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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:Caroya Huang(簡介並寄信)
編輯:王晶(簡介並寄信)

文學課程的報告寫作技巧

舉例

  1. 將論證簡化成單一、可掌握的主題,讓你能自由、輕鬆地掌握。你毋需知道所有的事,一般性的主題通常很難驗證出結論,且無法以單一反例証明其無效性。從具體到抽象、特例到一般性原則是最簡單的書寫方法。

  2. 精確地定義你所使用的關鍵詞。字詞在不同的文本中代表的意義不同,越抽象的詞,其解釋的方法也越多。說明你如何限定你的術語,讓讀者不會有錯誤的聯想。在重要的關頭,你希望讀者能基於你所設立的內容共識,勾勒出相同的結論。字詞的定義來源不要引用字典,除非內容符合你想使用的特定文本的定義。

  3. 建立寫作的判斷標準。如果你試著證明文本具有特定的作用及期許,說明其內容以及判斷你的標準是否會達成。

  4. 避免做出廣泛與模糊的一般性原則。別以為讀者會輕易地相信你所說的一切。

証明

  1. 提供特定的例子來支持你的論證。從文本中挑選出最適合的段落,來描繪你試著提出的論點。

  2. 你可以直接引用文本中有關特定時點發生事件的段落或大意,但無論在任何情況,皆要提供使用範例的版本與明確頁數。

  3. 如果你引用文本中的段落,三行或少於三行的短句應包括在你文章的主體部份,標明引用符號,在末端或註腳應用括號註明其頁碼。較長的引文需縮排,並間隔一行以與自身的文章區分開。

  4. 解釋你所引用的段落並證明他們如何闡明你的觀點。引文並非是為自我證明,而必需能夠解析以及結合你的論證。

  5. 任何來自外界的觀點(即並非你的原始觀點),一定要完整地在引文和參考文獻中標示出處與記錄。

  6. 參考資料可以在註腳或文章末端標明。

發展

  1. 在主題上有個清晰的視角後,貫徹到底直到你己詳述到無話可說。避免轉換:a)主題,b)觀點,c)討論的層次或d)表達方式,除非你明確地指出接下來要說什麼。否則,讀者會不知所措。

  2. 於不同的觀點與的論證間,做出流暢地轉換以及合理的承接關係。即使你的內容具有足夠的訊息引導至下個觀查。使用連接詞如"因為"、"自從"、"正當"、"當時"、"若"、"以"、"即是"、"所以"、"結果"、"為此"、"因為"、"然而"、和"因此",可有效地表現出觀點間的關係。轉換句對聯繫段落間具有必要性。除非有完整的前題,別用示範性或個人的語調(如"這個""那個""這些""那些""它""他""她""他們"等)來書寫論證。

  3. 利用回答一連串的問題來建立你的觀點:"什麼?"、"哪裡?何時?"、"誰或被誰""如何?""為什麼?"。首先,你必需解釋觀查到的現象;接著,試著決定這些現象是在哪種情況下發生,與在這樣的情況下,它是如何加以呈現。決定涉及的媒介:誰掌控或引導出現象,以及誰會受到影響。最後,你必需去思考因果關係:為何此現象會在這特定的關頭上出現,其目的或作用為何?你可能無法一一回答所有的問題,但起碼應該加以思考。

  4. 思考你的書寫內容和整體論證的關係。你或許發現某些資訊很驚奇、有趣或值得深思,但除非它與你所選的主題有密切關係,別收納於報告中。你可以留到下次再使用。

  5. 對讀者說明不同階段的思考模式,及如何引導至結論。別讓讀者費功夫地去尋找關聯性及下結論,這是你的工作。

結論

  1. 解釋為何你的發現是很重要、深具意義以及有強烈的關聯。你的讀必需了解為何你的發現是有用的,以及它也許適用於其它的情況。思考你結論的因果關係以及含意。

一般說明

  1. 間距二行,若有引述,則為一行,12字元,頁緣1英吋。

  2. 提出一個富有意義的標題,你的名字要在每頁的頁首或頁尾中標示。

  3. 文本所有的標題需標示底線或用斜體字強調。文章或者短篇故事需有引用號。

  4. 每頁標上頁碼。

Some Pointers for Writing Papers in Literature Courses

Exposition

  1. Limit your argument to a single, manageable topic that you can easily and reliably control. You are not expected to know everything about everything. Universal assumptions are usually impossible to prove conclusively, and they can simply be invalidated by just one single counter-example. Start with a specific observation and work from there. It is easiest to move from the concrete to the abstract, from the particular instance to the general principle.

