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翻譯:陳怡安(簡介並寄信)
編輯:陳斌漢(簡介並寄信)

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在二○○四年的春季課程中,我們特別錄製其中兩堂課放在網頁上,提供『開放式課程網頁』使用。以下是上課錄影的連結,以及上課內容的分段解析表。

During the spring of 2004, two sessions of 21H.931 were recorded especially for OpenCourseWare. Below are links to the videos, along with breakdowns of the video content.

堂課1
Session 1

影片
Video: (56K)|(80K)|(220K)

細目 開始於 (時:分:秒)
1 托爾金的學術研究和他的文學作品在體裁風格上並沒有很大的區別。 Tolkien's academic style is not all that dissimilar to his academic style.
【譯註:這裡英文原文中出現兩個academic應為文字輸入錯誤,根據錄影的內容,第二個academic應為literary。】
00:00:13
2 諾曼•坎特對《納尼亞魔法王國》系列書的評價與看法。
Cantor's assessment of the Narnia series.
00:01:10
3 資本主義與托爾金:七十年代馬克思主義學派認為托爾金現象的流行和熱賣是一種資本主義的行為表現。
Capitalism and Tolkien: Marxist school of thought in the '70s said that Tolkien phenomenon was so popular and profitable, it must be a manifestation of capitalism.
00:06:40
4 Byum論述闡釋的模式在多少程度上和Lewis《廢棄的意象》裡對中古世紀的感受度、或是與托爾金所編創的的世界是一致的?
How do you square Bynum with the Medieval sensibility of Lewis's "Discarded Image" or Tolkien's made up world?
00:07:47
5 大眾所接觸的中世紀文化:現代人真的"懂得"中世紀時所指事物的真正涵義?
Popular exposure to Medieval culture: do modern people "get" Medieval references?
00:09:25
6 現代科學模式/信仰vs.中世紀宇宙觀。
Modern scientific models / beliefs vs. Medieval understanding of the universe.
00:10:56
7 Lewis 對中古時代思想心態的特徵描述。
Lewis's characterization of the Medieval mindset.
00:20:58
8 Lewis在他的理論裡把神學和一般文化模式分開,是否有矛盾存在?現代科學vs. 宗教。
Is Lewis inconsistent in his theory that theology is separate from the general cultural model? Modern science vs. religion.
00:24:37
9 托爾金在寫故事還是在寫歷史?他作品的學術性超越了其小說性?
Is Tolkien writing a story, or is he writing history? Is it more scholarly than a work of fiction?
00:33:27
10 布勞岱:其做過德國戰俘經歷所帶來的衝擊,對於非現代事物(近古)的憧憬,以及對地點空間的強烈連繫感。這和《魔界》系列有什麼相類似?
Braudel: the impact of the German prisoner of war experience, a longing for something that was not modern (early modern), and a strong attachment to place. How is this similar to the Lord of the Rings series?
00:40:45
11 和之前的戰爭比較,為什麼許多人認為第一次世界大戰有著如此巨大的文化影響?
Why do many people believe that World War I had such an incredible cultural impact, compared with previous wars?
00:45:20
12 在第一次大戰中,有沒有什麼英雄式的事蹟?一戰的英雄和裴歐沃夫式的英雄有什麼不同?
Was there anything heroic about World War I? What is the difference between a World War I hero and a Beowulf-style hero?
00:48:40
13 《魔戒》中的英雄主義:誰是《魔戒》中的英雄?
Heroism in the Lord of the Rings: who is the hero in the Lord of the Rings?
00:54:10
14 托爾金和Lewis如何使本身深刻的基督教神學經驗調和在其作品中?
How are Tolkien's and Lewis's intense experiences with Christian theology reconciled in their writings?
01:12:32
15 英雄主義與死亡:人死後會發生什麼事?托爾金建構的世界裡有什麼地方符合盎格魯薩克遜人的故事?
Heroism and death: what happens after life? Where do Anglo-Saxon narratives fit in Tolkien's world?
01:17:09
16 托爾金的世界是一個男性主宰和充滿暴力的世界。托爾金會怎麼說?在《裴歐沃夫》裡,女性對和平能有多大影響?
Tolkien's world is masculinist and violent. What would Tolkien say? How do women affect peace in Beowulf?
01:31:23
17 托爾金和「日爾曼的理想」:祖先、文化傳承、種族和第二次世界大戰。托爾金對於希特勒和希特勒思想的看法。托爾金vs. 布勞岱在這些問題上認為第二次世界大戰像是"世界瘋掉了"。
Tolkien and the "Germanic Ideal": ancestry, heritage, race, and World War II. Tolkien's opinion of Hitler and his ideas. Tolkien vs. Braudel on these topics with respect to World War II as a "world gone mad."
01:35:56

