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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
編輯:張欣茹(簡介並寄信)
編輯:陳盈(簡介並寄信)、胡明靜(簡介並寄信)


以下是關於剽竊的說明,以及關於寫作作業格式及引用方式的指導方針。
A note on plagiarism and guidelines for formatting and citation follow the writing assignments.


寫作要求
Writing Requirements

學生可從下面列出的幾種選擇中任選一項。研究生以及主修文學、比較媒體研究或科學、科技與社會的大四學生必須選擇第三項。無論哪種選擇,都要求在第8課時和第20課時提交論文。

Students may fulfill these requirements by choosing one of the options listed below. Graduate students and seniors majoring in Literature, Comparative Media Studies or Science, Technology and Society must choose option three. Each option requires that papers be submitted in Class #8 and Class #20.

論文發還後的一周內,學生可以修訂並重新提交這兩篇論文來提高評分。本課程的最終成績將以修訂版的分數為準。

Students may revise and resubmit the two essays to improve the grade within one week of the date on which the essays are returned. Only the grade on the revision will count toward the final grade in the course.



選擇1:課程周記
Option 1: A Course Journal

堅持記周記,總結每週課堂上主要的觀點和意見。用具體的事例來闡述籠統的觀念,這些事例可以來自課堂討論、你的閱讀和你自己對電視的親身體驗。按照上面列出的作業上交日期,用列印稿的形式提交你的周記系列。

Keep a journal summarizing the leading arguments and ideas in each week's class. Illustrate general notions with concrete examples drawn from class discussions, your readings, your own experience of television. Submit installments of your journal as typed papers due on the dates listed above.



選擇2:兩個小問題
Option 2: Two Short Problems

在下面列舉的話題中,任選兩個寫一篇論文(列印稿,雙倍行距,4-7頁)。要求你概述他人著作的這類題目中,你最多只能選擇一個來完成。

Write an essay of 4-7 double-spaced typed pages on two of the topics listed below. Do not choose more than one question that asks you to summarize the writings of others.

1. 閱讀雷蒙•威廉姆斯《電視:科技與文化形式》一書的第4章。然後界定他關於電視“流程”(flow)的觀念,並評估它的說服力。美國電視是其理論的一個較好驗證嗎?根據我們對電視的相關經驗,諸如有線電視、頻道轉換器、錄影機這樣的科技產品如何影響了威廉姆斯的觀念?電視是唯一一個迥異資訊相互衝突的媒介嗎?在“流程”這一概念堙A暗含了關於電視觀眾的哪些假設?

1. Read chapter four of Raymond Williams, Television: Technology and Cultural Form. Then define his idea of "flow" in television and evaluate its persuasiveness. Is American television a good test for his theory? How do technologies such as cable television, remote channel-switchers, video-recorders affect Williams' notions concerning our experience of television? Is television the only medium in which vastly dissimilar messages jostle against one another? What assumptions about the viewer are implicit in the concept of "flow"?

2. 概述格伯納關於電視暴力對觀眾影響的觀點。然後概述霍拉斯•紐康“評估暴力素描……”的回應(索取可得)。你支持誰的觀點,為什麼?

2. Summarize Gerbner's argument about the effect of television violence on viewers. Then summarize Horace Newcomb's response "Assessing the Violence Profile . . ." [available by request]. Which perspective would you defend and why?

3. 分析某部當代情景喜劇中的一集,著重關注它的視覺類型、它的角色處理和它的喜劇策略。簡要推測它在電視喜劇生產線中所處的地位。

3. Analyze a single episode of a contemporary situation comedy, emphasizing its visual style, its treatment of character, its strategies of comedy. Speculate briefly concerning its place in the line of TV comedy.

4. 概括費斯克和哈特利論述“遊唱電視”的章節,並就這一觀點對理解美國電視的潛在價值進行探討。務必以具體的電視節目為例來支撐你的論述。

(譯者注:澳大利亞傳播學者費斯克等以“遊唱電視”(Bardic Televison)的觀念來說明電視塑造集體文化的功能,如同古代的遊唱詩人。)

4. Summarize Fiske and Hartley's chapter on "Bardic Television" and discuss the possible value of this perspective for understanding American television. Be sure to give specific examples of TV programming to support your argument.

