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Assigned readings are detailed in the Assignments section. Below is a listing of general references and a recommended bibliography of readings.


Helmholtz, H. L. F. On the Sensations of Tone. Translated by A. J. Ellis. New York, NY: Dover, 1954. ISBN: 0486607534.

von Békésy, G. Experiments in Hearing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1960. ISBN: 0070043248.


Evans, E. "The cochlear nerve and cochlear nucleus." In Handbook of Sensory Physiology. Edited by W. D. Keidel. Heidelberg, DE: Springer, 1975, pp. 1-109. ISBN: 0387066764.

Guinan, J. J., Jr. "Physiology of olivocochlear efferents." In The Cochlea. Edited by P. Dallos, A. N. Popper, and R. R. Fay. New York, NY: Springer, 1996, pp. 435-502. ISBN: 0387944494.

Kiang, N. Y. S. "Peripheral neural processing of auditory information." In Handbook of Physiology - The nervous system III. Section 1: The Nervous System. Vol. III. Sensory Processes. Part 2. Edited by J. M. Brookhart, V. B. Mountcastle, I. Darian-Smith, and S. R. Geiger. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society, 1984. ISBN: 0683011057.

Delgutte, B. "Auditory neural processing of speech." In The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences. Edited by W. J. Hardcastle, and J. Laver. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1999. pp. 507-538. ISBN: 063121478X.

Pickles, J. O. An Introduction to the Physiology of Hearing. London, UK: Academic Press, 1988. ISBN: 0125547544.

Original Reports

Berglund, A. M., and D. K. Ryugo. "Hair cell innervation by spiral ganglion neurons in the adult mouse." J Comp Neurol 255 (1987): 560-570.

Delgutte, B. "Representation of speech-like sounds in the discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fibers." J Acoust Soc Am 68 (1980): 843-857.

———. "Two-tone suppression in auditory-nerve fibers: Dependence on suppressor frequency and level." Hearing Research 49 (1990): 225-246.

Delgutte, B., and N. Y. S. Kiang. "Speech coding in the auditory nerve: IV. Sounds with consonant-like dynamic characteristics." J Acoust Soc Am 75 (1984): 897-918.

Evans, E. F. "Frequency selectivity at high signal levels of single units in cochlear nerve and cochlear nucleus." In Psychophysics and Physiology of Hearing. Edited by E. F. Evans, and J. P. Wilson. London, UK: Academic Press, 1977, pp. 185-192. ISBN: 0122440501.

Hudspeth, A. J., and D. P. Corey. "Sensitivity, polarity, and conductance change in the response of vertebrate hair cells to controlled mechanical stimuli." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74 (1977): 2407-2411.

Javel, E., J. A. McGee, W. Horst, and G. R. Farley. "Temporal mechanisms in auditory stimulus coding." In Auditory Function: Neurological Bases of Hearing. Edited by G. M. Edelman, W. E. Gall, and W. M. Cowan. New York, NY: Wiley, 1988, pp. 515-558. ISBN: 0471617466.

Johnson, D. H. "The relationship between spike rate and synchrony in responses of auditory-nerve fibers to single tones." J Acoust Soc Am 68, no. 4 (1980): 1115-1122.

Kiang, N. Y. S., T. Watanabe, E. C. Thomas, and L. F. Clark. Discharge Patterns of Single Fibers in the Cat's Auditory Nerve . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965. ISBN: 0262110164.

Liberman, M. C. "Auditory-nerve responses from cats raised in a low-noise chamber." J Acoust Soc Am 63 (1978): 442-455.

———. "The cochlear frequency map for the cat: Labeling auditory-nerve fibers of known characteristic frequency." J Acoust Soc Am 72, no. 5 (1982): 1441-1449.

Liberman, M. C., L. W. Dodds, and S. Pierce. "Afferent and efferent innervation of the cat cochlea: quantitative analysis with light and electron microscopy." J Comp Neurol 301 (1990): 443-460.

Liberman, M. C., and M. J. Mulroy. "Acute and chronic effects of acoustic trauma: Cochlear pathology and auditory nerve pathophysiology." In New Perspectives on Noise-induced Hearing Loss. Edited by R. P. Hamernik, D. Henderson, and R. Salvi. New York, NY: Raven Press, 1982, pp. 105-135. ISBN: 0890046018.

Liberman, M. C., and M. E. Oliver. "Morphometry of intracellularly labeled neurons of the auditory nerve: Correlations with functional properties." J Comp Neurol 223 (1984): 163-176.

Narayan, S. S., A. N. Temchin, A. Recio, and M. A. Ruggero. "Frequency tuning of basilar membrane and auditory nerve fibers in the same cochleae." Science 282 (1998): 1882-1883.

