現說的語言》,MIT Press, 2000版

  7. 兒童的語音產生。我們有一個從2到4歲兒童的錄音資料庫,這段期間的兒童還在發展正確的語音產生。

  8. 動物對語音的感知。例如,請參考,Kuhl, P. K.所著〈對語言中特殊機制在動物上測試的理論貢獻〉,收錄於《實驗生物學》第45期,1986年,第233到265頁。

  9. 嬰兒哭聲中的特性。能利用哭聲中的特性來偵測嬰兒的異狀嗎?Stevens教授有一些參考資料。

  10. 機器的語音合成。這方面有許多參考資料。Dennis Klatt已經準備好一篇回顧語音合成的文章,〈回顧英語的文字-語音轉換〉,收錄於《北美聲學協會期刊》,第82期,1987年,第737到793頁。Stevens教授有一分複本。

  11. 女性和男性聲音的特徵。例如,請參考,

    〈在女性和男性的談話者之中,語音品質差異性的分析、合成與感知〉,Klatt, D. H.與 L. C. Klatt合著,收錄於《北美聲學協會期刊》第87期,1990年,第820到857頁,還有,

    〈女性談話者在聲門上的特點:在聲學上的關聯性〉,Hanson, H. M.著,收錄於《北美聲學協會期刊》第101期,1997年,第466到481頁,還有

    〈男性談話者在聲門上的特點:在聲學上的關聯性以及相對於女性的資料比對〉,Hanson, H. M.與E. Chuang合著,收錄於《北美聲學協會期刊》第106期,1999年,第1064到1077頁

  12. 失序語音在聲學及發音上的特性,例如,請參考:

    《正常與非正常語音在語音學上的分析》,Ohde, R. N.與D. J. Sharf.合著,New York: Macmillan, 1992版

    以及,《簡介溝通的科學與失序》的章節,Minifie, F. D.編輯,San Diego: Singular, 1994版

    發音困難的論文,如,〈肌萎縮性側索硬化症(譯註:俗稱漸凍人)女性發音困難的量化描述〉,Kent, J. F.等著,收錄於《語言和聽力研究期刊》第35期,1992年,723到733頁

    另可參考《語言和聽力研究期刊》《語言和聽力失序期刊》

  13. 自動語音辨識。這個議題有許多論文,包含多篇回顧性的文章。從這篇文章開始:

    〈機器的語音辨識〉,Rabiner, L. R.著,收錄於《聲學百科全書》第四輯,M. Crocker編輯,New York: Wiley出版,第1607到16164頁,以及其中的參考資料。

    以及更多近期的書籍和論文,例如,《人機語音通訊》,O'Shaughnessy, D.著,IEEE Press, 2000版。這個議題還有其他數本書。


Term Paper Suggestions
  1. Topics on the acoustics of speech production. Could expand on topics discussed in class. For example: models of the larynx; effects of vocal-tract walls; effects of coupling to the nose; more on losses in the vocal tract; the subglottal resonances. Much has been written on these topics, especially about the larynx.

  2. Topics related to sentence production. Models for intonation contours. Models for timing in sentences. Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel can suggest references. Here are some examples:

    Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. "The Role of Word Structure in Segmental Serial Ordering." Cognition 42 (1992): 213-259 (and its references). Also,

    Pierrehumbert, J. "Synthesizing Intonation." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70 (1981): 985-995. Also,

    Klatt, D. H. "Linguistic Uses of Segmental Duration in English: Acoustic and Perceptual Evidence." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59 (1976): 1208-1221. Also,

    Shattuck-Hufnagel, S., and A. E. Turk. "A Prosody Tutorial for Investigators of Auditory Sentence Processing." J. of Psycholinguistic Research 25 (1996): 193-247.

  3. Study of clear versus conversational speech. See, for example, Picheny, et al., J. Speech and Hearing Res., 28, 96-102, and 29, 434-446. Reduction of vowels and consonants in casual speech. Also, J. C. Krause has some recent papers.

  4. Phonetic descriptions and acoustic analysis of some non-English speech sounds such as clicks, ejectives, retroflex consonants, breathy vowels, nasal vowels, implosives, tones. If you have access to speakers of other languages, you could make recordings of your own and analyze them.

  5. Acoustic characteristics that distinguish the speech of one individual from another; also listener identification of voices.

  6. Discrimination of speech sounds by infants. See, for example:

    Kuhl, P. K. "Perception of Speech and Sound in Early Infancy." In Handbook of Infant Perception. Vol. 2. NY: Academic Press, 1987. Or,

    Kuhl, P., et al. "Linguistic Experience Alters Phonetic Perception in Infants by 6 Months of Age." Science 255 (1992): 606-608.

    Prof. Stevens has some of these and other references. Also,

    Jusczyk, P., et al. "Infants' Sensitivity to Sound Patterns of Native Language Words." J. of Memory and Language 32 (1993): 402-420.

    Also a book by Jusczyk. The Discovery of Spoken Language. MIT Press, 2000.

  7. Production of speech by children. We have a database of recorded speech from children in the age range 2-4 years, where accurate speech production is still being developed.

  8. Perception of speech sounds by animals. See, for example Kuhl, P. K. "Theoretical Contributions of Tests on Animals to the Special-mechanisms Debate in Speech." Experimental Biology 45 (1986): 233-265.

  9. Characteristics of baby cry. Can characteristics of the cry be used to detect abnormalities in infants? Professor Stevens has some references.

  10. Speech synthesis by machine. There are plenty of references on this. Dennis Klatt has prepared a review article on speech synthesis, "Review of Text-to-Speech Conversion for English." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82 (1987): 737-793. Professor Stevens has a copy.

  11. Characteristics of female and male voices. See, for example:

    Klatt, D. H., and L. C. Klatt. "Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Voice Quality Variations Among Female and Male Talkers." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87 (1990): 820-857. Also,

    Hanson, H. M. "Glottal Characteristics of Female Speakers: Acoustic Correlates." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101 (1997): 466-481. Also,

    Hanson, H. M., and E. Chuang. "Glottal Characteristics of Male Speakers: Acoustic Correlates and Comparison with Female Data." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106 (1999): 1064-1077.

  12. Acoustic and articulatory characteristics of disordered speech. See, for example:

    Ohde, R. N., and D. J. Sharf. Phonetic Analysis of Normal and Abnormal Speech. New York: Macmillan, 1992.

    Also chapters in Minifie, F. D., ed. Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders. San Diego: Singular, 1994.

    An example of a paper on dysarthria is: Kent, J. F., et al. "Quantitative Description of the Dysarthria in Women with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis." J. Speech and Hearing Research 35 (1992): 723-733.

    Also see J. Speech and Hearing Research and J. Speech and Hearing Disorders.

  13. Automatic speech recognition. There are many papers on this topic, including several review articles. A starting place is an article by:

    Rabiner, L. R. "Machine Recognition of Speech." In Encyclopedia of Acoustics. Vol. 4. Edited by M. Crocker. New York: Wiley, pp. 1607-1614 and references therein.

    Also more recent books and papers, e.g.: O’Shaughnessy, D. Speech Communication: Human and Machine. IEEE Press, 2000. There are several other books on this topic.

 
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