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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:黃永杰(簡介並寄信)
編輯:邱富敏(簡介並寄信)

任務
Mission

隨著在MIT裡健康科學、工程、生物資訊以及其他生物醫藥相關科系的學生越來越多,我們需要一堂藉由最新醫藥與診斷技術來介紹人體病理組織的序論。到目前為止,人類病理學課程只有HST.030/031,但是它主要是設計給醫學系以及醫學工程系的學生並且以哈佛醫學院為上課地點。HST.035是設計來提供給MIT學生有不同的選擇,並且使人類病理學能夠在MIT裡能讓更多的人修習。另外,藉由「虛擬顯微鏡」新科技,HST.035引導一個新的整合方法進入病理實驗室使臨床病理學病例研究更為流暢,並讓這些教育資源可以在MIT校園的任何一個角落皆能取得。

An increasing number of students in health sciences, engineering, bioinformatics, and other biomedical initiatives at MIT require an introduction to human pathology and issues posed by novel medical and diagnostic technologies. Currently, the only available course in human pathology is HST.030/031, which is designed primarily for HST MD and MEMP students and is based at the Harvard Medical School campus. HST.035 was designed to provide an alternative option for MIT students and to make human pathology accessible to a broader audience at MIT. In addition, by taking advantage of new technologies in "virtual microscopy," HST.035 introduces a new integrated approach to pathology laboratories that streamlines clinicopathological case-studies and enables access to these educational materials from anywhere on the MIT campus.

總覽
Overview

這個主題提供了對於人類病理學的總覽,並著重於疾病的機制和現代診斷技術。主題包含(1)疾病機制通論(發炎,感染,免疫受損,宿主對異物反應,移植,基因異常與癌症)(2)脂質、酵素與分子傳送者病理學(3)主要器官病理學以及(4)從侵入性手術病理學到非侵入性技術診斷工具的回顧,例如光譜學、功能性影像斷層掃描、和疾病分子標記。課程目標將藉由一系列整合的講堂教材與實驗、以及由學生主導學期主題計畫達成,以呈現人類病理學在醫學、社會經濟學以及科技的相關議題。

This subject provides a comprehensive overview of human pathology with emphasis on mechanisms of disease and modern diagnostic technologies. Topics include (1) General Mechanisms of Disease (Inflammation, Infection, Immune Injury, Host Response to Foreign Materials, Transplantation, Genetic Disorders and Neoplasia), (2) Pathology of Lipids, Enzymes and Molecular Transporters, (3) Pathology of Major Organ Systems, and (4) Review of Diagnostic Tools from Invasive Surgical Pathology to Non-invasive Techniques such as Optical Spectroscopy, Functional Imaging, and Molecular Markers of Disease. The objectives of this course are achieved by a set of integrated lectures and laboratories, as well as a student-driven term project leading to a formal presentation on a medical, socioeconomic, or technological issue in human pathology.

選修條件
Prerequisites

要修習細胞病理學與疾病機制必須要先具有細胞生物學的背景知識。雖然本課程的正式的選修條件是7.01:(生物學導論)以及7.05(普通生物化學),但此要求亦可由其它的課程或是經驗達成(須該課程指導者同意)。

A basic understanding of cellular biology is required to study cellular pathology and mechanisms of disease. Although the formal prerequisites for the course are 7.01: (Introduction to Biology) and 7.05: (General Biochemistry), this requirement can be met by other courses or forms of experience (permission of the course director is required).

課本
Required Textbook

  • 細胞與器官組織病理學的課程指定閱讀為Cotran 等人的《Robbins疾病病理學基礎》(注:本書在台灣很容易購買),第六版,W. B. Saunders, 1999, ISBN: 072167335X。雖然不會指定閱讀本書全部的段落章節,但是我們鼓勵學生能在這春季學期中將此書逐頁讀完。
    Required reading for lectures related to cellular and organ system pathology are assigned from Cotran et al., Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 6th edition, W. B. Saunders, 1999, ISBN: 072167335X. Although not all sections and chapters of this book will be assigned for reading, students are highly encouraged to read this book cover-to-cover during the spring semester.

  • P 其它的課堂與主題的指定閱讀,包含課堂筆記、綜合評述或原著論文。這些文件將會在課堂上發放。
    Required reading for other lectures and topics will be in the form of lecture notes, review articles, or original articles. These will be handed out in class during the course.

基礎延伸閱讀
Additional Basic References

  • 有註冊的HST學生可以在線上使用《Robbins疾病病理學基礎所附設的案例互動探討》。這是個很棒的資源,可用來進一步學習以及測試你對人類基礎病理學的知識。
    An Interactive Case Study Companion to Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease is available online to registered HST students. This is a great resource for learning more and testing your knowledge about basic human pathology.