課堂2
Session 2

影片
Video: (56K)|(80K)|(220K)

細目 開始於 (時:分:秒)
1 分析歷史資料的方法:計量vs. 質量。如何選定資料分析方法。
Methods of analyzing historical data: quantitative vs. qualitative. How to choose a method of data analysis.
00:02:03
2 如果意外發現一些資料時怎麼辦?應如何將這些資料歸檔?怎樣根據真實和準確度看待這些資料?
What about accidentally found data? How should those sources be categorized? How should they be looked at in terms of veracity and accuracy?
00:11:40
3 圖像與事實:實際的真實vs. 一個時期文化所表現的真實。
Images and truth: what is actually true vs. what is a representation of period culture.
00:18:44
4 歷史學家如何理解整理互相矛盾的資料和證據?
How historians make sense of data and evidence that might be contradictory.
00:24:35
5 歷史學家如何呈現歷史文件中的統計數字?統計資料精確嗎?目的為何?期刊論文的不具名審查程序。
How do historians report statistics in historical documents? Are statistics accurate? What is their purpose? The process of anonymous refereeing of journal articles.
00:33:04
6 歷史系怎樣工作?教授們有什麼共通點?有一種共通性連串整個歷史系嗎?有一個統一連貫的課程安排嗎?應該怎麼教歷史?
How does a History department work? What do the professors have in common? Is there a common thread through the department? Is there a concept of a coherent curriculum? How should history be taught?
00:41:00
7 碰到所知不足的情況時,歷史學家該如何應對?要讀多少東西才算夠?那些研究跨學科領域的人呢?(經濟學與歷史、社會學與歷史,等等)
How do historians deal with gaps in their knowledge base? How much reading is enough? What about people who work in multidisciplinary areas (economics and history, sociology and history, etc.)?
00:49:45
8 如何成為一個真正的歷史學家?有一個博士學位?歷史學家們有什麼共同之處?假定:歷史學家多半從事故事敘述,而非事實分析。
What makes a historian a historian? A PhD? What do historians have in common? Postulate: historians are driven more by narrative than by analysis.
01:04:46
9 到底為什麼要做歷史?歷史學家和古物研究家有什麼不同?歷史予人獨特的洞察力用來省視當前:跟過去比較,我們才能對現在的我們進行檢查與評估。【譯註:鑑古觀今】
Why do history at all? What is the difference between a historian and an antiquarian? History offers a unique perspective on the present: the ability to take stock of where we are today by means of comparison.
01:12:06
10 相比於離我們較久遠的年代,我們比較容易對時間上接近我們的過去做出聯繫。每一個個人就像一個獨立的個體,都擁有自己個人的歷史。當歷史事件發生在很久以前,是完全沒有個人的關聯的。
It is easier to make connections to the past if the gap of time is less vs. a larger gap of time. Individuals, as autonomous beings, maintain their own history. When historical events are far back in time, there is no personal connection at all.
01:24:55
11 去古主義與好古主義:一個優秀的歷史學家如何在其中求取平衡?
Anachronism vs. antiquarianism: how does a good historian find a balance?

【譯註:因為無法找到與此處所指的anachronism和antiquarianism相符合的中譯名詞,權且暫譯為去古與好古。根據錄影內容,所謂的anachronism是指某些歷史學者無法站在過去的角度看待歷史,只從現代的觀點去解釋過去,忽略了歷史的過去性;antiquarianism則完全相反的,在歷史研究中完全排除現代的觀點,過於強調過去,是另一種極端。】
【編譯註:anachronism建議翻譯為"時代錯置";antiquarianism建議翻譯為"好古取向",兩者均譯為xx主義,似乎過於牽強,"主義"一詞的定義需再為確立】
01:34:20
12 疼痛是隨歷史而演變來的嗎?今天的疼痛和古代的疼痛一樣嗎?疼痛是否是一種舉世皆同的人類共通經驗?永遠不變,還是會改變?
Is pain historically constructed? Is pain today the same as pain in ancient times? Is pain a universal human experience, true for all time, or does it change?
01:37:17
13 歷史學家如何和其他歷史學家產生關聯和互動?在這一個具有許多迥然歧異的分支領域的學科中,大家如何溝通交流?How do historians relate to each other? How do people communicate within a fractured discipline?
【譯註:同一個歷史系中的教授們,所研究主題的時代、地域、對象往往大相逕庭,例如,研究十七世紀東歐農業的教授與研究秦漢時期宮廷文化的教授。】
01:44:08

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