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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:羅元君(Lo Yuan Jun)(簡介並寄信)
編輯:王博律(Rosa Wang)(簡介並寄信)


出席上課和課堂參與是必備的。學生要寫兩篇5頁的報告和一篇10頁的報告。至於,期末考是沒有範圍的。學期當中的課堂表現會列入評分,而且每篇作業最後都會按照下列的評分方式給分:

課堂表現
20 分
兩篇5頁報告 各 30 分
10頁報告 60 分
期末考 60 分

總分 200 分

第一篇報告(第8節課為繳交期限)

要求

  • 請針對下列主題寫一篇5頁報告。注意:行間要空兩行。
  • 你的報告要以電腦製作。請為報告下標題,並且在末頁署名,別寫在報告的其他地方。所有頁數請標明頁碼。
  • 報告中引用本課程所研讀之文字資料時,必須以引號標註,例如:你援引笛卡兒的《方法論》第13頁的內容,那麼你就得在句末寫上:(Descartes, 13)。至於,引用了其他非課堂用書的觀點,則以註腳或篇末附註為之。

主題

1) 笛卡兒如何自覺其的心智、身體以及對他肉體以外的世界的認知為真。在十七世紀,為什麼這種認識論會構成知識革命?
2) 在十七世紀,羅馬天主教會對自然科學是否抱持敵意?試著佐以伽利略案以及教會史上堅持海耳布隆所說的教會子午線。
3) 時間是在1610年。想像你是下列人物之一:塔斯卡尼大公、大公手下的男女性廷臣、教皇、喜歡逛當地書店的具備讀寫能力的塔斯卡尼工人、占星家、富有的荷蘭新教商人或其妻。你已經看過一本名為「星夜的差使」的小冊子,這本由帕瓦多大學的數學家伽利略撰述有關天空的卓越發現。寫封信給熟人或是家庭成員,向他她描述自己對這本冊子的看法。


第二篇報告(第15節課為繳交期限)

要求

  • 請針對下列主題寫一篇5頁報告。注意:行間要空兩行。
  • 你的報告要以電腦製作。請為報告立下標題,並且在末頁背面署名,別把名字寫在報告的其他地方。所有頁數請標明頁碼。
  • 報告中引用本課程所研讀之文字資料時,必須以引號標註,例如:你援引笛卡兒的《方法論》第13頁的內容,那麼你就得在句末寫上:(Descartes, 13)。至於,引用了其他非課堂用書的觀點,則以註腳或篇末附註為之。

主題

1) 追隨豐特奈爾寫書的文體。寫出一段哲學家與侯爵夫人的對話,前者向後者敘述對現代科學的觀感,如渾沌理論或人工智慧。記住:你的說法必須有笛卡兒的清晰思路和豐特奈爾的簡明風格。

2) 針對以下這句話,「伏爾泰藉《英國書簡》來批評法國,而非讚美英國」,試論你贊同與否。從此書找出特定的證據來支持你的論點。

3) 笛卡兒寫著:「心智無性別。」這句話的意思是,女人和男人同樣擁有自我推論與思考所處之地的能力。十八世紀初,歐洲接受此觀點有多深呢?請你至少採下列兩個人物作為比方:Lady Mary Wortley Montague、Tiquet 夫人、在豐特奈爾的《世界多元化的對話》筆下虛擬的侯爵夫人。(切記:笛卡兒並未主張男女的身體是平等的)。

4) 從《百科全書》分析任一文章除了我們讀過的「蘆筍」之外。這篇文章如何採達朗貝爾在前言所提的知識課程?(你可以用兩篇文章互作剖析,假如你覺得可以發展你的論述,可以加進第二篇文章討論,但是不要拿兩篇以上的文章討論。)



第三篇報告(第21節課為繳交期限)

要求

第三篇報告要在第21節課繳交。必須以打字或電腦製作,且行間要空兩行;報告的長度至少要寫10頁,列印裝訂後繳交。請針對下列五個主題擇一撰述。這份報告繳交前的三週,你必須先交一段摘要,並載明研究動機以及詳細說明其適合的參考書目。我會對你的摘要有所評論,並歸還給你,但是我不會用來打分數。好好享受這末篇報告!我鼓勵你發揮創造力在這門課尋找感興趣的題材。