5. 考察一部電視連續劇的劇本,然後寫篇論文分析編劇對情節的貢獻。鏡頭的運用有多少是由劇本控制的?劇本是否挖掘出了屬於特定表演者的特質或是在過去的劇集中建立起的特質?劇本是如何與電視播放的特定條件相適應的?可獲得的劇本囊括了MTM製作公司和QM 製作公司自20世紀80年代以來出品的電視劇(包括《歡樂單身派對》)的一系列選段。

5. Examine the script of a TV series and write an essay analyzing the writer's contribution to the episode. How much of the camera's behavior is controlled by the script? Does the script exploit qualities that belong to particular performers or that have been established in previous episodes? How does the script adapt to the special conditions of television broadcasting? Available scripts include a range of episodes from MTM Productions, QM Productions, a few shows of the 1980s and beyond including Seinfeld.

6. 概括詹姆斯•凱利(James Carey)關於“傳播的文化研究方法”的論述,並說明如何將這一觀點應用於美國電視研究。

6. Summarize James Carey's "A Cultural Approach to Communication" and specify some of the ways in which this perspective applies to American television.

7. 描述並評價某部犯罪電視連續劇的一集。這一集的基本主題是什麼?它主要的情節公式和人物公式是什麼?試著厘清電視這一媒體所決定的主題、技巧手法和結構特點。請務必探討那些隱含在劇集中的,關於秩序、權威和社會制度的“政治”假設及觀念。推薦閱讀:費斯克和哈特利著作的一章——〈一個警察的命運〉;Todd Gitlin的〈黃金時段的意識形態……〉(在紐康的書中);索伯恩的〈電視表演……〉和〈電視情節劇〉。

7. Describe and evaluate an episode from a TV crime series. What are the principal themes of the episode? What are its chief formulas for plot and characterization? Try to identify themes, techniques and structural features that have been shaped by the TV medium. Be sure to discuss the "political" assumptions - notions about order, authority, social institutions - that are embedded in the episode. Recommended reading: Fiske and Hartley's chapter, "A Policeman's Lot"; Todd Gitlin, "Prime Time Ideology ..." in Newcomb; Thorburn, " ... TV Acting ..." and "TV Melodrama."

8. 依據課堂討論、巴爾諾的大事年表以及百科全書中關於電視網、有線電視、美國聯邦通信委員會和杜蒙電視網的詞條,撰寫一個幫助塑造“廣播時代”的法律規章的簡要報告;相關的參考資料還有:Hilmes的《好萊塢和廣播》;Anderson的《好萊塢電視》;Boddy的《50年代的電視》;Streeter的《出售天空》

8. Write a succinct account of the laws and regulations that helped to shape the Broadcast Era, drawing on class discussions, Barnouw's chronology of important dates, encyclopedia entries on networks, cable television, the FCC, the Dumont Network; and relevant material from Hilmes, Hollywood and Broadcasting; Anderson, Hollywood TV; Boddy, Fifties Television; Streeter, Selling the Air.

9. 針對電視直播時代的兩或三部戲劇撰寫一篇分析文章,著重關注每部戲劇的視覺因素。推薦閱讀:巴爾諾關於電視“黃金時代”的論述,Michael Kerbel的〈電視戲劇的黃金時代〉(在紐康的書中,第3版)。

9. Write an analysis of two or three dramas from the era of live television, giving special emphasis to the visual aspects of each. Recommended reading: Barnouw on "the golden age" of television, Michael Kerbel, "The Golden Age of TV Drama" in Newcomb, third edition.

10. 將《先知安迪》作為一份文化檔案進行分析。在這一節目中利用了哪些刻板成見?在其內容中對美國生活和種族差異作了哪些假設?這個內容作為喜劇材料來看是怎樣的?推薦閱讀:Ely的《<先知安迪>的冒險》;MacDonald的《黑人與白人電視》

10. Analyze Amos 'n Andy as a cultural document. What range of stereotypes is exploited in the program? What attitudes toward American life and toward racial differences are assumed in the text? What does the text perceive as the material of comedy? Recommended reading: Ely, The Adventures of Amos 'n Andy; MacDonald, Blacks and White TV.

