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測驗


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:柯佳惠(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)

下面是此課程期末測驗的範例。此範例也有pdf格式可供下載 (見下面)。



下面的內容是期末測驗範例,也有可以下載的(PDF)版本。

第一題

請舉出細胞內三種胞器,並且簡單敘述 (一至兩句) 它們的功能。

第二題

以幾句話來敘述「家務型」基因與表現是組織特異性或隨發育時間被調控的基因這兩者的表現型態差異。舉出四個在我們討論課中有被提到的組織特異 和/或 隨發育時間被調控的基因,並且簡單地 (二至三句) 解釋為什麼這四個基因屬於後者。

第三題

平均上而言,你身上的DNA有多少比例是從你的親代的外曾祖母遺傳給你的?

第四題

下面是某基因一開始的核苷酸序列:

ATGTTTCCTAAAGAGAGGATTCGTACTGGTGCGCATCCATGAAC....
Exon 1 Intron 1 Exon 2

序列下面顯示有兩個外顯子與一個內含子 (內含子為有劃線之處)。

請問此核苷酸序列相對應的蛋白質的胺基酸序列為何?

如果第四與第五個的核苷酸T均被刪除,新的胺基酸序列為何?

第五題

下面是一個來自有知覺神經性失聰成員的家庭之家族系譜。方形為男性,圓形為女性,深色符號為聽力異常的成員,白色符號為聽力正常的家庭成員。

請問此家庭的耳聾之遺傳模式為何?



mode of inheritance of deafness





第六題

你的同事提供給你一對配種用小鼠,每隻小鼠帶有一個基因 (Dfns1) 剔除的異型合子。在她的構築中,Dfns1已經被換成LacZ。

下面是兩種對偶型:

野生型Dfns1:

Dfns1基因

-----------------|-------------------*******************|****-------|---------------|------------

BamHI EcoRI BamHI EcoRI

| 6kb | 1.5kb | 2.5kb |

A B

突變 (剔除) 基因:

-----------------|-------------------•|••• lacZ-gene ••••-------|---------------|------------

BamHI EcoRI BamHI EcoRI

| 2.5kb | 3kb | 2.5kb |

A B

你的同事也給你兩段可被作為放射線探針以便偵測野生型與突變型基因組DNA的小段DNA片段 (A和B;見上圖)。

六個星期後,你的小鼠產下8隻後代。你製備了8隻小鼠的基因組DNA。

6 A) 你要用什麼方法來作這些動物的基因型鑑定?

6 B) 你預期會得到什麼基因型?根據孟德爾定律,預期的比率為何 (如果全部可能的基因型均有出現)?

6 C) 略述你如何分辨所有可能的基因型的差異?利用圖畫方式,表示出從兩隻親代小鼠與8隻後代仔鼠的DNA所得到的基因型鑑定實驗之可能結果。

第七題

15年前,你的叔叔比爾是某位研究麻雀耳內毛細胞再生的著名學者的實驗室裡的高年級博士班學生。在當時,這是一個新興領域,而且沒有人相信毛細胞可以於損壞後再生。進行一連串2D電泳後,比爾叔叔發現了一個約44 kDa的蛋白質,會在基底乳頭 (按:禽類的聽覺器官) 表現,在噪音傷害後的一天起的濃度會增加。接著,這個濃度會增加的蛋白質的量會逐漸平緩,然後約兩個星期後下降。

比爾叔叔將此蛋白質命名為BPP,意思是指基底乳頭蛋白。不幸的是,比爾叔叔的指導教授因為被控教學不當與逃稅,實驗室因而關閉。比爾叔叔休學,且因為經營寵物食品連鎖店而致富。在比爾叔叔離校前,他煞費苦心地純化了大量的BPP蛋白質,並且把蛋白質一直放在他家中-80℃的冰箱。他從未找出BPP到底是什麼東西,但是他把他一管管保存得好好的BPP交給了他摯愛的姪子/姪女─也就是你。

為分子生物學家的你,為了得知BPP到底是什麼東西,會對這個有趣的蛋白質所進行的一連串實驗?請列舉並解釋之。請解釋為什麼你選擇作這些實驗且你會從實驗得到什麼。你可以先假設你所有的實驗皆為成功,且於後期進行的實驗可以根據前期實驗的結果建立 (這些實驗必須是我們已經在課堂上討論過的真實型態的實驗─請不要編一個瘋狂且不切實際的新方法)。你不必把實驗細節講得很仔細,但是要提供我們足夠的資訊,讓我們知道你知道你在講什麼。下列的2D-膠體的解釋是你需要解釋的程度之範例。

*2D-膠體是你從組織或細胞萃取出來的蛋白質萃取物在膠體中進行電泳兩次─一次是跑垂直方向以分離不同大小,另一次是跑水平方向以分離不同電荷。例如說你可以用同一種組織但是不同時間點、或是實驗處理之前與之後的蛋白質萃取物來進行2D膠體電泳,然後比較有何不同。如果你希望可以純化某個蛋白質,2D-膠體也可以將蛋白質之間完全地分離,所以你接著可以純化膠體上每一點已被分離的蛋白質。

[我們期望你可以詳細敘述 (如上面範例的程度) 一連串的四個實驗 (四個實驗裡可能有許多小實驗)]



protein BPP




Below is a sample final exam for the course. The exam is also available for download in PDF format (see below).