Palmer, A. R., and I. J. Russell. "Phase-locking in the cochlear nerve of the guinea pig and its relation to the receptor potential of inner hair cells." Hearing Research 24 (1986): 1-15.

Sachs, M. B., and N. Y. S. Kiang. "Two-tone inhibition in auditory-nerve fibers." J Acoust Soc Am 43 (1968): 1120-1128.

Sachs, M. B., R. L. Winslow, and B. H. A. Sokolowski. "A computational model for rate-level functions from cat auditory-nerve fibers." Hearing Research 41 (1989): 61-70.

Sachs, M. B., and E. D. Young. "Encoding of steady-state vowels in the auditory nerve: Representation in terms of discharge rate." J Acoust Soc Am 66 (1979): 470-479.

Wiederhold, M. L., and N. Y. S. Kiang. "Effects of electric stimulation of the crossed olivocochlear bundle on single auditory-nerve fibers in the cat." J Acoust Soc Am 48 (1970): 950-965.


ASA/IPO. Auditory Demonstrations. (Available via the ASA Web site.)

Bregman, A. Auditory Scene Analysis. (Available via Bregman's Web site at McGill University.)

Recommended Background Reading

Moore, B. C. J. An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing. 5th ed. London, UK: Academic Press, 2003. ISBN: 0125056281.

Blauert, J. Spatial Hearing: The Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. ISBN: 0262024136.

References on Masking

Egan, J. P., and H. W. Hake. "On the masking pattern of a simple auditory stimulus." J Acoust Soc Am 22 (1950): 622-630.

Evans, E. F. "Latest comparisons between physiological and behavioural frequency selectivity." In Physiological and Psychophysical Bases of Auditory Function. Edited by J. Breebaart, A. J. M. Houtsma, A. Kohlrausch, V. F. Prijs, and R. Schoonhoven. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Shaker, 2001, pp. 382-387.

Evans, E. F., S. R. Pratt, and N. P. Cooper. "Correspondence between behavioural and physiological frequency selectivity in the guinea pig." Brit J Audiol 23 (1989): 151-152.

Glasberg, B. R., and B. C. J. Moore. "Derivation of auditory filter shapes from notched-noise data." Hearing Research 47 (1990): 103-138.

Houtgast, T. "Psychophysical evidence for lateral inhibition in hearing." J Acoust Soc Am 51 (1972): 1885-1894.

Moore, B. C. J., ed. Frequency Selectivity in Hearing. London, UK; Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1986. ISBN: 0125056257

Neff, D. L., and D. M. Green. "Masking produced by spectral uncertainty with multi-component maskers." Perception and Psychophysics 41 (1987): 409-415.

Oxenham, A. J., and C. J. Plack. "Suppression and the upward spread of masking." J Acoust Soc Am 104 (1998): 3500-3510.

Shannon, R. V. "Two-tone unmasking and suppression in a forward masking situation." J Acoust Soc Am 59 (1976): 1460-1470.

Shera, C. A., J. J. Guinan, and A. J. Oxenham. "Revised estimates of human cochlear tuning from otoacoustic and behavioral measurements." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99 (2002): 3318-3323.

References for ASA

Books, Reviews on ASA

Darwin, C. J., and R. P. Carlyon. "Auditory grouping." In Handbook of Perception and Cognition: Hearing. Edited by Brian Moore. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1995. ISBN: 0125056265.

Bregman, Albert S. Auditory Scene Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990. ISBN: 0262022974.


Darwin, C. J., and V. Ciocca. "Grouping in pitch perception: effects of onset asynchrony and ear of presentation of a mistuned component." J Acoust Soc Am 91 (1992): 3381-3390.

Darwin, C. J., and R. B. Gardner. "Mistuning a harmonic of a vowel: grouping and phase effects on vowel quality." J Acoust Soc Am 79 (1986): 838-845.

On the Neural Mechanisms Streaming

Fishman, Y. I., et al. "Neural correlates of auditory stream segregation in primary auditory cortex of the awake monkey." Hearing Research 151 (2001): 167-187.

Computer Models of Sound Segregation

Cariani, P. A. "Neural timing nets." Neural Netw 14 (2001): 737-753.

de Cheveigne, A., et al. "Identification of concurrent harmonic and inharmonic vowels: a test of the theory of harmonic cancellation and enhancement." J Acoust Soc Am 97 (1995): 3736-3748.

Assmann, P. F., and Q. Summerfield. "Modeling the perception of concurrent vowels: vowels with different fundamental frequencies." J Acoust Soc Am 88 (1990): 680-697.