11. 對20世紀70年代或此後某部電視連續劇中一位重要配角的角色發展進行探討。一些建議角色:《外科醫生》(又譯作《風流軍醫俏護士》)中的Radar 或 Hotlips;《家庭》中的Buddy;《沃爾頓一家》中的Mary Ellen;《家庭瑣事》中的Gloria;《老友記》(又譯作《六人行》)中任何一位主角,《科斯比秀》(又譯作《天才老爹》)中的孩子們,《歡樂單身派對》中的George 或Elaine,《再來一次》中任何一個迴圈角色,《黑道家族》中Tony的媽媽或其兒女。

11. Discuss the evolution of a significant secondary character in a television series of the 1970s or later. Some suggestions: Radar or Hotlips on MASH; Buddy on Family; Mary Ellen on The Waltons; Gloria on All in the Family; any of the prime figures in Friends, the children on The Cosby Show, George or Elaine on Seinfeld, any recurring character in Once and Again, Tony's mother or son or daughter in The Sopranos.

12. 廣告常被成為電視堻抪L妙的藝術形式。選擇兩或三類廣告——例如啤酒廣告、電話廣告、汽車或洗衣日產品的廣告、電腦等高科技產品或與網路有關的服務的廣告——將它們作為戲劇形式來分析,特別注意暗含在其情節和角色中的關於美國生活的假定。

12. Commercials are often said to be television's subtlest art form. Choose two or three families of commercials - beer commercials, for instance; telephone commercials; commercials for cars or washday products; commercials for high-tech items such as computers or web-related services - and analyze them as forms of drama, giving particular attention to the assumptions about American life inscribed in their plots and characters.

13. 根據有關將電視視作文化意識形態載體的閱讀材料或課堂討論,撰寫一篇論文,探討科幻或醫藥類劇集的技術主題。可能的文本有:《實習醫生》《馬庫斯•威爾比》《魯莽的人》《醫療中心》《醫療故事》《波城杏話》《急診室的春天》《星艦迷航記》及其續集、《陰陽魔界》《囚徒》《五號戰星》《X檔案》

13. Drawing on readings and on class discussions concerning television as a carrier of cultural ideologies, write an essay about the theme of technology in science fiction or in medical shows. Possible texts: Medic, Marcus Welby, The Bold Ones, Medical Center, Medical Story, St. Elsewhere, ER; Star Trek and its successors, The Twilight Zone, The Prisoner, Babylon 5, The X-Files.

14. 比較英美電視的形式有何異同,集中探討某一特定類型,如犯罪連續劇、科幻片、情景喜劇等。

14. Compare British versus American forms of television, centering on a single genre: crime series, science fiction, situation comedy.

15. 寫一篇關於羅德•塞林的電視作品的論文,如各種現場直播的電視戲劇、《夜間畫廊》《陰陽魔界》等。

15. Write an essay on Rod Serlings's television work: various live TV dramas, Night Gallery, The Twilight Zone.



選擇3:學期論文
Option 3: Term Paper

撰寫一篇論文(列印稿,雙倍行距,8-14頁)。在下面列出的主題中任選一個,在前面規定的課時上提交與你的主題密切相關的那些內容。
Write an essay, 8-14 double-spaced typed pages, on one of the topics given below, delivering installments devoted to aspects of your subject in the classes specified above.

1. 選擇一位職業生涯橫跨整個電視史的演員(除了大衛•詹森),描述其職業生涯的發展。請務必探討你所寫的演員參與表演的節目類型,並將他/她的角色塑造與整個電視行業的發展聯繫起來。一些選擇:瑪麗•泰勒•摩爾、伊莉莎白•蒙哥馬利、羅伯特•揚、詹姆斯•加納、哈堙E摩根、比爾•科斯比。

1. Pick a performer - not David Janssen - whose career spans the history of television and describe the evolution of his/her career. Be sure to discuss the genres of programming in which your performer has appeared and to relate her/his characterizations to the evolution of television in general. Some possibilities: Mary Tyler Moore, Elizabeth Montgomery, Robert Young, James Garner, Harry Morgan, Bill Cosby.

2. 描述由某個製片人、製作公司或創意小組推出的若干連續劇,重點關注它們在視覺類型、主題和意識形態方面的相似之處。探討這些連續劇之間的變化和發展,並且思索它們的歷史或文化情境。一些可能選擇:

2. Describe several series by a single producer, production company or creative team, emphasizing their similarities in visual style, subject matter and ideology. Discuss changes or developments among your series and speculate about their historical or cultural context. Some possibilities:

洛利瑪影藝公司:《沃爾頓一家》《8個就夠了》《海洛因》《繩結登陸》《達拉斯》《鷹冠莊園》
Lorimar: The Waltons, Eight Is Enough, Skag, Knots Landing, Dallas, Falcon Crest.

馬克七世製作公司(傑克•韋布):《警網》《亞當12》《緊急事件》
Mark VII Productions (Jack Webb): Dragnet, Adam 12, Emergency.

