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Guidelines for Reader Responses

Reader Responses


Reader Responses should be 2 pages in length, typewritten in 12-point type, double-spaced with 1-inch margins on all sides, stapled together, and each page must be numbered. Each Reader Response will consist of three principal parts as described below:

  1. 提出文中奇異、不熟悉、獨特或是疑難處,並給你留下深刻印象的特色(例如:比喻、主題、事件、文章段落、描述架構、構想方式、風格、句型結構、特殊訊息或者道德觀等等)。解釋其特別處或者它與你想像間的差異。

    Identify some feature within the text (e.g., imagery, theme, incident, passage, narrative structure, framing device, style, sentence construction, message or moral, etc.) which happens to strike you as strange, unfamiliar, remarkable, or problematic, and explain what it is that you find so unusual about that particular element or how it differs from what you might have expected.

  2. 思考這個特色在課文中是如何鋪陳的,在上下文或者整體敘述中的可能功能和目的,及為什麼要用此方式表現。

    Consider how that feature is operating within the text, what function or purpose it might be serving within its immediate context or within the broader narrative as a whole, and why it might have been represented in this particular manner rather than some other way.

  3. 解釋此特色在探究文本的特定含義與影響時,是如何幫助你理解課文大意的。

    Then explain how this feature helps you to interpret the general meaning of the text as you explore the particular implications and consequences of your new understanding.

Oral Presentation Assignment


Presentation Length: 10 minutes


Paper Length: 5 pages, double-spaced, with numbered pages

Research Paper


Choose one of the following topics to explore issues that will provide cultural and sociological background for the literature of the Augustan Golden Age. Use three independent sources (articles, books, websites), no more than one of which should come from the Web. Summarize your findings in the introduction, provide illustrative examples in the body of your presentation, and offer interpretations of significance, consequences and implications in your conclusion.

  1. 羅馬宗教與異教活動

    Roman Religion and Cultic Practice

  2. 羅馬家庭結構與女性角色地位

    Roman Family Structure and the Role of Women

  3. 羅馬藝術和建築

    Roman Art and Architecture

  4. 羅馬軍事組織與精神

    Roman Military Organization and Ethos

  5. 羅馬共和國與帝國的政府機構和政治活動

  6. 羅馬競技比賽與慶典

    Roman Games and Festivals

  7. 羅馬葬禮儀式

    Roman Funerary Rituals

  8. 羅馬奴隸與奴隸起義

    Roman Slaves and Slave Revolts

  9. 羅馬帝國與其版圖擴張歷史

    Roman Empire and the History of its Expansion

  10. 羅馬神話

    Roman Mythology

  11. 羅馬辯論學

    Roman Oratory

  12. 羅馬哲學:斯多葛學派、古典學派和伊比鳩魯學派

    Roman Philosophy: Stoics, Academics, and Epicureans

  13. 羅馬階級結構

    Roman Class Structure

  14. 羅馬經濟發展

    Roman Economic Development

In-class Exercise


Answer five of the following questions:

  1. 埃涅阿斯在迦太基朱諾神殿中,對壁畫的感想有何奇異處?這個事件在藝術家的目的和藝術品的效果間反應出什麼關係?

    What is strange about Aeneas' response to the frescoes in the Temple of Juno in Carthage, and how does this incident shed light on the relationship between the intention of the artist and the reception of the art work?

  2. 以下的字詞在故事中的作用都相同:麥丘利、赫克特的鬼魂、克瑞沙的鬼魂、阿波羅的神喻、海倫納斯、塞黎阿諾、派納特斯的鬼魂、安奇瑟斯的鬼魂、女預言者西碧兒、臺伯河。解釋他們在故事中的功能,以及為什麼需要這麼多種方式來表達。

    All of the following perform the same function in the text: Mercury, the ghost of Hector, the ghost of Creusa, the oracle of Apollo, Helenus, Celeano, the ghosts of the Penates, the ghost of Anchises, the Sibyl, the Tiber. Explain what that function is and why so many have to perform it.

  3. 埃涅阿斯在抵達拉丁姆平原前,奠立或建造了四個城市的基礎。這些城市的名稱和地點為何?為什麼埃涅阿斯花時間替他人興建都市,而不實現自己的天命?

    Aeneas founds or helps to lay the foundations for four cities prior to his arrival in Latium. What are the name and location of each city, and why does Aeneas spend so much time founding cities for other people and not fulfilling his own destiny?

