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審定:無
翻譯:陳蕾(簡介並寄信)
編輯:侯嘉玨(簡介並寄信)

I.視覺分析(10分)
I. Visual Analysis (10 points)

下圖重現的是16世紀20年代流通的木版畫。透過一兩段文字的描述,想像一位觀察者在那時看到此圖像的回應。(您的觀察者可能來自歐洲的任何一國家、任何一階級、任一性別;請一定在您的答案中交代清楚。)圖中上方的是天主教教會的紅衣主教,下面的則是小丑。(圖像由德國慕尼黑國家圖畫收藏館提供。獲得允許使用。)

The woodcut reproduced below circulated in print in the 1520s. In one or two paragraphs, imagine how an observer would have responded to this image at that time. (Your observer might be from any European country, of any class and either sex; be sure to specify these details in your response.) The head on the top is that of a Cardinal in the Catholic church; that on the bottom represents a fool. (Image courtesy of Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, Munich, Germany. Used with permission.)

This woodcut was circulated in print in the 1520s. The head on the top is that of a Cardinal in the Catholic church; that on the bottom represents a fool.



II.論述題(每題25分,共50分)
II. Essay Questions (25 points each, 50 points total)

寫兩篇文章,其中一篇要回答下面兩個問題中的一個。可以在一張8.5x11的紙上擬個大綱以便作參考用,但考試中不能查閱其他的書或是筆記。

Write two essays, one in response to each of the two questions below. You may consult an outline of your essays, on a single sheet of 8.5 x 11 paper, but you may not consult any other books or notes during the exam.

1.寫一篇文章,透過提及具體人物、事件和從1300年到1600年的發展來支持下列觀點。「文藝復興時期歐洲所取得的成就無疑是積極的。文藝復興運動為未來歐洲在政治理論與實踐、宗教學說、經濟、領土擴張、自然哲學、藝術以及文學各個領域的成功鋪平了道路。直到1600年,無論是物質上的還是精神上,歐洲人的生活都要比三百年前他們祖輩們的更豐富。」

1. Write an essay in which you support the following statement with reference to specific individuals, events, and developments from 1300 to 1600. "The achievements of Europeans during their Renaissance were unreservedly positive. In the fields of political theory and practice, religious doctrine, economic and territorial expansion, natural philosophy, and the arts and letters, the Renaissance paved the way for future European successes. The lives of Europeans by 1600 were more materially and spiritually satisfying than those of their predecessors three hundred years earlier."

2.寫一篇文章,透過提及具體人物、事件和從1300年到1600年的發展來支持下列觀點。「儘管在這時期的開始,在很多領域有很多重大的允諾,但到1600年時,文藝復興運動已逐漸消失,殘留著政治紛亂、神學的不確定性以及文化的頹廢。歐洲大陸的婦女、窮苦民眾,還有世界上其他種族的人飽受專製統治者在世界範圍內的肆意壓迫。到了十六世紀晚期,從十四世紀開始的精神改革使得基督教兩極分化,在宗教信仰和實踐上產生更強力的管治。

2. Write an essay in which you support the following statement with reference to specific individuals, events, and developments from 1300 to 1600. "Although the period began with great promise in many fields, by 1600 the Renaissance had petered out, leaving political chaos, theological uncertainty, and cultural decadence in its wake. The unchecked power of despotic rulers oppressed women and the poor on the continent and non-Europeans in locations around the globe. By the late sixteenth century, efforts at spiritual reform that had been underway since the fourteenth century had resulted in the polarisation of Christianity and far more vigorous policing of religious belief and practice."




 
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