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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:楊金峰(簡介並寄信)
翻譯:楊谷川(簡介並寄信)
編輯:簡志先(簡介並寄信)

資料

注意:本文件列出了上課所需的資料,但不含聲音檔。

提琴曲
(英文PDF)、 (英文DOC)
圓圈舞
(英文PDF)、 (英文DOC)



盎格魯民樂的傳統調式

我們在盎格魯美國民歌和提琴曲中都會遇到四種調式,它們分別是艾奧利安調式(大音階)、米索利地安調式、多里安調式和伊奧尼安調式(自然小音階)。前兩個被稱為大調式是因為主要的三和弦是大調和弦,另外兩個被稱為小調也是由於這個原因。而佛里吉安調式和利地安調式(和理論上的洛克里安調式)都很少碰到。在不同的調式中,三全音會在不同的地方出現。在艾奧利安調式中,三全音是從fa(第四音)到ti (第七音),而在多里安調式中,三全音是從mi(第三音)到la(第六音)之間,等等。因為在三全音周圍存在著半音,所以很難唱--diabolis in musica-有時成雙地升高或降低它的音調。因此,在多里安調式中F# 和Bb是通常被改變的音,前者是旋律的上升,後者是下降。有時候三全音的一個或兩個音調會一起從音階中被忽略,這樣就創造出了六音階或五音階。/p>

普通的五音階起源於如下所示的方法。為了方便,音樂的調式是從C寫起的。三全音被括弧起來和衍生的六音階也加在旁邊。



什麼是凱爾特音樂?

凱爾特音樂是一個相當寬泛的概念;它包括了凱爾特地區的傳統音樂-這些地區有愛爾蘭、蘇格蘭、威爾士、布列塔尼(半島)[法國]、加利西亞省(西班牙)和受它們影響的如美國和加拿大沿海諸省及其他地區,還包括一些在所列地區的傳統上建立的新興音樂。

這個術語有時帶有爭議性。對於初學者,凱爾特作為一個獨一的民族也早已是歷史,在不同的國家,傳統音樂也有很大的差別且許多的相同之處源於更新近的影響。還有一種觀念是"凱爾特"意味著凱爾特神秘主義和對新音樂的特殊影響,而這種新音樂和傳統音樂幾乎沒有聯繫。總的說來,最緊密的聯繫在於愛爾蘭和蘇格蘭傳統之間, 這也是Ceolas 這個塞爾特音樂資料庫所著重的。法國布埵h尼音樂家經常演奏蘇格蘭或愛爾蘭音樂,且至少有一個現代加利西亞樂隊(Milladoiro)具有愛爾蘭風格。在加拿大和美國,傳統就更加混雜了,在這堻N語"凱爾特"被用得最多,但不可否認的是許多典型的凱爾特團體也演奏其他民族的音樂。

值得注意的是,即使是愛爾蘭傳統音樂也是許多不同風格的融合,從Donegal傳統的蘇格蘭風音樂到柯賴爾的抒情詩調的舒緩風格和其他許多只能部分相容的地區風格.

因此,在沒有一個更好的詞("民間音樂"或"世界音樂"有時也被使用但較之更含糊)和意識到它的短處的情況下,在Ceolas, 我們就用凱爾特這個術語




Recordings

Note: These documents list the recordings used in the class, but are not audio files.

Fiddle Music (PDF)
Rounder Clips (PDF)



Modes in Anglo Folk Tradition

The four modes that we meet up with both in Anglo-American folk song and fiddle tunes are the Ionian (major scale), Mixolydian, Dorian, and Aeolian (natural minor scale). The first two are called "major" because the basic tonic chord is major, and the second two are "minor" for the same reason. The Phrygian mode, as well as the Lydian (and the theoretical Lochrian), are very rarely encountered. The tritone, occurs in each scale in a different place. In the Ionian mode it is seen between fa and ti (the fourth and the seventh), and in the Dorian it is between mi and la (3rd and 6th), etc. Because of the half steps around this tritone, it was considered hard to sing--diabolis in musica--and sometimes altered by raising or lowering notes in its pair. Hence, in Ionian mode F# and Bb, are common altered tones, the former going upward in melodies, and the latter coming down. Sometimes one or both notes of the tritone will be omitted from the scale altogether, which creates a hexatonic or pentatonic scale.

The common pentatonic scales can be derived in this manner, as shown below. For convenience, the modes have been written out from C. The tritones are bracketed, and the derivative pentatonic scale written alongside.



What is Celtic Music?

The term 'celtic music' is a rather loose one; for the purpose of Ceolas, it covers the traditional music of the celtic countries--Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany (in France), Galicia (in Spain) and areas which have come under their influence, such as the US and the maritime provinces of Canada, as well as some newer music based on the tradition from these countries.

The term is sometimes controversial. For starters, the Celts as an identifiable race are long gone, there are strong differences between traditional music in the different countries, and many of the similarities are due to more recent influences. There is also the notion that 'celtic' implies celtic mysticism and a particular influence in new-age music which has little to do with traditional music. In general, the strongest connections are between Irish and Scottish tradition and it is on these that Ceolas concentrates. Breton musicians frequently play in Irish or Scottish music and at least one modern Galician group (Milladoiro) sounds quite Irish. In Canada and the US, the traditions are much more mixed, and it is there that the term 'celtic' is most used, though it is also true that many groups from particular celtic regions play the music of another region too.

It is also worth remembering that even a term such as 'Irish traditional music' is a lumping together of many different styles, from the raw, Scottish-tinged music of Donegal to the lyrical, easy-going style of Clare and many other regional styles that are only partly compatible.

Thus, in the absence of a better term ('folk' or 'world' music are sometimes used but are much vaguer), and with the realization of its shortcomings, 'celtic' is what we use for Ceolas.




 
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