  • Junqueira, L. C.與J. Carneiro,《基礎組織學:文字與圖解集》,第十版,McGraw-Hill Companies, 2003. ISBN: 0071378294,適合想要學習更多普通組織學的學生。
    Junqueira, L. C., and J. Carneiro. Basic Histology: Text and Atlas. 10th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies, 2003. ISBN: 0071378294, is recommended for those interested in learning more about normal histology.

  • Lodish H.等人,《分子細胞生物學》,4th ed. W. H. Freeman & Co., 1999. ISBN: 0716731363,適合想要學習更多細胞生物學的學生。國家醫藥圖書館網站上有提供本書精簡的線上版本。
    Lodish H., et al. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th ed. W. H. Freeman & Co., 1999. ISBN: 0716731363, is recommended for those interested in learning more about cellular biology. A limited online version of this book is available through the National Library of Medicine.

  • 有關免疫學與免疫病理學的深入閱讀,可以回顧Abbas, A. K.等人的《細胞與分子免疫學》,W. B. Saunders, 2000. ISBN: 0721682332
    For additional reading in immunology and immunopathology, you can review Abbas, A. K. et al. Cellular and Molecular Immunology.W. B. Saunders, 2000. ISBN: 0721682332.

  • 如果還需要其它的參考資料與閱讀推薦,請盡量發問!
    If you need additional references or reading recommendations, please ask!

實驗
Laboratories

包含十二個實驗課程,每個實驗大約兩個小時。這些包含:
There will be 12 laboratory sessions in the course, each lasting approximately 2 hours. These include:

實驗一 細胞與組織—第一部分
Lab 1. Cells and Tissues - Part I
實驗二 細胞與組織—第二部分
Lab 2. Cells and Tissues - Part II
實驗三 感染與免疫
Lab 3. Infection and Immunity
實驗四 移植與生物材料
Lab 4. Transplantation and Biomaterials
實驗五 心臟
Lab 5. The Heart
實驗六 腎臟與血管
Lab 6. Kidneys and Blood Vessels
實驗七 肺部與肝臟
Lab 7. Lungs and Liver
實驗八 腸胃消化道
Lab 8. The Gastrointestinal Tract
實驗九 紅血球與白血球
Lab 9. Red and White Blood Cells
實驗十 神經系統
Lab 10. The Nervous System
實驗十一 醫院實驗室(在哈佛醫學院上課)
Lab 11. The Clinical Laboratories (at Harvard Medical School)
實驗十二 病理解剖會議(在哈佛醫學院上課)
Lab 12. Autopsy Conference (at Harvard Medical School)

前兩個實驗設計來使學生熟悉常見的細胞組織結構,接下來八個實驗則專注於特定的器官與器官系統病理,最後兩個實驗則是設計來介紹兩個專精而重要的醫院病理。每次實驗的講義在對應的實驗上課之前才會放在網路上,不過在之後的學期時間依然可以使用。

The first two laboratories are designed to familiarize you with the common structures of cells and tissues, the subsequent eight laboratories are focused on specific organs and organ systems pathology, and the final two laboratories are designed to introduce you to two specialized and important areas of hospital pathology. The web-based materials for each lab will be posted just-in-time for the corresponding lab, but will remain available through the course website for the remainder of the course.

雖然這些網路上的實驗講義主要是表單驅動式,學生應該要能使用這些資料來組織自己的想法與問問題。學生主動與實驗室老師互動非常的重要。只要學生肯思考並且問問題,將可發現講義內的圖片、案例與其他資料內所蘊藏的豐富資訊。

Although the web-based laboratories are largely "menu-driven," you are expected to use the materials presented to you to formulate your own thoughts and to ask questions. It is extremely important that you actively interact with the faculty during the laboratories. The images, cases and other materials presented to you contain a wealth of information that will only be accessible to you if you wonder and ask questions!

小型教案
Minicases

小型教案是指一些設計過的小案例研討,幫助學生統整課堂上與自行閱讀的資料。學生應該要在上課前先讀過小型教案並整理出對於每個案例的看法。雖然學生並不用繳交每一個小型教案的問題回答,但學生應該要花足夠的時間來準備每一個案例,才有辦法在課堂上參與案例討論。每一次的小型教案會在上課前大約一週時發下。

The minicases are small case-studies designed to help you integrate the materials covered in class and in your readings. You are expected to review the minicases ahead of time and to formulate your opinion about each case. Although you are not expected to hand-in your responses to questions posed in each minicase, you should have spent enough time on each case to be able to participate in class discussions about each case. The minicases will be distributed approximately 1 week before each scheduled session.

