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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:吳郁杰(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)

作業
Essays

雖然提供了作業寫作原則,不過你可以隨時依據個人的想法、興趣和喜愛調整主題。如果希望改變你的主題,可以向我或助教協商。
Although I supply guidelines for essays, you may always adjust the topic to suit your interests, ideas, and passions. You may consult with the course tutor or with me if you wish to change your topic.

作業1-第四堂課繳交(3頁) -精細閱讀一個段落《諾桑覺修道院》

奧斯汀的小說一向主張幸福與愛是來自廣泛的閱讀、良善的心及誠實的人格。《諾桑覺修道院》中,她藉由觀察來閱讀、寫作,建立個人道德勇氣、社會性、及明智的判斷力。日程表中多位作家在檢示問題時都利用他們個人的技巧從世界的虛偽、矛盾和唯利是圖的現象去觀察,來得到出真相。奧斯汀筆下的主角需必須學會這些技巧,即使如此,她也暗示著,讀者也得會這些。因此,她鼓勵讀者比筆下的人物更詳細去觀察。從奧斯汀的小說中選出你認為可以測出讀者的觀察力的一個較短的段落,分析裡頭所觀察到奧斯汀奧斯汀利用語言及文學技巧使閱讀那個段落時發現的問題:在措辭及語氣中的嘲諷、輕描淡寫、掩飾、用意、及糾葛與小說中對其他看法及主題的了解,究竟有何弦外之音?

Essay 1- Due Lec #4 (3 pages)
Close Reading of a Passage (Northanger Abbey)

Austen's novel suggests that love and happiness come from reading wisely, as well as having a good heart and honest character. In Northanger Abbey, Austen shows how reading and writing with discernment establish one's powers of moral, social, and intellectual judgment. Many of the authors on this syllabus examine the problem of using one's skills of observation to sift truth from the world's deceptive, duplicitous, or mercenary appearances.Austen's characters need to learn these skills, but so, she implies, does the reader. Thus she challenges the reader to observe more successfully than her characters do. Choose a brief passage from Austen's novel that you think tests a reader's powers of discernment. Analyze the language and any literary techniques you see Austen using in the passage to create problems in reading: irony, understatement, disguise, paraphrase, complications in tone or diction. What does Austen convey through her literary methods at this moment in the text, and what are the implications for one's understanding of other ideas or themes in the novel?

作業1──研討單
First Essay Workshop Sheet
(英文PDF)、 (英文DOC)

作業2──第10堂課繳交(5頁)──衝突的分析《科學怪人》、《泰比》
Essay 2 - Due Lec #10 (5 pages) Analysis of a Conflict (Frankenstein, Typee)

善惡在《科學怪人》和《泰比》中的衝突十分模糊。善與惡的人格在文學敘述中並不總是涇滑分明。且常是單一角色的內在衝突而非與敵對之間的衝突。選一幕你在裡頭見到作者將角色中的嚴重衝突或危機戲劇化。作者在這衝突中會怎麼處理,來顯出善、惡的存亡關鍵為何?你不該太強調其中人物所扮演的角色地位(從該場景中應是非常清楚表現出來的),而該著重於對話的手法、措辭用字、意象、語言的節奏及感覺,情節、事件並置、故事步調或演出的運用,及重組場景中某項主題或效果等方法。利用處理場景中的細節的當口,對文本中作者的意向或成就來建立你的論點。
In Frankenstein and Typee, the conflicts between good and evil are ambiguous ones. It is not always clear who are the good and evil characters in the narrative. And often the conflict appears to be internal, within a single character, rather than between adversaries. Choose a scene in which you see the author dramatizing an acute conflict between or crisis within the characters. What does the author do to reveal what's at stake in this conflict? Your emphasis will not be so much on what positions the characters take (that should be abundantly clear from the scene) but on what techniques-dialogue, diction, imagery, rhythms and sounds of language, uses of action, juxtaposition, pacing, or staging, ways of structuring the scene-heighten certain themes or effects. Use your handling of details in the scene to build an argument about the author's intentions or achievements at this moment in the text.

作業3──第十六堂課繳交(5頁)──收場〈哈吉穆拉特〉、《慰安婦》
ESSAY 3 - Due Lec #16 (5 pages) Consideration of Endings ("Hadji Murad," Comfort Woman)

這些作品每個在故事尾聲時都詳細地集中注意在主角的死亡。二位作者大膽嘗試在同時結束文學敘述及主角的生活的課題做處理,兩個都使用了截然不同的方式作結。 透過這一、二個作品結尾的細讀,作者表現出如何使用敘述的架構或語言去完成最後的收場,或許,也有可能讓故事最後懸而未決。
Each of these works focuses minutely on a main character's death in the final moments of the story. Each author has daringly experimented with the problem of closing the narrative and the protagonist's life at the same time. And each has used very different ways of doing so.
Through a close reading of one or both of these endings, show how the author uses narrative structure and language to achieve, or just as likely, to problematize closure.

