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作業


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:馮文娟(簡介並寄信)
編輯:馬景文(簡介並寄信)
(編註:輔助教室
編輯所設置自學書院網站設有本課程的輔助教室,內容包括部份閱讀文章的翻譯本,中文文獻連結,和自學者論壇。)


論文

所有論文都必須針對閱讀內容,最好是關於一個人物,一個場景,甚至作品的段落,仔細閱讀文本以論證你的觀點。不要泛泛而談。你的論文必須有論題,他人可能會利用文中材料提出反駁。

如果你的論文是關於某部影片,這也可以,但必須包括以下提議的文本。

論文1

古典喜劇(作為古典世界詮釋者的阿里斯多芬,普勞圖斯和莎士比亞)
第五堂課交(5頁-10%)

到目前為止,你讀過的喜劇中,「錯誤」推動情節,或是人物似乎出錯。下列問題為你提供思考這些錯誤的思路。以此作為出發點,對一部戲劇中使用錯誤進行分析。

  1. 哪些官能受到錯誤的影響最大? 對於思想(或身體)的運作,戲劇想表達什麼? 錯誤是如何影響人物使用語言?

  2. 誰為劇中的錯誤負責?是否權勢中人犯錯?在劇中,權勢和錯誤是怎樣的關係 ?

  3. 人物是否樂意或不情願放棄他們的錯誤?戲劇的結局和回復理智,說明戲劇的什麼價值?

  4. 錯誤同幻想,夢境,迷信或者其他的精神失常是如何聯繫?

作業2

文藝復興喜劇(莎士比亞和賽凡提斯)
第12堂課交(7頁-20%)

  1. 古典喜劇在很大程度上依賴動作和道具,使用面具,或歌曲、合唱、舞蹈和趣劇這些表演元素。你找到哪些動作元素,是從希臘和羅馬的戲劇延續到莎士比亞的英格蘭或賽凡提斯的西班牙。這些喜劇或小說中,「表演」的視覺、舞蹈或其他特別效果,是提升還是破壞其情節和意義?

  2. 《馴悍記》《堂吉訶德》中選擇一對男女作討論。兩人是如何界定他(她)在這關係中的限制?他們是否侵犯了這些限制?他們如何和解?是否尊重對方的權利和界限?這對男女之間的互動反映了作者對愛和性的什麼態度?

  3. 每部作品有正常人物,與被認為異常或瘋狂的主角截然相反。莎士比亞或賽凡提斯是如何表達溫和人物?他(她)是否英雄?

  4. 仔細閱讀一部戲劇的結局,或者比較兩部戲劇的結局,決定喜劇性結局如何化解衝突,和什麼程度上恢復秩序:社會秩序,個人權威,公平或真理。或者討論婚姻是如何產生或挑戰既成事實。

作業3

諷刺和機智(莫里哀,貝恩,吐溫和王爾德)
第22堂課交(8頁-20%)

這份論文可以選擇深入閱讀一部作品,或是比較兩位作家,或是選其中一位與你之前沒有寫過的較早的一位作家比較。

  1. 為一個或多個你認為被作者忽視或表達不公的人物抗辯:Alceste, Arsinoé, Willmore,Blunt,Pudd'nhead Wilson或Tom Driscoll,Bracknell夫人。很多這樣的角色在不同時候表現為礙事者,惡棍或者傻瓜。深入閱讀揭示出什麼?

  2. 騙子:這些作品中,許多角色都挖空心思愚弄或欺騙他人。細察一位作家是如何利用騙子引起矛盾衝突,挑戰社會秩序或造成喜劇。

  3. 巧婦:這些作品中,機智為女人創造了什麼機會或局限?機智是什麼?又如何賦予女人力量或使她陷入險境?你也可從我們以前討論的較早時作品中的巧婦中取證。

  4. 你所讀到的許多作品中,愛情是在障礙中產生的――愛人的誤解、爭吵或是嫌惡、開玩笑以及侮辱;也有很多來自外部的障礙――古典和莎士比亞喜劇的害人精和惡棍。有時候,我們甚至看到人物的自我掙扎,內心痛苦或抗拒婚姻。但大多數在最後還是喜結連理。這些作品中的一部或多部,是如何解決愛人之間的衝突而達到喜劇的結局?又表達了怎樣的愛情觀和婚姻觀?是否結婚就達到歡天喜地的結局?如果是,又是怎麼樣?