主題

1) 分析從1600至1820年期間的原始資料。儘可能涵蓋此時期的文學、戲劇、散文、繪畫、雕刻或建築。你可藉由參觀迪布納中心的伯恩代圖書館、(收藏善本書的)霍頓圖書館或是哈佛大學的福格藝術博物館的機會,找尋靈感。假使你想收集原始資料卻又沒有定見,不要遲疑,你大可來尋求我的推薦。你的報告所討論的內容和風格,請依詢本學期我們所教學的脈絡。

2) 針對一個感興趣的主題,閱讀輔助性的專題論文可以讓你拓展研究的深度。比方說,你想深入閱讀某一作家、藝術家、政治人物,或可能想更了解理性時期的自然科學哲學、政治思想,。一旦你讀了專題論文,就按本學期我們在這門課所建構的教學脈絡,針對該篇作品的論述,寫一份不超過3至4頁的摘要。千萬別大作文章寫成閱讀報告!你可以參考傑考(第225-7頁)的參考書目作為輔助閱讀,或者詢問我的建議。

3) 十八世紀的歐洲人常以旅行文學的文題在一種更為公正的政治機制形塑更人性化的社會。試著比較與對照本課程二至三個的該時期的評論文章,比如:伏爾泰筆下的英國、Montague筆下的土耳其、克雷夫科爾筆下的北美或是狄羅德筆下的大溪地。

4) 狄羅德和達朗貝爾如何創新地編纂百科全書?概述其內容,然後描述此書誕生已在十八世紀末激起甚麼樣的革命性變革。(暗示:你可以從其發行流通量著手)。

5) 在1750年後,何謂歐洲人與他人反對畜奴的政治與道德的主張?為何在1800年以前,沒有任何歐洲國家廢止畜奴或奴隸買賣?從下列三個地方找出證據:《百科全書》、《一個美國農民的手札》以及厄奎亞諾的自傳。



Attendance and class participation is mandatory. Students will write two five-page papers and one ten-page. There will be a cumulative final exam at the end of the term. I will hand out instructions for these assignments later in the semester. Each assignment will be weighted as follows in the calculation of the final grade, although these calculations will also take into account improved performance during the course of the semester:

Class Participation
20 points
Two Five-Page Papers 30 points each
Ten-Page Paper 60 points
Final Exam 60 points

TOTAL 200 points


First Paper (due 8th class)

Requirements

  • Please write a five-page paper in response to ONE of the topics below. The text should be double-spaced.
  • Your paper must be computer-processed. Please give your paper a title, and write your name on the back of the last page. Do not write your name elsewhere on the paper. All pages should be numbered.
  • Citations to texts read in this course should be made in parentheses in your paper. For example, if you refer to a passage on page 13 of Descartes' Discourse on Method, indicate this in the following manner at the end of your sentence, after the period: (Descartes, 13) Full citations to any work not assigned in class should be made in footnote or endnote form.

Topics

1) How did Descartes convince himself that his perceptions of his mind, his body, and the world external to his body were true? Why did this epistemology (this way of knowing) constitute an intellectual revolution in the seventeenth century?
2) Was the Roman Catholic Church hostile to science in the seventeenth century? Consider the evidence from the Galileo case AND the history of church meridian lines as told by J.L. Heilbron.
3) The year is 1610. Imagine you are one of the following: the Duke of Tuscany, a male or female courtier at the court of the Duke, the Pope, a literate Tuscan laborer who likes to browse local bookshops, an astrologer, or a wealthy Dutch Protestant merchant or his wife. You have just read a pamphlet entitled The Starry Messenger, by a mathematician at the University of Padua named Galileo Galilei in which the author reports remarkable observations about the heavens. Write a letter to an acquaintance or a family member in which you express your reaction to this pamphlet.