特殊討論
Special Topic

從Nora課堂上的訪談要事先知道哪些特定的問題或觀點是不可能的。對學生而言,因這份作業他們得仔細思考這些問題觀點來決定他們的作業主題,可是,我該感到欣慰。
It is impossible to know what particular questions or issues will arise from Nora Okja Keller's inclass visit and public reading. I would be happy, though, for students to consider these in framing topics of their own for this essay.

作業4──第26堂課繳交──意象或主題的描繪《格雷的畫像》、《覺醒》、《燈塔行》
Essay 4 - Due Lec #26 Tracing an Image or Theme (The Picture of Dorian Gray, The Awakening, To the Lighthouse)


「光鮮亮麗應是表象,短暫又微不足道,就如蝴蝶翅上的色彩,一種顏色著另一種顏色,可是衣料必須與骨骼密合著。」(171)Woolf小說中的表象,也是Wilde和Chopin作品中所擁有的,它們似乎都很虛無,甚至瑣碎,也許,如同其中的一角Lily所形容的那座燈塔一直是她繪畫上的理想標的。一些重覆的主題、圖象、題材,甚至文詞在他們小說中再三出現,提供作品的骨架結合並賦予組織結構。在這些小說的一本或幾本中選個常出現的意象或字,細讀幾段,思考此要素對書中的意義、結構或處理某些題材上的重要性。若是你還願意,可以針對某個圖意比較兩位作家的利用手法,或許也可以作為關於三位作家藝術與生平的題材。
"Beautiful and bright it should be on the surface, feathery and evanescent, one colour melting into another like the colours on a butterfly's wing; but beneath the fabric must be clamped together with bolts of iron" (171). The surfaces of Woolf's text, but also those of Wilde and Chopin, seem as airy, even fragmented, perhaps, as the one Lily describes here as the ideal for her painting. Yet certain recurring motifs, images, themes, or even words appear repeatedly in these texts, providing the bolts of iron that unify and give them structure. Choose a recurring image or word in one or more of these novels to analyze. Looking closely at a few passages, consider this recurring element's significance for the book's meaning, structure, or treatment of a certain theme. You may wish to compare two authors' use of certain images. Or you may also develop the themes of art and life that concern all three authors.


寫作注意事項
Notes on Essays

  • 假設是為讀者,像你自己,中的觀眾而寫:他們已看過也討論過那些作品,分享你的所知(及幽默感),而且他們也想知道「你」對這個題材的觀感。然後,使用平易近人的、自然的語言,不要太艱澀也不要太俚俗(避免使用俚語,用語直接、確切)。
    Assume that you are writing for an audience of readers like yourself: that is, those who have read the work(s) in question, share your knowledge (and sense of humor), and want to know how you view the material. Use, then, an accessible, natural language, one that is neither too elevated (avoid jargon and academic formality, use the first person if appropriate, introduce relevant current or personal material), nor too informal (avoid slang; be clear and direct).
  • 針對你的主題要避免情節的摘要、人物摘要、或任何形容及敘述的方式。你為自己的論點做議論,該選擇一個具爭議性的題材(測試:有人為「反對」你的觀點而辯論嗎?)這題材你需從作品中藉由証據的細讀來發展。而且也可以提供「你」對題材的詮釋,你必須解釋藉由指出你如何從書中段落得到這樣的想法。明智的選用引文會支持並擴大你的觀點,但需要解說。引述你需要的(記得使用引號來結束你的引用,在括弧中放入頁碼,「然後」放上結束的括號)並解釋它與你提出主要論點的相關性。
    Avoid plot summary, character summary, or any descriptive or narrative approach to your subject. You are arguing your point and should select a controversial thesis (test: would anyone argue against your proposition?), a thesis which you develop by looking closely at evidence from the text. You are also offering your own reading of the material, which you must explain by showing how you derived it from passages in the text. Quotations judiciously chosen will support and amplify your point, but they require interpretation. Quote what you need (remember to close your quotation with quotation marks, give the page reference in parentheses, and then give the closing punctuation), and explain its relevance to the main point you're making.
  • 大綱可為你的論點奠立好的開始。丟開泛論的開場白,如「人總認為有透過小說形式的作品來達到溝通的需要。」拿手邊的主題做開頭,讓讀者知道你在何處做什麼,且題綱簡要「具体」的題目。好結論需要能總結論點(若是重點已經清楚明確就可不必再做繁瑣的摘要了)在更大的段落裡指出你的論點為何重要所在。
    A good introduction will set up the argument by giving its main outlines. Stay away from opening generalizations like, "Humans have always felt the need to communicate through works of fiction." Start with the subject at hand, let the reader know where you're going, and provide a concise, specific thesis. A good conclusion will gather the argument up (you may not need to summarize tediously if the point is clear) and suggest why it's important in some larger context.
  • 書寫內容時,使用現在式。你所談及的是過去發生的事件,但是閱讀、討論是現在正在進行的行為。
    Use present tense. The events you're writing about took place in the past, but the act of reading and talking about them takes place in the present.
  • 作業依你的看法及論點的品質特色、寫作文字的清晰度、內容架構、作品中証據的引用,及對於課程概念的理解,將會是評分的依據。
    Papers will be graded on the quality of the ideas and argument, the clarity of the writing, the effectiveness of the organization, the use of evidence from the text, and the understanding of concepts from the course.

 
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