阿隆•斯帕林:《掃蕩三人組》《新兵》《特警雄風》《警網雙雄》《霹靂嬌娃》《夢幻島》《愛之船》《維加斯》《飛越比佛利》
Aaron Spelling: The Mod Squad, The Rookies, SWAT, Starsky and Hutch, Charlie's Angels, Fantasy Island, The Love Boat, Vegas, Beverly Hills 90210.

QM製作公司:《義膽雄心》《入侵者》《亡命天涯》《聯邦調查局》《炮彈》《巴納比•鐘斯》《三藩市大道》《頭號通緝犯》《丹•奧古斯特》
QM Productions: The Untouchables, The Invaders, The Fugitive, The FBI, Cannon, Barnaby Jones, The Streets of San Francisco, Most Wanted, Dan August.

MTM製作公司:《瑪麗•泰勒•摩爾秀》《羅達》《菲利斯》《保羅•桑德秀》《托尼•蘭達爾》《盧•格蘭特》《辛辛納提的WKRP電視臺》《白影》《山街藍調》《霹靂游龍》《波城杏話》
MTM Productions: The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Rhoda, Phyllis, The Paul Sand Show, The Tony Randall Show, Lou Grant, WKRP, The White Shadow, Hill Street Blues, Bay City Blues, St. Elsewhere.

諾曼•李爾(坦德姆製作公司、TAT製作公司等):《家庭瑣事》《茂迪》《傑弗遜》《一次一天》《瑪麗•哈特曼》《巴爾的摩熱L》《羊齒林兩夜》《星夢淚痕》《快樂時光》
Norman Lear [Tandem Prods., TAT Prods, etc.]: All in the Family, Maude, The Jeffersons, One Day at a Time, Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman, Hot-L Baltimore, Fernwood 2 Night, All that Glitters, Good Times.

加里•馬歇爾:《單身公寓》《快樂日子》《拉威恩和雪麗》《默克和明迪》
Garry Marshall: The Odd Couple, Happy Days, Laverne and Shirley, Mork and Mindy.

愛德華•茲維克和馬歇爾•赫斯科維茲:《三十而立》《我的所謂人生》《再續前緣》
Edward Zwick and Marshall Herskovitz: Thirtysomething, My So-Called Life, Once and Again.

大衛•E•凱利:《洛城法網》《小城風雲》《艾莉的異想世界》《律師本色》《高校風雲》
David E. Kelley: LA Law, Picket Fences, Alley McBeal, The Practice, Boston Public.

斯蒂芬•布奇柯(常和大衛•米爾奇一起): 《山街藍調》《灣城藍調》《警界巨岩》《妙探長》《紐約重案組》
Stephen Bochco (and often David Milch): Hill Street Blues, Bay City Blues, Cop Rock, Hooperman, NYPD Blue.

沃爾夫電影公司: 《法律與秩序》《法律與秩序:特殊受害者單元》《法律與秩序:犯罪動機》《警網(2003年版)》
Wolf Films: Law and Order, Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, Law and Order: Criminal Intent, Dragnet (2003 version).

福克斯頻道節目: 《辛普森家庭》《憔悴潘郎》(又譯作《凡夫俗妻妙寶貝》)、《馬丁》《X檔案》《左右做人難》《忠實的背叛》
Fox Channel shows: The Simpsons, Married ... With Children, Martin, The X-Files, Malcolm in the Middle, Titus.

WB電視網節目: 《韋恩斯兄弟》《捉鬼者巴菲》(又譯作《魔法奇兵》)、《天使》《戀愛世代》《聖女魔咒》《吉爾莫女孩》
WB Network shows: The Wayans Bros., Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Angel, Dawson's Creek, Charmed, Gilmore Girls.

UPN電視網節目: 《捉鬼者巴菲》(從WB電視網轉移以後)、《默沙》《企業號》(又譯作《星艦前傳》)。
UPN Network shows: Buffy the Vampire Slayer (after its move from the WB), Moesha, Enterprise.