  5. 《堂吉訶德》中, 懶散往往同自由自在和放蕩不羈相聯繫,在某種程度上,懶散才會讓機智和創造力自由發揮。在稍後的作品中,有很多看起來懶散的人物,他們是否真的懶散?他們的行為是嚴肅和有深意,還是僅僅只為了打發時間?像閒話,嗜好,性別遊戲,飲食,跳舞,散步,寫作或者無聊鬥智這些懶散活動又有什麼用處?閱讀是否懶散?懶散製造了什麼喜劇或創造性的可能?懶散是否解放了人?

  6. 這些作品中,有一些欲望強烈的人物,或多或少的放縱自己。小說的世界是如何看待這些欲望?欲望又如何被約束?人物的侵犯性欲望的後果,該作品的社會秩序說明了什麼?

  7. 這些作品中有些評論悲劇,或者是險些成為悲劇。這些作品中的一部或多部,喜劇和悲劇之間有什麼關係?這又會怎麼使該作品變得複雜?另一個相關問題是諷刺。諷刺是怎樣改變喜劇的典型模式和活力?

寫作的一般說明

  1. 假設你的讀者是你自己這樣的人:他們看過這(這些)作品,分享你的所知(及幽默感),而且想知道你對這材料的觀感。所以要使用平易、自然的語言,不要太艱澀(避免使用行話和學術形式,可以的話使用第一人稱介紹相關的當前或個人材料),也不要太俚俗(避免使用俚語,用語直接、確切)。

  2. 不要把主題寫成情節摘要、人物摘要、或任何描述及敍述的方式。你是要議論你的論點,應該選擇一個具爭議性的主題(測試:有人會反駁你的觀點嗎?),你需細讀作品中的根據來發展這個主題。你也是在詮釋內容,必須解釋如何從文本的段落得到這樣的想法。

  3. 明智的選用引文會支持並增強你的觀點,但需要解釋。不要讓讀者閱讀和理解大段材料。引用你需要的資料(記得使用前後引號標出你的引文,寫上頁碼),並解釋它與你主要論點的相關性。

  4. 引言可為你的論點開個好頭,列出大綱。丟開泛泛的開場白,如「人總認為有需要透過小說作品來溝通」,或者「有史以來,女性總是受男性歧視」。這類表達也許是對的,但是你得把整個圖書館搬出來說明原因。拿手上的主題做開頭,讓讀者知道你的方向是什麼,且給出簡要具體的論題。一個好的結論能總結論點(若是重點已經清楚明確,不用總結),提出為什麼在較大的背景中論點的重要。

  5. 使用現在時態。你所談及的是過去發生的事件,但是閱讀、討論是現在進行的行為。

  6. 論文評分是根據觀點及論點的品質、寫作清晰、有效組織、使用文本的證據,及理解課程提出的概念。

  7. 我會提示一些具體的論文題目,讓你想一想材料,以及思考結合課堂討論的概念。你也可以自由選擇題目和方式,任何時候我都樂意與你討論題目。


 

Essays

For all your essays, be sure to focus your reading, preferably on a single character, scene, or even passage in the work(s), and to support your point with a close reading of the text. Do not generalize. Make sure your essay has a thesis, a point against which someone might argue, using the evidence of the text.

If you wish to write about a film for one of your essays, you are welcome to do so but must cover the requisite number of written texts, as suggested below.

Essay #1

Classical Comedy (Aristophanes, Plautus, Shakespeare as Interpreter of the Classical World)
Due on Lecture 5 (5 pages - 10%)

In the comedies you've read so far, errors drive the plot, or characters appear to be in error. Here are some questions to give you ways to think about error. Use them as a starting point for an analysis of the use of error in one play.

  1. Which senses or faculties seem most affected by error? What does the play seem to be saying about the way the mind (or the body) works? How does error affect the character's use of language?

  2. Who is responsible for the errors in the play? Are figures of authority in error? What is the relationship between authority and error in the play?

  3. Do the characters seem happy or reluctant to give up their errors? What does the conclusion of the play, the restoration of sense, say about the play's values?

  4. How does error relate to fantasy, dream, superstition, or other aberrations of the mind?

Essay #2

Renaissance Comedy (Shakespeare and Cervantes)
Due on Lecture 12 (7 pages - 20%)

  1. Much classical comedy depends on physical action and props, on the use of masks, or performance elements like song, chorus, and dance, and slapstick. What physical elements do you find carrying over from the Greek and Roman plays to Shakespeare's England or Cervantes' Spain? Do the "performances" in the comic play or novel, its visual, choreographic, or other special effects, work to heighten or undermine its plot and meaning?

  2. Choose a couple from The Taming of the Shrew or Don Quixote to discuss. How does each member of the couple define his or her limits in the relationship? Do they violate these limits? How do they reconcile differences? Do they respect each other's rights and boundaries? What do this couple's interactions show about the author's attitudes to love and sex?