Downloadable version of the sample final exam (PDF) shown below.

Question 1

Name three organelles within a cell a give a brief (one or two sentence) description of its job.

Question 2

In a few sentences, describe the difference in expression pattern between "house keeping" genes and genes whose expression is tissue specific or developmentally regulated. Give examples of four (total) tissue specific and/or developmentally regulated genes that were presented in our discussion sessions and briefly explain (two or three sentences) why each falls into that category.

Question 3

On average, what percentage of your DNA have you inherited from your paternal great-grandmother?

Question 4

Here is the nucleotide sequence for the beginning of a theoretical gene:

ATGTTTCCTAAAGAGAGGATTCGTACTGGTGCGCATCCATGAAC....
Exon 1 Intron 1 Exon 2

There are two exons and one intron shown (the intron is underlined).

What is the amino acid sequence of the protein that corresponds to this nucleotide sequence?

What is the new amino acid sequence if the two Ts at position 4 and 5 are deleted?

Question 5

Here is a pedigree from a family in which sensorineural deafness is present in some members. Squares are males, circles are females, dark symbols are deaf family members, white symbols are normal hearing family members.

What is the mode of inheritance of deafness in this family?



mode of inheritance of deafness





Question 6

Your colleague has provided you with a breeder pair of mice that each carry a heterozygous knockout of the gene 「Dfns1」. In her construct, Dfns1 has been replaced by LacZ.

Here are the two alleles:

Wild type Dfns1:

Dfns1 gene

-----------------|-------------------*******************|****-------|---------------|------------

BamHI EcoRI BamHI EcoRI

| 6kb | 1.5kb | 2.5kb |

A B

Mutated (knock-out) allele:

-----------------|-------------------•|••• lacZ-gene ••••-------|---------------|------------

BamHI EcoRI BamHI EcoRI

| 2.5kb | 3kb | 2.5kb |

A B

Your colleague also gave you two short DNA fragments (A and B; shown in the drawings above) that can be used as radioactive probes to detect wild type and mutated genomic DNA.

6 weeks later, your breeder mice produced a litter of 8 animals and you prepared genomic DNA from each mouse.

6 A) What method do you use for genotyping (i.e. which animals are wild type and mutant) the animals?

6 B) What genotypes do you expect? What is the expected frequency according to Mendelian rules? (If all possible genotypes are viable)

6 C) Outline how you would be able to tell the difference between the possible genotypes? Use a drawing of a possible result of a genotyping experiment with DNA from the 8 pups and the two parents.

Question 7

15 years ago, your Uncle Bill was a senior graduate student in the lab of a famous researcher studying hair cell regeneration in sparrows. This was a new field at the time, and no one believed that hair cells could regrow after damage. Running a series of 2D gels*, Uncle Bill discovered a protein of about 44 kDa expressed in the basilar papilla that increases in concentration beginning 1 day after noise damage. The increased protein gradually levels off, then declines after about two weeks.

Uncle Bill named this protein BPP for basilar papilla protein. Unfortunately, Uncle Bill's mentor was charged with scientific misconduct and tax evasion, and the lab was shut down. Uncle Bill quit graduate school and went on to become rich after opening a chain of pet food stores. Before leaving the university, Uncle Bill painstakingly purified a significant quantity of the BPP protein and still has it in his -80 degree freezer at home. He never did find out what it BPP was, but he has offered his vials of preserved BPP to you, his favorite niece/nephew.

List and explain a series of experiments that you, a modern molecular biologist, would perform on this interesting protein to try to figure out what it is and what it does. Explain why you chose to do these particular experiments and what you would learn from them. You can assume that your experiments all work, and later experiments can build upon the results of your early experiments. (They have to be real types of experiments that we』ve discussed during the course - please don』t make up wild and fantastic new protocols.) You don』t have to go into excruciating experimental details, but provide us with enough information so that we know you know what you』re talking about - the explanation for 2D-gels below is an example of about the level of detail you need.

*2D-gels are gels where you take protein extracts from a tissue or cells, and run out the extract on the gel twice - once vertically to separate based on size, and once horizontally to separate based on charge. You can do this, for example, with protein extracts made from the same tissue but at different time points, or before and after treatment, to see if there are any differences. It also serves to adequately separate proteins from each other, so you can then purify the segregated proteins from the gel, if you wish.

[We expect you to describe in detail (see above) 4 experiments of the series (that may contain more experiments)]



protein BPP




 
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