3. 探討20世紀50年代至今美國電視對黑人角色的處理,從巴爾諾、MacDonald、Ely的論述和百科全書的詞條中獲取資料。務必查閱以下條目:《先知安迪》《納金高秀》《我是間諜》《朱麗亞》《傑弗森一家》《快樂時光》《根》《切割機》《特納夫萊》《東風西風》《科斯比秀》《默沙》《馬丁》。可獲取錄音帶的有:《比拉》《東風西風》《朱麗亞》《桑福德和兒子》《傑弗森一家》《寶貝》《我已歸來》《先知安迪》《我是間諜》《傑克•本尼秀》《珍必曼自傳》《根》《國王》和其他相關節目。

3. Discuss the treatment of blacks on American television from the 1950s to the present, drawing material from Barnouw, MacDonald, Ely, encyclopedia entries. Be sure to consult entries on: Amos 'n Andy, The Nat "King" Cole Show, I Spy, Julia, The Jeffersons, Good Times, Roots, Cutter, Tenafly, East Side/West Side, Good Times, Bill Cosby's shows, Moesha, Martin. Available on tape: Beulah, East Side/West Side, Julia, Sanford & Son, The Jeffersons, Baby, I'm Back, Amos 'n Andy, I Spy, The Jack Benny Show, The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, Roots, King, other relevant programs.

4. 從指定的閱讀材料和課堂討論的補充說明中篩選資訊,寫一篇關於1948-1960年間美國電視的論文。論文必須包含對這一時期內黃金時段電視節目特性的說明,並且探討團體、政府和科技對這些節目造成的主要影響。

4. Drawing on information culled from assigned reading and supplemented in class discussions, write an essay on television in America from 1948-1960. Be sure to include an account of the nature of prime-time programming in this period and to discuss the major corporate, governmental and technological influences on such programming.

5. 在《紐約時報電視百科全書》中查閱有關環球電影公司的詞條,在Brooks、Marsh和Alex McNeil所著的《完全電視》中查閱有關電視電影和環球電影公司製作的其他連續劇的條目;回顧巴爾諾對“電視影片:的觀點和其他相關閱讀材料。然後寫一篇關於《遊戲名稱》《魯莽的人》的論文,特別關注這些連續劇的主題、意識形態和視覺類型。務必就連續劇主題與20世紀60年代末歷史背景間的聯繫作出評論。

5. Consult the entries on Universal Studios in the NY Times Encyclopedia of Television, entries on TV movies and other Universal series in Brooks and Marsh and Alex McNeil (Total Television); review Barnouw on "telefilms" and other relevant reading. Then write an essay on The Name of the Game and The Bold Ones, giving particular attention to the subject-matter, ideology and visual style of these series. Be sure to comment on the relation between the series' themes and the historical context of the late 1960s.

6. 描述情景喜劇從廣播時代到20世紀70年代走上電視(你也可以選擇寫到70年代以後)的發展歷程。查閱百科全書中有關下列名詞的條目:德西魯工作室、《我愛露西》《先知安迪》《傑基•格利森》《戈德堡系列》以及此後相關的劇集,包括《迪克•范•戴克秀》《安迪•格里菲思秀》《那個女孩》《布萊迪家庭》《家庭瑣事》《瑪麗•泰勒•摩爾秀》《外科醫生》和加里•馬歇爾的各類表演節目。

6. Describe the development of situation comedy from its radio days through television of the 1970s (and beyond if you choose). Consult encyclopedia entries on Desilu Studios, I Love Lucy, Amos 'n Andy, Jackie Gleason, The Goldbergs, and relevant later series including The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Andy Griffith Show, That Girl, The Brady Bunch, All in the Family, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, MASH, various Garry Marshall shows.

7. 寫一篇論文,對比20世紀70年代和80、90年代的喜劇。年代稍晚的劇作包括:《科斯比秀》《乾杯》(又譯作《歡樂酒店》)、《歡樂單身派對》《為你瘋狂》《弗雷澤》《老友記》《左右做人難》

7. Write an essay contrasting comedy series of the 1970s with those of the 1980s and 90s. Among the later shows: The Cosby Show, Cheers, Seinfeld, Mad About You, Frazier, Friends, Malcolm in the Middle.

8. 選擇至少3部不同年代的情景喜劇,探討它們對女性角色的處理,重點關注它們對婚姻和兩性態度的戲劇化呈現方式。

8. Discuss the treatment of women in at least three situation comedies from different decades, giving special attention to the ways in which marriage and sexual attitudes are dramatized.