成績計算
Grading

學生在HST.035的最終成績由下列標準決定:
Your final grade in HST.035 will be determined based on the following criteria:

  • 期中考(20%):二十題複選題或是簡答題(每題一分)。題目將著重在課堂上課資訊和閱讀作業。至多有40%的期中考問題可能會取材自同學回家作業設計的問題(期中考學生設計問題的確實數目將由課程導師依據問題的品質來決定)。
    Mid-term exam (20%): Twenty multiple-choice or short-answer questions (1 point per question). Questions will draw on the information presented in lectures, as well as the reading assignments. Up to 40% of the questions on the mid-term exam may be based on questions designed by class as part of a homework assignment (the actual number of student-designed questions on the mid-term exam depends on the quality of questions as determined by the course director).

  • 期末考(30%):三十題複選題或是簡答題(每題一分)。題目將著重在課堂上課資訊和閱讀作業。期末考內容包含全部課程。至多有40%的期末考問題可能會取材自同學回家作業設計的問題(期末考學生設計問題的確實數目將由課程導師依據問題的品質來決定)。
    Final exam (30%): Thirty multiple-choice or short-answer questions (1 point per question). Questions will draw on the information presented in lectures, as well as the reading assignments. The final exam covers the material presented in the entire course. Up to 40% of the questions on the final exam may be based on questions designed by class as part of a homework assignment (the actual number of student-designed questions on the final exam depends on the quality of questions as determined by the course director).

  • 作業(20%):共有十次回家作業(每次作業兩分)。作業是本課程中很重要的一部分。若繳交次數少於八次,將會使學期成績下降
    Homeworks (20%): Ten homeworks assignments (2 points per homework assignment). The homework assignments are an essential part of this course. Failure to hand in fewer than 8 of the 10 homeworks will result in a drop in your final letter grade.

  • 案例討論與實驗參與(5%):HST.035的十二個實驗課程中有十個是在網路上進行的。若只完成此十個課程中的八個以下,將會使學期成績下降
    Active participation in case discussions and laboratories (5%). Ten of the 12 laboratory sessions in HST.035 are web-based. Failure to complete fewer than 8 of these 10 laboratories will result in a drop in your final letter grade.

  • 學期研究報告(25%):每個學生都需要呈現一個以文獻為基礎,與醫藥、社會經濟或科技議題有關的病理學或是診斷醫學的研究。每個學生在第二十四堂課之前要製作一份簡短的書面摘要(至多三頁)以及用二十分鐘呈現自己的發現。我們鼓勵學生測試或挑戰已建立的教條或是以各種方式練習診斷醫學,病勢著提供一個新的或是替代的解決辦法。主題著重於廣泛的學科議題如(但不限於):
    Term presentation (25%): Each student is required to conduct a literature-based study on a medical, socioeconomic, or technological issue related to pathology or diagnostic medicine. Each student will produce a brief written summary (maximum 3 pages) and present his or her findings in a 20-minute presentation before Session 24. Students are encouraged to test and challenge established dogmas or practices in all aspects of diagnostic medicine, and to try to provide new or alternative solutions. Topics will emphasize broad and multi-disciplinary issues such as (but not limited to):
    • 從內與從外觀察的變化性:病理學診斷有多可靠?
      Inter- and intra-observer variability: how certain are pathological diagnoses?
    • 及時診斷科技:機器能夠做出醫學上可靠的判斷嗎?
      Real-time diagnostic techniques: can machines make clinically acceptable diagnostic decisions?
    • 在Barrett氏食道或是潰瘍性結腸炎上的細胞發育異常的光學診察策略是什麼?
      What is the optimal screening strategy for dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus or ulcerative colitis?
    • 「圓直率」與其他非直覺型態特徵:機械與機器人會在日常診療病理學中佔領一席之地嗎?
      "Roundness factor" and other non-intuitive morphological features: is there a role for machines and robotics in routine diagnostic pathology?
    • 什麼是「正常」?
      What is "normal?"
    • 實驗室中的成本效益:我們應該檢驗疝氣囊或鈣化心瓣膜嗎?
      Cost-effectiveness in the laboratory: should we examine hernia sacs or calcified heart valves?
    • 媒體上的病理學家:病理學家們應該在公共媒體上如何表現?而媒體又是如何呈現病理學家? 對其病理診療有害,有益?
      Pathologists in the media: how are pathologists portrayed in the public media? Has the media portrayal of the pathologists been detrimental or beneficial to the practice of pathology?
    • 新診斷技術的行銷:新的診斷技術能同時以傳統病理學為準繩,並同時致力使自己成為準繩嗎?
      Marketing of novel diagnostic technologies: can novel diagnostic technologies use traditional pathology as the gold standard, but at the same time aspire to become the gold standard?
    • 實驗室有關成人的數據參考是如何建立的?要如何建立嬰兒與幼童的一般血液樣本參考分佈?要如何建立嬰兒與幼童的不尋常血液樣本參考分佈?
      How are laboratory reference ranges established in adults? How would you establish reference ranges for common blood analytes in infants and toddlers? How would you establish reference ranges for uncommon analytes in infants and toddlers?

 
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