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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:陳曉曉(簡介並寄信)
編輯:王晶(簡介並寄信)

寫作文學課程論文的要點
Some Pointers for Writing Papers in Literature Courses

說明
Exposition

  1. 將論點侷限在能輕鬆控制、單一可行的題目中。你不需要什麼都懂。具共通性的假設通常不可能被完全證明,有時單一的反面論據就可輕易駁倒它。選擇從一個特定的觀察和作品著手,這樣能更容易地由具體到抽象、由特殊實例到普遍原理地進行闡釋。
    Limit your argument to a single, manageable topic that you can easily and reliably control. You are not expected to know everything about everything. Universal assumptions are usually impossible to prove conclusively, and they can simply be invalidated by just one single counter-example. Start with a specific observation and work from there. It is easiest to move from the concrete to the abstract, from the particular instance to the general principle.

  2. 為你所使用的關鍵術語下精確的定義。詞語在不同的上下文中有不同的含意,愈抽象的詞語,愈易出現不同的詮釋。說明你如何限定這些術語的用法,這樣讀者就不會產生錯誤的聯想。若要讀者和你得到相同的結論,將論文寫得易被大眾理解是其關鍵。別將字典作為你下定義的參考來源,除非字典所提供的定義與你想表達的思想完全吻合。
    Precisely define the key terms you are using. Words have different connotations in different contexts. The more abstract the word, the more it can be interpreted in different ways. Explain how you are limiting the use of your terms, so that your reader does not supply the wrong associations. You want your reader to draw the same conclusions that you do based on a common understanding of what is at stake. Do not quote dictionaries as the sources of your definitions unless they are supplying the exact definitions you wish to use in your own specific context.

  3. 建立判斷的寫作標準。如果你想利用文本以達到某種功用或期望,你需要先行解釋這些功用和期望,及你是如何判斷這些標準如何達到標準。
    Establish working criteria for making judgments. If you are trying to demonstrate that a text fulfills certain functions or expectations, explain what those functions or expectations are and how you would decide whether or not your standards are being fulfilled.

  4. 避免籠統模糊的歸納總結。勿以為讀者會相信你說的一切。
    Avoid making broad and vague generalizations. Do not assume that your reader will believe anything you say simply because you say it.

論據
Evidence

  1. 為你的論點提供確切的實例。選擇文章中最恰當的段落,說明你嘗試闡述的論點。
    Provide specific examples to support your claims. Select the most appropriate passages from your text to illustrate the precise point you are trying to make.

  2. 在這種情況下,你可以直接引用或簡化文章段落。但是無論採取哪種做法,都該註明參考書籍的附註和舉例的所在頁數。
    You may quote passages directly or paraphrase what is happening in the text at that particular moment, but in either case you should supply references to the edition you are using and the specific page number where your example occurs.

  3. 如果你引用文本的段落,三行或者更短長度的引言必須標上引用符號,並置於論文的主體部分,參考頁數必須在註腳的末端以括弧註明。稍長的引文應當縮進,並以間隔一行的距離與主文加以區隔。
    If you are quoting passages from the text, short citations of three lines or fewer should be included in the main body of your paragraph within quotation marks and the page reference bracketed at the end or footnoted. Longer citations should be indented and single-spaced to set them apart from the rest of your paragraph.

  4. 解釋引用的段落是如何闡述你的觀點的。引語無法自我伸述,需要解析並與你的論點融合。
    Interpret the passage you are citing to demonstrate how it illustrates your point. Quotations do not speak for themselves. They need to be explicated and integrated into the rest of your argument.

  5. 任何從外來材料獲取的構想(舉例:並非你自己的想法),必須全部標註引述處和書目。
    Any ideas you receive from outside sources (i.e. any ideas that are not originally your own) need to be fully referenced and documented with citations and bibliography.

  6. 參考資料可置於每頁的註腳,也可放在論文末端。
    References may be either footnoted or endnoted.

發展論文
Development

  1. 一旦確立主題的清晰論點,請首尾一致,對此主題全面討論。除非你清楚地告訴讀者接下來要說什麼,否則請勿改變(a)主題(b)論點(c)論述的層次(d)措辭的內容,不然讀者可能會對其內容不知所云。
    Once you have established a clear perspective on your subject, be consistent and try to maintain it until you have exhausted everything you have to say about the subject. Do not switch: (a) between subjects, or (b) between points of view, or (c) between levels of discourse, or (d)between levels of diction unless you clearly indicate to your reader what you are going to do next. Otherwise, it can be very disorienting for your reader to follow along.

