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審定:無
翻譯:陳斌漢(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)

期末考-中世紀的俄羅斯歷史,1998


名詞解釋

由下列十個名詞中至少挑選八個加以描述.評估其歷史前後的脈絡與在俄羅斯歷史中的重要性(佔24分)

  1. 喀山與阿斯特拉罕
  2. 留里克家族
  3. 漢薩同盟(註: 漢薩同盟是11世紀由波羅的海和北海的沿岸城市發起組成的一個自由而鬆散 的商業聯盟。其成員分布在今天的德國、波蘭、荷蘭、丹麥、瑞典、拉脫維亞等
  4. 瓦西里-蘇士奇Vasily Shuisky (註:參閱http://unseelie.org/troubles/history.html )
  5. 被禁止的年代
  6. 心靈的責難
  7. 康士坦丁堡的崩解
  8. 教派分立
  9. 迪米崔-敦士克伊
  10. 大汗


短論分析

回答下列其中三個問題(每題25分)

  1. 依據「編年誌」 對西元862年記載(俄國最早的一本歷史誌):斯拉夫人,瓦蘭金人原是北歐的附屬子民,由於拒絕進貢所以下定決心治理自己。原本對於進貢問題並沒有強制的條約規範,但是由於貢品一再地被要求增加,於是他們之間逐漸不合終至戰事發生。他們自稱:我們自己找個統治我們的王吧!由國王透過法律為我們做主。於是他們飄洋過海到瓦蘭金羅斯,這群特別的瓦蘭金人就被當成羅斯人,就像北歐一些人之後被稱為瑞典人,有些叫做諾曼人(北方人)。
    在那之後,俄羅斯人開始探討這段屬於他們來源的歷史。對於這段俄國來源的歷史有許多不同的說法與派別,紛擾中似乎掩蓋了事實結構。這到底有些什麼問題?國家當局作出了適當的陳述還是沒有?整個國家系統最終會如何自我解套並且繼續往未來前進?

  2. 巴里斯高杜諾夫在西元1589年將沙皇的權威推至最高點,他任命俄羅斯東正教主教,這還是俄羅斯歷史的頭一遭。試評論這起歷史事件的重要性.

  3. 葉爾欽及他的顧問群們近年為俄國租稅問題努力不殆。在後革命時代,基輔、聖彼得堡與莫斯科是如何應付租稅問題?

  4. 近來葉爾欽幾乎撤換了所有的內閣成員,這舉動被西方媒體稱作為「政治危機」。有幾個曾經被降貶的內閣官員最後竟獲任私有企業的高位,這讓他們可以獲取更多私人的利益。在這個學期的中世紀俄羅斯歷史課之後,你們或許不會對此發展感到驚奇。如此局勢的發展讓你聯想到早期俄羅斯歷史上的什麼狀況?

  5. 在西元1698年沙皇彼得一世曾述:如果我不是沙皇的話,我希望我是大英帝國海軍上將。你認為彼得大帝有何種的形式作風,他的統治究竟像或是不像海軍上將?

  6. 在1931年史達林曾記述:「鬆散的節拍意味著落後,而那些落後的部分將會受到不斷的打擊,我們絕對不要被打敗。不,我們拒絕被打敗。舊俄羅斯有一個特徵,那就是由於她的落後致使她頻頻被打敗。她被蒙古可汗打敗、被土耳其打敗、被瑞典的封建貴族打敗、被波蘭與立陶宛上流社會打敗…所有的人都可以打敗她,就是因為她的落後、她軍事上的落後、文化的落後、政治的落後、工業的落後與農業的落後。」史達林對於歷史明顯的有著尖銳與近乎苛求的觀感。依據以上所述,你可以對他持贊同或反對的想法,但是請系統性的闡述一個論點並且運用證據加以佐證。

Final Examination — Medieval Russian History, 1998


Identifications

Describe eight out of ten of the following. Consider their historical context and their significance in Russian history. (24 points total)

  1. Kazan and Astrakhan
  2. Riurik
  3. Hanseatic League
  4. Vasily Shuisky
  5. Forbidden Year
  6. Soul Tax
  7. Fall of Constantinople
  8. Schism
  9. Dmitri Donskoi
  10. Great Horde


Essay Questions

Answer three of the following. (25 points each)

  1. The Primary Chronicle entry for the year 862 reads: "The Slavs, the tributaries, of the Varangians drove them back beyond the sea and, refusing them further tribute, set out to govern themselves. There was no law among them, but tribe rose against tribe. Discord thus ensued among them, and they began to war one against another. They said to themselves: 'Let us seek a prince who may rule over us, and judge us according to the law. ' They accordingly went overseas to the Varangian Rus: these particular Varangians were known as Rus, just as some are called Swedes, and others Normans."
    Russians in later centuries have come back to this passage again and again as emblematic of their history. Consider two or three moments in the course of Russian history when discord has threatened to overwhelm the state structure. What were the problems of the moment? How did state institutions respond or fail to respond? How did the system eventually "right" itself and move forward?

  2. In 1589 tsarist authorities, headed by Boris Godunov, succeeded in naming their own patriarch as head of the Russian Orthodox Church for the first time in Russian history. Comment on the significance of this event.

  3. Boris Yeltsin and his advisers have been struggling with the issue of tax collection for many years now. How did prerevolutionary rulers in Kiev, Moscow and St. Petersburg cope with this same issue of tax collection?

  4. Recently Yeltsin abruptly changed his almost his entire Cabinet of ministers in what Western journalists referred to as a "political crisis." A number of the demoted ministers have ended up with plum positions in newly privatized industries where they are able to build up immense personal fortunes. After this semester in medieval Russian history, this development may not be surprising to you. How might this seem reminiscent of earlier developments in Russian history?

  5. In 1698 Tsar Peter I is reported to have said, "If I were not tsar, I would wish to be an admiral [of the navy in] Great Britain." In what ways do you think Peter was and was not like an admiral in the substance and style of his rule?

  6. In 1931 Stalin wrote: "To slacken the tempo would mean falling behind. And those who fall behind get beaten. But we do not want to be beaten. No, we refuse to be beaten! One feature of old Russia was the continual beatings she suffered because of her backwardnes. She was beaten by the Mongol khans. She was beaten by the Turkish beys. She was beaten by the Swedish feudal lords. She was beaten by the Polish and Lithuanian gentry.[...] All beat her - because of her backwardness, military backwardness, cultural backwardness, political backwardness, industrial backwardness, agricultural backwardness." Stalin obviously had an acute and particular sense of history. Comment on this quote. You may disagree or disagree with him, but please formulate an argument and use evidence to support it.

 
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