  3. Each work includes reasonable characters who contrast with the central figure, whom many consider deviant or mad. How does Shakespeare or Cervantes represent the figure of moderation? Is he or she a hero or not?

  4. Examine one ending closely or compare two to determine how comic endings resolve conflict and to what degree they restore order: social order, personal authority, justice, or the truth. Or discuss how marriage works to create or challenge closure.

Essay #3

Satire and Wit (Molière, Behn, Twain, and Wilde)
Due on Lecture 22 (8 pages - 20%)

For this essay you have the option of a close reading of one work or a comparison between two of these authors or between one of these and an earlier author about whom you have not written before.

  1. Defend a character or characters whom you think the author has neglected or represented unfairly: Alceste, Arsinoé, Willmore, Blunt, Pudd'nhead Wilson or Tom Driscoll, Lady Bracknell. Many of these characters are seen at various times as obstacles, villains, or fools. What does a closer reading reveal?

  2. Tricksters: many characters in these works try to fool or deceive others. Examine how one of these authors uses the trickster to develop conflicts, challenge social order, or create comedy.

  3. Witty ladies: what possibilities or limits does wit create for women in these works? What is wit and how does it work to empower women or put them at risk? You may draw on our discussions of witty ladies in earlier works if you like.

  4. In a number of the works you've read, love grows out of obstacles between the lovers-misunderstandings, quarrels and dislikes, jokes and insults-as much as from external obstacles-the blocking figures and villains of classical and Shakespearean comedy. Sometimes, we even see characters struggling with themselves, with their own internal difficulties or resistances to marriage. Yet most marry happily in the end. How does one or more of these works resolve the conflicts between lovers to produce the comic ending? What does it say about the value of love and marriage? Does the marriage ending achieve festive closure, and if so, how?

  5. We saw in Don Quixote that idleness was associated with ease, license, and, to the extent that idleness allows for the free play of wit, creativity. In later works we find many characters who seem to be idle: are they? Do their actions seem serious and purposeful or merely designed to pass the time? What is the use of such idle activities as gossip, hobbies, sexual play, eating, dancing, walking, writing, or exchanging witty nonsense? Is reading idle? What comic or creative possibilities does idleness provide? Does it liberate people?

  6. These works contain characters with strong appetites and desires, to which they abandon themselves with more or less freedom. How are these appetites viewed in the world of the fiction, and how are they restrained? What does the outcome of a character's transgressive desire say about the social order of the work in question?

  7. Several of these works comment on tragedy or come close to becoming tragic. What is the relationship between comedy and tragedy in one or more of these works? How does it complicate the work in question? A related issue is that of satire. How does satire change the typical patterns and energies of comedy?

General Notes on Writing

  1. Assume that you are writing for an audience of readers like yourself: that is, those who have read the work(s) in question, share your knowledge (and sense of humor), and want to know how you view the material. Use, then, an accessible, natural language, one that is neither too elevated (avoid jargon and academic formality, use the first person if appropriate, introduce relevant current or personal material) nor too common (avoid slang; be clear and direct).

  2. Avoid plot summary, character summary, or any descriptive or narrative approach to your subject. You are arguing your point and should select a controversial thesis (test: would anyone argue against your proposition?), a thesis which you develop by looking closely at evidence from the text. You are also offering your own reading of the material, which you must explain by showing how you derived it from passages in the text.

  3. Quotations judiciously chosen will support and amplify your point, but they require interpretation. Try not to give the reader large wads of text to read and understand. Quote what you need (remember to close your quotation with quotation marks, give the page reference in parentheses, and then give the closing punctuation), and explain its relevance to the main point you're making.

  4. A good introduction will set up the argument by giving its main outlines. Stay away from big windy openings with generalizations like, "Humans have always felt the need to communicate through works of fiction," or "Women have historically always suffered from discrimination by men": these statements may be true, but it would take a library to show why. Start with the subject at hand, let the reader know where you're going, and provide a concise, specific thesis. A good conclusion will gather the argument up (you may not need to summarize if the point is clear) and suggest why it's important in some larger context.

  5. Use present tense. The events you're writing about took place in the past, but the act of reading and talking about them takes place in the present.

  6. Papers will be graded on the quality of the ideas and argument, the clarity of the writing, the effectiveness of the organization, the use of evidence from the text, and the understanding of concepts from the course.

  7. I will suggest specific paper topics to get you thinking about the material and to integrate ideas discussed in class. You may always choose a topic or approach of your own, and I am available to discuss topics at any time.

 
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