  2. 在不同的觀念和論點間,製造出流暢的轉折和合理的銜接。思考是否提供足夠的資訊以銜接到下一個論點。在不同的觀點間可利用下列的連接詞:“因為”(because),“既然”(since),“儘管”(while),“當”(when),“正當”(as),“當…時”(by),“用以”(by means of),“因此”(consequently),“結果”(as a result),“鑒於此原因”(for this reason),“雖然”(though),“如此”(thus)和“於是”(therefore)。在不同的段落間需加入過渡語句。除非在前文中清楚提過,請勿使用指示或人稱代詞(如“這”(this),“那”(that),“這些”(these),“那些”(those),“它”(it),“他”(he),“她”(she),“他們”(they))。
    Create smooth transitions and logical connections between different ideas and different parts of your argument. Consider whether what you have just said is sufficient information to lead you to your next observation. Linking words like "because," "since," "while," "when," "as," "by," "by means of," "consequently," "as a result," "for this reason," "through," "thus," and "therefore" can be useful for drawing out relationships between ideas. Transitional sentences are necessary for connecting paragraphs. Do not continue your line of argument using demonstrative or personal pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those," "it," "he," "she," "they") unless the antecedent has been well established.

  3. 利用回答一系列問題的方式開發思路。如“這是什麼?”(what)、“這是哪裡和什麼時候?”(where, when)、“誰?”(who, whom)、“如何?”(how)和“為什麼?”(why)首先,你需要解釋觀察到的現象、接著確認該現象在何種情況下發生,如何在這類情況下出現、並判斷可能的媒介(agency):哪些人控制或者促使該現象產生?哪些人可能受該現象的影響?最後,你需要考慮其中的因果關係(causality):此現象為什麼會在此特定時刻發生?該現象的目的或作用為何?你可能無法回答全部的問題,但至少你應當思考這些問題。
    Develop your thoughts as if you were answering a series of questions, moving from "what?" to "where and when?" to "who or by whom?" to "how?" and "why?." First of all, you need to explain what the phenomenon is that you are observing. Then, try to determine under what conditions the phenomeon is taking place and how exactly it manifests itself under these conditions. Decide what agency is involved: who might be controlling or promoting the phenomenon and who might be affected by it. Finally, you need to think about causality: why is the phenomenon taking place at this particular juncture and what purpose or function is it serving? You probably will not be able to answer all of these questions with every assignment you undertake, but you should at least be thinking about them.

  4. 思考你所闡述的觀點是否與整體的論點相關。除非材料與你所選擇的題目有關,別將一些看似新奇、有趣或好玩的材料任意加入;你可以把它們用於其他地方。
    Consider how you are saying relates to your overall argument. Some information you may find curious, interesting, or nice to know, but unless it is clearly relevant to the topic you have chosen, do not include it in your paper. You can always save it for another time.

  5. 讓你的讀者知道不同思考階段導致不同的結論。別讓讀者自己作連結、下結論,那應該是你的工作。
    Show your reader the different stages of thinking that led you to reach the conclusions you have made. Do not make your reader do the work of drawing connections and conclusions for himself or herself. That is your job.

結論
Conclusion

  1. 解釋你的發現為何很重要、有意義而且相互關連的。你的讀者需要瞭解為什麼這些論點是有用的並可應用於其他情況。思考你的結論的影響和應用。
    Explain why your findings are significant, meaningful, and relevant. Your reader needs to know why it is that what you have discovered is useful and how it might be applicable to other situations. Consider the consequences and implications of your conclusions.

一般性要求
General Instructions

  1. 除縮進的引言為一倍行距外,主要文本都為雙倍行距。使用12級字列印,每邊留1英寸的頁邊距。
    Double-space your paper except for indented citations, which should be single-spaced. Use 12-point type with 1-inch margins on every side.

  2. 為論文下有意義的標題。在每一頁的開頭和結尾都寫上你的姓名。
    Provide a meaningful title for your paper, and include your name in the header or footer of every page.

  3. 正文的標題應當標識下劃線或者斜體。引用文章和短篇故事要有書名號。
    Titles of full texts should be underlined or italicized. Articles or short stories require quotation marks.

  4. 論文每頁標上頁數。
    Number all of your pages.

 
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