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作業


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:Caroya Huang(簡介並寄信)
編輯:王晶(簡介並寄信)

心得報告的寫作方式

約每隔兩星期繳交一次心得,內容包括預定的閱讀作業,需2頁長,字體大小12,間距是兩行,四周邊距為一英吋,裝訂成本,需標明頁碼。每份報告包括下列三部份:

  1. 指出文本中的特點(如:意象、主題、事件、章節、捶け硎c、架構安排、風格 句型結構、要旨或寓意等),那些令你覺得奇特、陌生、值得注意或者有疑難處的問題,並解釋那些要素的特殊點,或和你預期中的差異處

  2. 思考這些特點如何主導文本,並在當下文本章節與整體敘事中的作用與目的為何,以及為何要以如此特殊的形式呈現。

  3. 最後,當你發現這些特別的涵意或你新理解的前因後果後,解釋這些特點是如何幫助你詮釋文本大意。

期末報告

篇長:8-10頁,12級字元,間隔二行,裝訂並標上頁碼。

挑選下列中的一個主題,寫成一份完整、發展完善與論點一致的作業,對所使用具有深切意義的重點術語下好定義,並從文本中舉出證據或例証來支持你的說法,且提供清晰及具連貫性的資料以做出論證與推理。期末報告需對這學期所閱讀的三篇作品中做深入地探討(你也可以附帶影射其他文本,為你的主題提供例証或反例)。你可以做更深入的研究,或者從其它資料中獲取任何資訊或見解,但在引用時,需確實加入註解或列出參考文R。

  1. 此術語"文類"(genre)涉及風格、結構及傳統的主題,區別出不同的捶た別。評論家Hans Robert Jauss定義文類為"預期的地平線" (horizon of expectations),意味作者與讀者因敘事題材、雙方一系列對前理解的假定以及集體的意識型態而偶遇,共同塑造出捶う漱隤k。因此,文類可說是反應出為體驗特殊地點的特殊歷史時刻,社會如何組織訊息以及指定意義的主導方式。從不同的歷史時代中挑選兩個文類不同的作品,討論各社會背景及風俗民情的不同處。思考當新的文類在特定的歷史、技法或哲學發展後,某些文類會變得落伍和不再出現;針對這些審美的變化,試著提出一些可能的理由。

  2. 各種變換的視角(例如:外在/內在,神聖/人類,客觀/主觀,非個人的/個人的,公開/私有,單一/多數,真誠/諷刺,全知/唯我,整體/部分),為重要的主導敘事的架構技巧之一,在其可限的範圍內,訊息的取得、得知的特定契機以及在時間遞演下,訊息是如何傳播的。經由觀察,不同的視角主導不同的敘事手法,思考有關視角的假設是如何跨越時間和地點加以演變。如果視角是獲得新知的主導條件之一,思索視角是如何經由革命性的演變而重組知識的系統。針對其知覺結構的改變,討論在社會、政治、倫理或思辨上的蘊涵。

  3. 如果傳媒以其特有的操作程序、組織系統以及製作技術為捶う煽C介,思考不同傳媒傳播時形塑故事間的差異。在不同的媒介間:口語形式地捶ヾB原稿、列印成書、報紙、影片、卡通或電玩等-何者被挑選或捨棄?(挑選三種傳媒來加以比較)注:media(傳媒)是medium的複數。

  4. 持續收看一星期(五天)的電視新聞報導(當地、國家或有線電視),每天晚上同一時間半小時,以觀查各種訊息的組織、安排以及分配的形式。檢驗任一事件以及新鮮事,雖然具有雜亂的形式,最後如何被格式化成通俗、可預知以及循環發生的範疇。思考涉入捶け硎c的要件:結構配置、視角、媒介、證據的標準,前提、偏見、因果結構、插曲、作用、角色、行動、開端、糾葛、進展和結論。審視如何創造出捶う瑤鴩、每個故事時間的配置長短、安排在節目的哪個部分、哪個捶う抻蚼z不同的故事以及節目如何穿插商業廣告。最後,討論預期的形式-期待珍奇、罕見處或消費點-在節目中持續創造且獲得滿足。

  5. 事件的發生總是任意、偶然和無法預料的,因其新奇性與難以預料,使得事件更有價值。另一方面,論述則是種先定與先決的邏輯架構,強化捶ぁH讓經驗更符合常理,而其有條理、熟悉感、以及可預測的論述使敘事更易了解。思考這兩個完全對立的捶ぁ\能是如何在三種不同的捶た型(史詩、悲劇、歷史、羅曼史、小說、教育小說、恐怖故事、偵探小說、奇幻故事和科幻小說)下加以組合並取得平衡,而任意不同的結構又創造出不同的意義。

Guidelines for Reader Responses

Approximately every other week, Reader Responses covering the current reading assignment will be due. Reader Responses should be 2 pages in length, typewritten in 12-point type, double-spaced with 1-inch margins on all sides, stapled together, and each page must be numbered. Each Reader Response will consist of three principal parts as described below:

  1. Identify some feature within the text (e.g., imagery, theme, incident, passage, narrative structure, framing device, style, sentence construction, message or moral, etc.) which happens to strike you as strange, unfamiliar, remarkable, or problematic, and explain what it is that you find so unusual about that particular element or how it differs from what you might have expected.