9. 探討至少3部不同年代連續劇中的兒童角色。你所選擇的節目中兒童面臨的典型問題是什麼?可選擇的劇集有:《老爺大過天》《反鬥小寶貝》《布萊迪家庭》《派特堜_家庭》《一次一天》《家庭》《15歲的詹姆斯》《羅珊娜》(又譯作《我愛羅珊》)、《憔悴潘郎》《左右做人難》《吉爾莫女孩》

9. Discuss the role of children in at least three series from different decades. What kinds of problems do the children in your shows typically confront? Possible choices: Father Knows Best, Leave It to Beaver, The Brady Bunch, The Partridge Family, One Day at a Time, Family, James at 15, Roseanne, Married With Children, Malcolm in the Middle, The Gilmore Girls.

10.“家庭瑣事”這個標題可以用來概括1950至1980年間大部分的電視喜劇。從至少兩個不同年代中選出2或3部有代表性的連續劇,寫一篇論文考察它們對家庭生活的處理方式,重點關注其中子女與父母、丈夫與妻子間的關係。你所選擇的內容是如何假設並戲劇化呈現家庭的?在你選擇的劇作中,家長和子女在表演中體現了哪些暗含或明晰的特質?在這些家庭中,道德權威落在何處?

10. "All in the Family" might serve as a general title for most television comedy from 1950 through 1980. Choose two or three representative series from at least two different decades and write an essay examining their treatment of family life, giving special attention to the relations between children and parents and between husbands and wives. How are families imagined and dramatized in your texts? What implicit and explicit virtues are displayed by adults and their children in the shows you have chosen? Where is moral authority located in these families?

11. 第5題的一個變形:寫一篇論文來考察為電視製作的電影的發展,將《遊戲名稱》作為先驅性案例,並以我們關於電視電影的檔案檔作為參考。

11. A variation on question 5 above: write an essay discussing the development of the made-for-television film, using The Name of the Game as a precursor example and drawing on our archive of TV movies.

12. 撰寫一篇有關電視電影和短篇電視連續劇如何處理歷史事件的論文。可選擇的劇集有:《根》《大屠殺》《甦醒的土地》《有種就殺我》 (艾倫•阿爾達在片中飾演一個著名的死囚殺手)、《國王》《我將永不再戰鬥》《肯特州》《十月導彈》《兄弟連》(又譯作《諾曼第大空降》)。

12. Write an essay about the treatment of historical events in TV movies and mini-series. Some possibilities: Roots, Holocaust, The Awakening Land, Kill Me If You Can (Alan Alda playing a famous death-row murderer), King, I Will Fight No More Forever, Kent State, The Missiles of October, Band of Brothers.

13. 將當代某部影響重大的連續劇與某主要電視網的節目進行對比——例如將《白宮群英》(又譯作《白宮風雲》)或《再續前緣》與家庭影院頻道的連續劇(例如《六呎風雲》《黑道家族》)進行比較。這些節目間的差別說明了當前電視環境的哪些問題?

13. Compare a significant contemporary series from a major network - The West Wing, say, or Once and Again - with an HBO series such as Six Feet Under or The Sopranos. What do the differences between these programs signify about today's television environment?

14. 近些年來,許多電視連續劇十分倚重網際網路的作用,它們創建網站,提供角色的背景資料,有時甚至提供電視觀眾無法看到的整段情節。選擇一或二個這種節目,探討它們具有“混血”特徵的文化和審美意義。

14. In recent years many TV series have made intense use of the Internet, creating web sites to provide background on characters and sometimes entire plots that are not available to TV viewers. Choose one or two such programs and discuss the cultural and aesthetic significance of their hybrid natures.

15. 撰寫一篇論文,探討《黑道家族》和它所源自的影視傳統間的關係。這是一個黑幫的故事嗎?還是一個家庭情景劇?這部連續劇如何利用了電視媒體的特徵?

15. Write an essay about The Sopranos in relation to the film and TV traditions out of which it comes. Is it a gangster story? A family melodrama? How does this series exploit the medium of television?



關於剽竊的說明
A Note About Plagiarism

剽竊——未經說明使用他人的智力成果——是一種嚴重的違規。按照文學系的政策,學生如有剽竊現象,該科成績將記為F,教師還會將事件提交給紀律委員會處理。在所有的寫作作業中,一切從課堂外來源獲得的資訊都必須清晰、完整地予以說明。所有來自他人著作的觀點、意見和直接引語都必須指明,並加以適當的註腳。從其他來源引用的資料必須清晰標注,以示與學生自己作品的區別。

Plagiarism -- use of another's intellectual work without acknowledgement -- is a serious offense. It is the policy of the Literature Faculty that students who plagiarize will receive an F in the subject, and that the instructor will forward the case to the Committee on Discipline. Full acknowledgement for all information obtained from sources outside the classroom must be clearly stated in all written work. All ideas, arguments, and direct phrasings taken from someone else's work must be identified and properly footnoted. Quotations from other sources must be clearly marked as distinct from the student's own work.