  2. Precisely define the key terms you are using. Words have different connotations in different contexts. The more abstract the word, the more it can be interpreted in different ways. Explain how you are limiting the use of your terms, so that your reader does not supply the wrong associations. You want your reader to draw the same conclusions that you do based on a common understanding of what is at stake. Do not quote dictionaries as the sources of your definitions unless they are supplying the exact definitions you wish to use in your own specific context.

  3. Establish working criteria for making judgments. If you are trying to demonstrate that a text fulfills certain functions or expectations, explain what those functions or expectations are and how you would decide whether or not your standards are being fulfilled.

  4. Avoid making broad and vague generalizations. Do not assume that your reader will believe anything you say simply because you say it.

Evidence

  1. Provide specific examples to support your claims. Select the most appropriate passages from your text to illustrate the precise point you are trying to make.

  2. You may quote passages directly or paraphrase what is happening in the text at that particular moment, but in either case you should supply references to the edition you are using and the specific page number where your example occurs.

  3. If you are quoting passages from the text, short citations of three lines or fewer should be included in the main body of your paragraph within quotation marks and the page reference bracketed at the end or footnoted. Longer citations should be indented and single-spaced to set them apart from the rest of your paragraph.

  4. Interpret the passage you are citing to demonstrate how it illustrates your point. Quotations do not speak for themselves. They need to be explicated and integrated into the rest of your argument.

  5. Any ideas you receive from outside sources (i.e. any ideas that are not originally your own) need to be fully referenced and documented with citations and bibliography.

  6. References may be either footnoted or endnoted.

Development

  1. Once you have established a clear perspective on your subject, be consistent and try to maintain it until you have exhausted everything you have to say about the subject. Do not switch: (a) between subjects, or (b) between points of view, or (c) between levels of discourse, or (d) between levels of diction unless you clearly indicate to your reader what you are going to do next. Otherwise, it can be very disorienting for your reader to follow along.

  2. Create smooth transitions and logical connections between different ideas and different parts of your argument. Consider whether what you have just said is sufficient information to lead you to your next observation. Linking words like "because," "since," "while," "when," "as," "by," "by means of," "consequently," "as a result," "for this reason," "through," "thus," and "therefore" can be useful for drawing out relationships between ideas. Transitional sentences are necessary for connecting paragraphs. Do not continue your line of argument using demonstrative or personal pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those," "it," "he," "she," "they") unless the antecedent has been well established.

  3. Develop your thoughts as if you were answering a series of questions, moving from "what?" to "where and when?" to "who or by whom?" to "how?" and "why?." First of all, you need to explain what the phenomenon is that you are observing. Then, try to determine under what conditions the phenomeon is taking place and how exactly it manifests itself under these conditions. Decide what agency is involved: who might be controlling or promoting the phenomenon and who might be affected by it. Finally, you need to think about causality: why is the phenomenon taking place at this particular juncture and what purpose or function is it serving? You probably will not be able to answer all of these questions with every assignment you undertake, but you should at least be thinking about them.

  4. Consider how you are saying relates to your overall argument. Some information you may find curious, interesting, or nice to know, but unless it is clearly relevant to the topic you have chosen, do not include it in your paper. You can always save it for another time.

  5. Show your reader the different stages of thinking that led you to reach the conclusions you have made. Do not make your reader do the work of drawing connections and conclusions for himself or herself. That is your job.

Conclusion

  1. Explain why your findings are significant, meaningful, and relevant. Your reader needs to know why it is that what you have discovered is useful and how it might be applicable to other situations. Consider the consequences and implications of your conclusions.

General Instructions

  1. Double-space your paper except for indented citations, which should be single-spaced. Use 12-point type with 1-inch margins on every side.

  2. Provide a meaningful title for your paper, and include your name in the header or footer of every page.

  3. Titles of full texts should be underlined or italicized. Articles or short stories require quotation marks.

  4. Number all of your pages.

 
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