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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:羅元君(Lo Yuan Jun)(簡介並寄信)
編輯:王博律(Rosa Wang)(簡介並寄信)

期末考的綜合問答題

以下兩個綜合問答題會出現在期末考。你將被要求回答其中一個問題。雖然期末考試不得翻書,但你可以攜帶一頁的大綱前來應試。你的回答必須廣且切題。換言之,你得儘可能地運用教材和討論作為比方,構成條理化的論述,期以呼應我們在課堂上所學的此時期歐洲歷史的鋪陳。

題目

1) 「在十七和十八世紀,歐洲的心靈與物質情況因政治、科學和科技進步而有所改善。1800年代這些歐洲人遠比前兩世紀的先人們快樂、健康與富裕。」請你運用課堂讀物、文章與其他教材佐證,針對這句話寫下贊同或是反對的評論。

2) 在1600年,基督宗教幾乎是整個歐洲的主宰。然而在接下來的兩百年,其威望和權威性卻降低。討論其原因,並且評估在1800年間,基督宗教在歐洲和殖民地的政治和心靈宰制上的相對重要性。


Final Exam Essay Questions

Below are the two essay questions that will appear on the final exam. You will be asked to respond to one of them. The final is a closed book test, but you may bring a one-page outline to the exam to consult freely. Your response should be broad and synthetic; in other words, you should draw on as many examples as possible from our readings and discussions to formulate a coherent argument which addresses the entire sweep of European history in the period we have studied.

Topics

1) "In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the spiritual and material conditions of Europeans improved due to political, scientific, and technological advances. By 1800, these Europeans were happier, healthier, and wealthier than their ancestors had been at any time in the previous two centuries." Write an essay in which you agree or disagree with this statement. Draw on specific points from readings, lectures, and other course materials to support your argument.

2) In 1600, Christianity was still the ultimate source of authority for almost all Europeans. During the next two centuries, however, the prestige and authority of Christianity declined. Discuss the reasons for this decline, and assess the relative importance of Christianity as a source of political and spiritual authority in Europe and its colonies circa 1800.




 
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