Second Paper (due 15th class)

Requirements

  • Please write a five-page paper in response to ONE of the topics below. The text should be double-spaced.
  • Your paper must be computer-processed. Please give your paper a title, and write your name on the back of the last page. Do not write your name elsewhere on the paper. All pages should be numbered.
  • Citations to texts read in this course should be made in parentheses in your paper. For example, if you refer to a passage on page 13 of Descartes' Discourse on Method, indicate this in the following manner at the end of your sentence, after the period: (Descartes, 13) Full citations to any work not assigned in class should be made in footnote or endnote form.

Topics

1) Follow in the footsteps of Fontenelle. Write a dialogue between the Philosopher and the Marquise in which the former explains some aspect of science in our times, such as chaos theory or artificial intelligence, to the latter. Keep in mind that your explanation must be made with the same sort of Cartesian clarity and simplicity employed by Fontenelle.

2) "Voltaire wrote his Letters Concerning the English Nation to criticise the French, not to praise the English." Write an essay in which you agree or disagree with this statement. Use specific evidence from the Letters to support your argument.

3) Descartes wrote that "the mind has no sex". By this he meant that the minds of women and men are equally capable of reasoning about themselves and the world they inhabit. How far had Europeans accepted this view by the beginning of the eighteenth century? Consider at least two of the following three examples in your response: Lady Mary Wortley Montague, Madame Tiquet, the fictional character of the Marquise in Fontenelle's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds. (Reminder: Descartes did not argue that the bodies of women and men were equal.)

4) Analyze any of the articles from the Encyclopédie that you have read except "Asparagus". In what ways does this article follow the intellectual program laid out by d'Alembert in the Preliminary Discourse? (You may choose to include a discussion of a second article in your analysis, if it will help you develop your argument about the first article. Do not discuss more than two articles.)



Third Paper (due 21st class)

Requirements

The third paper for this course is due at the twenty-first class. It must be typewritten or computer-processed, it must be double-spaced, and it must be at least ten pages in length. You must submit the paper in hard copy format. Write on one of the five topics below. You must submit a one-paragraph summary of your paper three weeks before the paper is due. The summary should indicate which of the options below you have chosen, and, when appropriate, specify the work you will read. I will comment on your summary and return it to you, but I will not grade it. Have fun with this final essay! I encourage you to explore themes in the class that interest you in a creative fashion.

Topics

1) Analyze a primary source from the 1600-1820 period. Possibilities include literature, plays, essays, paintings, sculpture, or architecture of the period. You may wish to visit the Burndy Library at the Dibner Institute, or the Houghton Library (rare book collection) or the Fogg Museum at Harvard to get some ideas. Do not hesitate to ask me for recommendations if you wish to work on a primary source but do not have a specific one in mind. Discuss the content and style of the work, and place it within the context of themes we have discussed this semester.

2) Read a secondary monograph on a topic of interest that you would like to explore in greater depth. For example, you may wish to read more about the life of a writer, artist, or political figure from the period. Or you may want to learn more about natural philosophy or political thought during the Age of Reason. Once you have read the monograph, write a paper in which you summarize the work's argument in not more then three or four pages, then place it within the context of the themes we have discussed this semester. DO NOT WRITE A BOOK REPORT! To locate a secondary work, consult the selected bibliography in Jacob (225-7), or ask me for suggestions.

3) Eighteenth-century Europeans used the genre of travel literature to imagine a more humane society with a more just political system. Compare and contrast the critique of eighteenth-century Europe found in two or three of the following examples from our class readings: Voltaire's England, Montague's Turkey, Crèvecoeur's North America, or Diderot's Tahiti.

4) How revolutionary was the Encyclopedia edited by Diderot and d'Alembert? Summarize its content, and then describe the extent to which it might have provoked the revolutionary upheavals at the end of the eighteenth century. (Hint: you may wish to consider the work's circulation in print.)

5) What were the political and moral arguments made by Europeans and others against slavery after 1750? Why did no European nation abolish slavery or the slave trade before 1800? Consider the evidence from the Encyclopedia, The Letters from an American Farmer, and from Equiano's autobiography.




 
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