如果你借用他人的言論,這段材料必須加上引號。如果你採用了他人所持的觀點,但用自己的話重新進行了組織,那麼你必須採用以下兩種方式之一來對你的作法加以確認:在你的正文中明確說明(“正如萊昂內爾•特堛L在他對《傲慢與偏見》的介紹中所說的那樣,……”),或在註腳中完整引用你的材料來源。

If you borrow another person’s phrasing, that material must be enclosed in quotation marks. If you use ideas conceived by others but reformulate them in your own prose, then you must acknowledge your collaboration in one of two ways: explicit acknowledgment in the body of your text ("As Lionel Trilling argues in his introduction to Pride and Prejudice, . . .") or in a footnote fully citing your source.

要瞭解更多關於材料來源合理說明形式的指導,可參考寫作和傳播中心提供的格式規範(14N-317),麻省理工學院網站對剽竊的說明可在下面的網址中看到:
http://web.mit.edu/writing/Special/plagiarism.html

For further guidance on the proper forms of attribution consult the style guides available in the Writing and Communication Center, 14N-317, and the MIT Website on plagiarism located at:
http://web.mit.edu/writing/Special/plagiarism.html



格式和引用指南
Guidelines for Formatting and Citation

引用和註腳可採用多種形式。我個人比較青睞下面列出的簡單原則。

There are many accepted formats for citations and footnotes. I prefer the following simple principles.

書籍、戲劇或影片的名字用斜體(或加下劃線);用引號標明詩歌、短篇小說或文章的標題。以單行本形式發行的中篇小說或長篇小說用斜體標出,如同它們是全文照錄一樣。因此:康拉德的短篇小說"Youth"(《青春》)要用引號標注,葉慈的詩歌"The Second Coming"(《基督重臨》)同樣要用引號,但Heart of Darkness《黑暗的心》,中篇小說)、Lord Jim《吉姆爺》,長篇小說)和 Modern Times《摩登時代》,電影)則要用斜體。

Italicize (or underline) titles of books, plays or feature films; use quotation marks to indicate titles of poems, stories or articles. Novellas or long stories that have been published in individual bindings are italicized as if they were full-length texts. So: Conrad's short story "Youth" is placed in quotation marks as is Yeats' poem "The Second Coming," but Heart of Darkness (a novella), Lord Jim (a novel), and Modern Times (a feature film) are italicized.

在任何可能的地方,採用帶附加說明的引用而不是註腳。例如,如果要引用原文的某些段落,第一次提及時應該包括完整的標題、出版的地點和時間以及引文所在的頁碼;其後則只用標明引文頁碼即可。例如:(Heart of Darkness, 倫敦, 1898, p. 6)。第二次引用時:(p. 8)。注意:結束句子的句末標點打在標注引文頁碼的括弧外。

Use parenthetic citations instead of footnotes wherever possible. For instance, in citing quoted passages from the primary text under discussion, the first reference should include full title, place and date of publication, and a page citation; thereafter, only the page citation is necessary. Eg: (Heart of Darkness, London, 1898, p. 6). In the next citation: (p. 8). Note that the period concluding the sentence goes outside the parenthesis citing the page number(s).

相同情況的另一種選擇:第一次提及可以用註腳,註腳中可包括這樣的說明:“下文括弧說明中引用的是這個版本。”

An alternative to this practice: the first reference to the text can be footnoted, which note can include the remark "Subsequent parenthetic references are to this edition."

如果你引用的是二手材料,註腳使用如下格式:大衛•索伯恩,Conrad's Romanticism (《康拉德的浪漫主義》)(新港出版社,1974年版),第17頁。注意:出版商並不是必須的。

If you cite secondary works in footnotes, use the following format: David Thorburn, Conrad's Romanticism (New Haven, 1974), p. 17. Note that publisher is not required.

最重要的是:不要無謂地重複資訊。例如,如果你的正文是“正如大衛•索伯恩所言,……”,註腳就不需要再重複作者的名字;如果你在正文中也提到了書名,那麼註腳則只需要包括出版地點、時間和頁碼。

Most Important: Do not repeat information unnecessarily. For example, if your text reads "As David Thorburn suggests, .....," then the footnote should not repeat the author's name; if you also mention the book title in your text, then the footnote should include only the place and date of publication and the page number.