  2. Consider how that feature is operating within the text, what function or purpose it might be serving within its immediate context or within the broader narrative as a whole, and why it might have been represented in this particular manner rather than some other way.

  3. Then explain how this feature helps you to interpret the general meaning of the text as you explore the particular implications and consequences of your new understanding.

Final Paper Assignment

Length: 8-10 typed pages, double-spaced in 12-point type, stapled, with pages numbered.

Choose one of the following topics and write a complete, well-developed, and coherent argument, which defines the applicable significance of any key terms you use, supplies evidence and illustrative examples from the texts to support your claims, and provides clear and consistent criteria for making judgments and drawing inferences. Your treatment should discuss in depth three of the works studied this semester. (You may allude to any number of other works incidentally for the purpose of providing examples or counter-examples for your main argument.) You are encouraged to do further research, and any information or insights you receive from outside sources should be fully referenced with footnotes and bibliography.

  1. The term "Genre" refers to the stylistic, structural, and thematic conventions that distinguish one type of narrative from another. The critic Hans Robert Jauss has defined genre as an "horizon of expectations" that authors and their audiences bring to their encounters with narrative material, the set of pre-conceived assumptions and collective ideologies that shape the ways in which stories are told. Genre may thus be said to reflect the dominant ways in which societies organize information and assign meanings to experience at specific historical moments in particular places. Choose two works in different genres from different historical timeperiods to discuss the differences between the corresponding societies and their conventions. Consider why some genres fall out of fashion and are no longer produced while other genres only become available after certain historical, technological, or philosophical developments have taken place. Explain some of the possible reasons for these changes in taste.

  2. Perspective, in all its variations and permutations (e.g., external / internal, divine / human, objective / subjective, impersonal / personal, public / private, singular / multiple, sincere / ironic, omniscient / solipsistic, totalizing / partial), operates as one of the central framing techniques for orienting narrative, inasmuch as it limits what information is available and possible to know at any particular moment as well as how information gets divulged over time. Through your observations about how different perspectives operate in different narratives, consider how assumptions about perspective change over time and from one place to another. If perspective is one of the governing conditions for acquiring new knowledge, think about the ways in which the organization of knowledge gets restructured through revolutionary changes in perspective. Discuss the social, political, moral, or theoretical implications for these changes in the structure of perception.

  3. If media are the delivery mechanisms for telling stories, with their own special operating procedures, their own organizing systems, and their own technologies of production, consider how different media shape the stories they transmit. Which possibilities are made available and which are abandoned in shifting between different media: oral patterns of storytelling, manuscripts, printed books, newspapers, films, cartoons, or video games? (Choose three different media for the purposes of comparison.) Note that the singular of "media" is "medium."

  4. Watch the same half-hour television news program (local, national, or cable) at the same time every night for a week (5 nights) in order to observe the patterns by which information is organized, arranged, and distributed. Examine how random events and novel occurrences are formatted into familiar, predictable, and recurring categories, each with its own pre-existing discursive model. Consider the elements of narrative structure involved: framing devices, perspectives, agents, rules of evidence, premises, biases, causal structures, episodes, functions, characters, moves, openings, complications, developments, conclusions. Observe how narrative interest is created, how much time each story is allocated, where in the program it is located, which persons get to tell which stories, how the program gets punctuated by commercials. Then discuss how models of desire - desire for novelty, desire based on lack, desire for consumption - keep getting created and satisfied within the program.

  5. Events are random, haphazard, and unforeseen occurrences. It is their very novelty and unexpectedness that make events noteworthy. Discourse, on the other hand, is a fore-ordained and pre-determined logical structure that gets super-imposed on narrative in order to make sense of experience. It is the regularity, familiarity, and predictability of discourse that make narrative comprehensible. Consider how these two opposing functions of story-telling are balanced and combined in three different types of narrative (epic, tragedy, history, romance, novel, Bildungsroman, horror story, detective fiction, fairy tales, science fiction) and how different meanings are generated by the different discursive structures employed.

 
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