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翻譯:吳貞芳(Doris Wu)(簡介並寄信)
編輯:王博律(Rosa Wang)(簡介並寄信)


無須參考課程閱讀以外的書籍資料,你應該能夠討論這些問題,報告要打字,二倍行高,上課時繳交,或最遲當天下午5點以前繳交。請將所有書籍列於參考書目,但只有直接引述需要註明出處[例如Brook,第 59 頁] 。

1. 中國自1368年明朝統一天下之後,所有核心省分(明朝15個省或清朝18個省,台灣除外)幾乎都由北京的中央政府管轄,中國能維持天下一統局面這麼久遠的原因為何? 請就下列所有因素討論若干:語言、官僚體制、士紳階級、考試制度、經濟連繫、交通、商業活動。

2. 儘管如此,這段期間內,中國也常處於內戰分裂或被入侵的局面,請討論造成中國四分五裂的因素,包括軍事安全、地域差異、政治爭辯、外國影響。

3. 「中國自1500年起已與全球經濟結合在一起,」 請討論並佐以例證,包括金錢流通、貿易關係、宗教與文化交流、亦或人口遷徙。

4. 西方觀察家常對中國社會本質有所誤解,請討論為何他們會有這些錯誤的想法,以及近代研究如何改變人們對下列事項的看法,例如「獨裁」國家、儒家思想反對商業、黃禍人口爆炸、擁地形式、科技進步、亦或對新思維的開放態度。.

5. Timothy Brook (卜正民) 描繪了許多中國文人對明代大規模的商業變遷有所反應,請比較其中兩位作家的反應,著重於他們對賺取財富的態度、營利的道德感、奢侈消費的重要性、亦或女性的角色。(請至目錄尋找張岱、張濤、張瀚或徐光啟這類文人)。
(譯註:張岱(1597-1689),浙江紹興人,明末清初之散文作家與歷史學家,著有《石櫃書》及《陶安夢憶》。張濤是明代晚期歙縣知縣。張瀚,字子文,仁和人,嘉靖十四年進士,其著作《松窗夢語》,記載了他的家庭以機杼起家,中外治明史的學者,對這段文字多加引用。徐光啟(1562-1633),上海人,明末著名的科學家,他是首位將歐洲先進科學知識,特別是天文學知識 介紹到中國,可謂近代科學的先驅者,在數學、天文、歷法、軍事、測量、農業和水利皆有重要貢獻,他主持編譯的《崇禎歷法》奠定了近三百年歷法的基礎。)

Paper #1 Questions

You should be able to discuss these questions without doing any reading beyond the course assignments. Papers should be typed, double spaced, and submitted in class, or by 5PM at the latest. List all books used in a Bibliography, but you only need to give citations for direct quotations [e.g. Brook, p. 59].

1. Ever since the reunification of China under the Ming dynasty in 1368, the core provinces of China [the 15 Ming provinces, or the 18 Qing provinces, except Taiwan), have nearly always been controlled by one government in Beijing. What has held China together for so long? Discuss some, but not all, of the following factors: language, bureaucratic state, gentry class, examination system, economic linkages, transportation, commercial activity.

2. However, China has also frequently fallen apart into civil war, or been invaded, during this same period. Discuss the factors tending to pull China apart, including military security, regional differences, political debates, foreign impacts.

3. “China has always been connected to the global economy since 1500”. Discuss with evidence, including money flows, trading linkages, religious and cultural exchange, and/or population movement.

4. Western observers often had many misconceptions about the nature of Chinese society. Discuss why they held erroneous ideas and how recent studies have changed our views on e.g., the “despotic” state, Confucian “hostility” to commerce, Yellow Peril demographic explosions, landholding patterns, technological progress, and/or openness to new ideas.

5. Timothy Brook describes the reactions of many Chinese writers to the extensive commercial changes occurring in Ming China. Compare the reactions of two of them, focusing on their attitudes toward gaining wealth, the morality of profit, the importance of luxury consumption, and/or the role of women. (Look for people like Zhang Dai, Zhang Tao, Zhang Han, or Xu Guangqi in the index.)

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