引用的格式:引用材料時,如果所引文段不超過4行,就用引號將引文包含在你自己的文本中。如果引文長於4行,則在其左右兩端各縮進5格,不用引號,使用單倍間距。

Formatting Quotations: When quoting material, integrate the quoted passage into the body of your own text using quotation marks if the passage is not longer than four lines. If the passage is longer than four lines, indent an extra five spaces left and right, forgo the quotation marks, and use single spacing.

省略號(三個點)來標明省略的材料。如果省略的部分是從一個完整的句子後面開始的,保留原有的句點,然後引入省略號。

Use an ellipsis (three spaced dots) to indicate omitted material. If the omission begins after a complete sentence, retain the original period and then introduce the ellipsis.

用方括號[ ]標明你對原有材料的添加或改動。

Use square brackets [ ] to indicate your additions or changes in the original material.

舉例如下。

Examples below.

在你的內容中包括引用文段:
Quoted passage integrated into your text:

The Shadow Line(《陰影線》不斷戲劇化呈現了年輕的主角和一些年長者之間劍拔弩張的對話,甚至是言語相迫的場景。正如大衛•索伯恩所言:「儘管他筆下所有的人物都是孤兒,康拉德仍然成為苦惱、虛弱父權的偉大肖像畫家之一。他所設定的主題之一就是成人面對年輕人時無益的慷慨。」¹

The Shadow Line repeatedly dramatizes scenes of tense conversation and even verbal coercion between the young protagonist and a series of older figures. As David Thorburn writes, "Though all his people are orphans, Conrad remains one of the great portrayers of the anguished impotence of fatherhood. One of his defining subjects is maturity's useless generosity toward the young."¹

用縮排區分正文和較長的引用:
Extended quotation, separated by indentation from your text:

喬治•艾略特總能維持與讀者的親密交流,她傷感而密切關注著社會對我們的塑造和約束,她敬重日常生活中平凡的英雄主義,她有著道德上的智慧和慷慨——所有這些都在她最偉大小說的結束段落中清晰呈現出來:

George Eliot's power to create and sustain an intimate communion with her readers, her sad stringent awareness of how society shapes and constrains us, her respect for the ordinary heroism of daily life, her moral wisdom and generosity--all this is crystalized in the final paragraphs of her greatest novel:

顯然,這些充滿決心的行為. . . [桃樂西亞的]生活並不完美。它們是年輕而高貴的衝動在不完美的社會狀況中掙扎所混合成的結果。在這樣的社會堙A偉大的情感總被視為錯誤,而偉大的忠誠則被看作幻覺。因為沒有人的內在能強大到不受外部世界太多的影響. . .
她那質感柔和的靈魂仍然保持著美好的特點,儘管能發現它們的人並不多。她完整的天性. . .在世上不知名的河奡擛y。但是,她的存在給周圍人帶來的影響曾經不可勝數地四處擴散:因為世上不斷增長的善,部分地是由不具歷史意義的行為決定著;而你我周圍惡的事物之所以沒有像它們本來會成為的那樣壞,一半也要歸功於那些忠實地過著隱秘的生活,如今安息在無人拜祭的墳塋中的人。²

Certainly those determining acts of . . . [Dorothea's] life were not ideally beautiful. They were the mixed result of young and noble impulse struggling amidst the conditions of an imperfect social state, in which great feelings will often take the aspect of error, and great faith the aspect of illusion. For there is no creature whose inward being is so strong that it is not greatly determined by what lies outside it. . . .
Her finely-touched spirit had still its fine issues, though they were not widely visible. Her full nature . . . spent itself in channels which had no great name on the earth. But the effect of her being on those around her was incalculably diffusive: for the growing good of the world is partly dependent on unhistoric acts; and that things are not so ill with you and me as they might have been, is half owing to the number who lived faithfully a hidden life, and rest in unvisited tombs.²


¹ Conrad's Romanticism《康拉德的浪漫主義》 (新港出版社,1974年版),第45頁。
¹ Conrad's Romanticism (New Haven, 1974), p. 45.

² Middlemarch,(《米德鎮的春天》)戈登•海特編輯(波士頓出版社,1956年版), 第612-613頁。
1871-1872年首次出版。
² Middlemarch, ed. Gordon Haight (Boston, 1956), pp. 612-13.
First published 1871-72.




 
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