MIT OpenCourseWare

» 進階搜尋





All students will be responsible for each week's reading and will write a weekly response paper of 2-3 pages. Students will also each co-lead one class, providing questions for discussion on that day.

一份15-20頁的期末報告必須在第11次上課前繳交。關於期末報告,以下期限也需遵守: 期末報告綱要說明,初步參考書目,附註解之參考書目的繳交期限分別為第三,第四及第六次上課。
There will be one final paper (15-20 pp.) which will be due on session 11. As part of writing your final paper, the following due dates will also apply: statement of paper topic, session 3; initial bibliography, session 4; annotated bibliography, session 6.

Final Paper Guide

1. 來源

  • 這些案件裡,歷史學家是怎樣利用現有史料?
    what do historians have extant as sources in this case?
  • 那些史料的優缺為何?
    what are the strengths and weaknesses of those sources?
  • 這些史料的作者為何?
    who are the authors of the sources?
    • 這些史料是否能代表被告與原告?
      do the sources represent both the defense and the prosecution?

  • 史料本身隱含的偏見又是怎樣介入史學家對案件的認知?
    what biases do the nature of the sources introduce into historians' knowledge of the case?

2. 檢視文獻
Review of the literature

  • 史學家如何利用現有資料來源?
    how have historians used the sources available to them?
  • 他們產生怎樣的爭論?
    what arguments have they made?
  • 什麼成為他們的注意焦點或參考架構?
    what has been their focus or frame of reference?
  • 參考架構又如何影響了他們的爭論?
    how has the frame of reference affected their arguments?

3. 你對案件的論點:一些可能的研究方向
Your argument about the case: some possible approaches

  • 法律,哲學,或道德的議題。
    legal, philosophical, or ethical issues
  • 證據論點
    issues of evidence
    • 科學證據。
      scientific evidence
    • 其他有決定性影響的證據。
      other kinds of material evidence
    • 人證和證詞。
      interpersonal evidence and testimony

  • 來龍去脈 -當時發生的特定歷史爭議
    context - particular historical issues at work at the time
  • 因果關係
    • 什麼導致審判?
      what gave rise to the trial?
    • 什麼導致既定的審判結果?
      what gave rise to the given outcome or outcomes?
    • 特定人格特質扮演怎樣的角色?
      what was the role of particular personalities?
    • 時間在審判中扮演怎樣的角色?
      what was the role of timing in the trial?

  • 戲劇性
    • 若把審判視為舞台表演,你會注意它哪一方面的呈現方式?
      if you were viewing the trial as a staged event, what would you notice about the ways it was conducted?

  • 媒體報導
    coverage in the press
    • 誰報導了這場審判?哪個作者,哪份期刊?
      who is covering this trial? Which authors and which periodicals?
    • 他們關注的要點為何?
      what are their primary foci?
      • 法律議題,政治,道德,人情
        legal issues, political, moral, human interest

    • 作者用了什麼措辭?
      what kinds of language are the authors using?
    • 不同的期刊用怎樣的方式表達對審判的不同觀點?
      in what ways do different periodicals take different views of the trial?
    • 作者對於有罪和無罪的觀念是否一致?
      how fixed are the writers in their notions of guilt and innocence?
    • 法律議題涵蓋的程度有多廣?
      how much are legal issues covered?
  • 接受,即人們在審判過後是怎樣看待它的呢?
    reception, i.e., how people after the trial have looked at it
    • 例如,神聖化或妖魔化主角。
      e.g., canonization or demonization of the main figures

4. 幾點提醒:
A caution or two:

  • 試著專注於審判本身,盡量避免分心在導致審判的原因。
    try to stay focused on the trial itself without getting carried away by the events leading up to it
  • 你的報告裡面或許會需要一些關於審判技巧等議題的資料
    you may want some kind of background info in your paper on the technical issues of venue, etc.
  • 舉證。

MIT Home
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Terms of Use Privacy