  4. 在第六卷中,海倫納擁有一個空白的盾牌,此處的空白有何重要性?由此類推,這和第八卷中,在瞭解埃涅阿斯的精緻盾牌有何關連?

    Helenor in Book XI has a blank shield. What is the significance of this blankness and what, by analogy, are the implications for understanding the elaborate shield of Aeneas in Book VIII?

  5. 在第六卷中,針對埃涅阿斯必須下冥界一事,提供四個理由。

    Provide four reasons for why Aeneas has to go down to the Underworld in Book VI.

  6. 從哪些方面可看出,埃涅阿斯更像安東尼而非奧古斯都?維吉爾如何處理這個類似點?

    In what respects might Aeneas be more like Mark Anthony than Augustus and how does Vergil treat this resemblance?

  7. 在第十一卷中,從哪方面可看出德蘭塞斯類似西塞羅?在此如何瞭解奧古斯都和西塞羅間的關係?

    In what respects is Drances like Cicero in Book XI, and what are the implications for understanding Augustus' relation to Cicero here?

  8. 圖納斯、伊凡德、拉丁弩斯的出身為何?重要性各為何?

    What are the ancestries of the following and what is the significance for each: Turnus, Evander, Latinus.

Final Paper Assignment


Length: 8-10 pages

  1. 奧古斯都時期的詩人持續地尋求建立自我 – 和奧古斯都的帝國 – 與過去的關係(藉著模仿早期的詩人、參考早期的著作、採用早期的文學傳統與類型、重新詮釋早期的歷史事件)。雖說如此,他們也企圖與過去劃清界線,將過去侷限在過去裡,並且表達現在終於超越過去。從學期中所讀過的任何文學作品中,解釋這種與過去的矛盾關係,並思考為何需要提起過去而又駁斥它。

    Augustan poets continually seek to establish themselves - and the empire of Augustus - in relation to the past (by imitating earlier poets, by referencing earlier works, by employing earlier literary traditions and genres, by recasting earlier historical events). And yet, at the same time, they also seek to mark a clear break with the past, to contain the past in the past, and to show how the present ultimately surpasses the past. Explain how this ambivalent relationship to the past functions in any of the texts studied during the semester, and consider why the past needs to be invoked and then repudiated.

  2. 愛情和慾望 – 即使廣受稱讚 – 但也成為奧古斯都時期作品中的一個老問題。無論是披了征服的野心和慾望外衣,或是拘束禁止下自主的愛情和自由,還是性的激情和對美麗事物的追求。從單方面來看,依據西塞羅所言,雄辯術的目的是鼓動導致政治行動的情緒。另一個方面來看,慾望導致各類的過度、浪費、豪奢,與權力濫用。從各時期找出這些作者如何對待慾望的主題,他們試圖激發其力量並試著控制其難以駕馭的作用。解釋他們在面對慾望時,如何解決本身態度中的矛盾。

    Love and desire - though generally admired - become a recurring problem in these texts of the Augustan Age, whether in the form of ambition and desire for conquest, or of love of liberty and freedom from constraint, or of sexual passion and the pursuit of beautiful things. On the one hand, stirring the emotions is the object of oratory in that it is emotion that leads to political action, according to Cicero. On the other hand, desire leads to all kinds of excess, extravagance, luxuriance, and abuse of power. Show how authors from the period treat the subject of desire as they try to activate its strengths while containing its unruly effects. Explain how the contradictions in their attitudes toward desire get resolved.

  3. 思考在那些從共和體制下晉升或得到好處(迪奧作品中的李維、西塞羅、凱撒、阿格里帕),和支持帝國獨裁體制(迪奧作品中的賀拉斯、維吉爾、奧維德、麥凱納斯)的作家間思考態度、信仰、價值觀和風格的差異。撇開個人性格的差異不談,解釋哪些因素在這些清楚的特徵中促成了改變。

    Consider the differences in attitudes, beliefs, and values as well as styles between authors who promote or profit from the Republican form of government (Livy, Cicero, Julius Caesar, Agrippa in Cassius Dio) and those who champion the Imperial form (Horace, Vergil, Ovid, Maecenas in Cassius Dio). Then explain what factors, aside from differences in personal temperament, might contribute to the changes in these distinguishing features.

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