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教學大綱


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:林青遐(簡介並寄信)
編輯:侯嘉玨(簡介並寄信)

大綱(PDF)

寫作要求

一份短摘要(雙行間距、打字、一至二頁)、三份詮釋論文(四至七頁),截止日期如日程表上所示。學生可以在前二份論文退還後的一個禮拜內改寫並重新繳回評分,若遲交的報告是在截止日期後的七天內繳交,仍會評分不會扣分,但這樣的報告就不能改寫,且可能得不到書面評論。超過七天緩衝期後不接受任何報告。

考試

二次課堂考試, 內容包含一題申論題跟數題簡答題

剽竊

剽竊-未告知而使用別人的智慧結晶-是重罪。 文學院的政策是:學生一旦剽竊,該科成績為F,而教授將提交此案給紀律委員會。從課堂外所得到的資源,全部都要得到同意,且必須在呈交的書面作品上清楚詳述。取材自他人作品的觀點、評論和直接引用都要詳細正確的注釋。引用別的資料也要清楚標記來區別自己的作品。

若借用他人的話語,材料要放在引號裡。若使用他人的想法,但用自己的話重述,那麼必須用下列二種方法之一說明:直接在本文中說明(如萊諾•屈林(Lionel Trilling)在他對《傲慢與偏見》的序論中主張的…),或在注釋中完整引用來源

要進一步了解正確的使用格式,參考在麻省理工學院網址有關抄襲網頁上的形式規則指引

引用,注釋

關於引用和注釋有很多種認可的格式。我比較喜歡下列簡單的原則

書名或電影名用斜體(或在底下劃線);用引號指出故事或文章的標題。以個別裝訂的方式出版的中篇小說或長篇小說要當他們是完整的書一樣用斜體。所以康拉德的短篇小說<青春>是放在引號裡,而黑暗之心(中篇小說)跟吉姆爺(小說)就用斜體

盡可能用插入式引用而不要用注釋。比如從討論的主要文本中引用出來的段落裡,第一次提到時應包括完整標題、出版地點跟日期和頁數;之後只需要頁數。例如:(黑暗之心,倫敦,1898,第六頁)。下次引用時:(第八頁)。注意結束句子的句點是在引用頁數的括號外

另一種選擇:第一次提到文本時可做注釋,該注釋可包含「以下的引用都是根據這個版本」這句話

若在注釋中引用次要作品,就使用下列格式:大衛•索本(David Thorburn),康拉德的浪漫主義(紐哈芬,1974),第17頁。注意不需要註明出版者。

最重要的是,不要無謂地重複訊息,例如正文中寫到「正如大衛•索本提出的…」,那麼注釋就不要重複作者名;若在本文中也提到了書名,那麼注釋只要包含出版地點、出版日期和頁數。

格式化引用

引用材料時,若引用的段落不超過四行,就使用引號將段落融進你自己的本文;若段落超過四行,就在左右各空五格,省略引號,並用單行間距

使用刪節號(三個點)來表示省略的材料。若是在完整的句子後開始省略,要保留原本的句點再加上刪節號。

使用方括號[ ]來表示你在原本的材料中所作的增加或變化

舉例如下:

引用的段落融入本文

《陰影線》(The Shadow-Line)反覆戲劇化呈現緊張的對話跟人物的場面。正如大衛•索本寫到:「雖然他的人物都是孤兒,康拉德一直是苦悶無能的父權最佳敘述者之一。他特定的主題之一是成熟對年輕人無用的慷慨」。

延長的引用, 分開以便與本文作區別:

喬治•艾略特創造並維持與讀者間親密對話的功力、她悲傷又令人信服的體悟:社會如何塑造並限制著我們、她對日常生活中平凡的英雄主義的尊敬、她道德上的智慧與慷慨—這些都在她最偉大的小說的最後一段裡具體化:

誠然那些〔桃樂絲〕生命中決定性的舉止不全都是美麗的。那些是年輕又高貴的衝動掙扎於不完美的社會地位情狀中的混雜結果,其中強烈的情感常會採取錯誤的觀點,而強烈的信仰常會採取幻覺的型態,因為沒有任何生物其內在是夠堅強到可以不受外部的東西所影響

她美好動人的靈魂仍有細微的問題,雖然那些不是清晰可見的。她的天性耗費在地球上沒有偉大名字的通道上。她的存在對她週遭的人的影響是無可計量地廣大:因為這世界要變好,部份是取決於歷史上沒有重大意義的行為;而那些不像之前那樣讓你我不適的事物,有一半是因為多數人忠實地過著隱閉的生活,並安眠在未曾拜訪過的墳墓裡

  1. 《康拉德的浪漫主義》(Conrad's Romanticism),紐哈芬,1974,第45頁
  2. 《米德爾馬契》(Middlemarch),高登•亥特編,波士頓,1956,第612-13頁,1871-72初版

Syllabus (PDF)

Writing Requirements

One short summary (1-2 double-spaced typed pages), three interpretive essays (4-7 pages) due on the dates specified in the calendar. Students may revise and resubmit the first two essays for a new grade within one week of the date on which essays are returned. Late papers will be graded without penalty if they are submitted within seven days of the due date, but such papers will be ineligible for revision and may not receive written commentary. No papers will be accepted beyond the seven-day grace period.

Examinations

Two in-class exams, consisting of one essay question and short-answer identifications.

Plagiarism

Plagiarism -- use of another's intellectual work without acknowledgment -- is a serious offense. It is the policy of the Literature Faculty that students who plagiarize will receive an F in the subject, and that the instructor will forward the case to the Committee on Discipline. Full acknowledgment for all information obtained from sources outside the classroom must be clearly stated in all written work. All ideas, arguments, and direct phrasings taken from someone else's work must be identified and properly footnoted. Quotations from other sources must be clearly marked as distinct from the student's own work.

If you borrow another person's phrasing, that material must be enclosed in quotation marks. If you use ideas conceived by others but reformulate them in your own prose, then you must acknowledge your collaboration in one of two ways: explicit acknowledgment in the body of your text (As Lionel Trilling argues in his introduction to Pride and Prejudice, . . .) or in a footnote fully citing your source.

For further guidance on the proper forms of attribution consult the style guides available on the MIT Website on plagiarism.

Citations, Footnotes

There are many accepted formats for citations and footnotes. I prefer the following simple principles.

Italicize (or underline) titles of books or feature films; use quotation marks to indicate titles of stories or articles. Novellas or long stories that have been published in individual bindings are italicized as if they were full-length books. So: Conrad's short story "Youth" is placed in quotation marks, but Heart of Darkness (a novella) and Lord Jim (a novel) are italicized.

Use parenthetic citations instead of footnotes wherever possible. For instance, in citing quoted passages from the primary text under discussion, the first reference should include full title, place and date of publication, and a page citation; thereafter, only the page citation is necessary. Eg: (Heart of Darkness, London, 1898, p. 6). In the next citation: (p. 8). Note that the period concluding the sentence goes outside the parenthesis citing the page number(s).

An alternative to this practice: the first reference to the text can be footnoted, which note can include the remark "Subsequent parenthetic references are to this edition."

If you cite secondary works in footnotes, use the following format: David Thorburn, Conrad's Romanticism (New Haven, 1974), p. 17. Note that publisher is not required.

Most importantly, do not repeat information unnecessarily. For example, if your text reads "As David Thorburn suggests, . . ." then the footnote should not repeat the author's name; if you also mention the book title in your text, then the footnote should include only the place and date of publication and the page number.

Formatting Quotations

When quoting material, integrate the quoted passage into the body of your own text using quotation marks if the passage is not longer than four lines. If the passage is longer than four lines, indent an extra five spaces left and right, forgo the quotation marks, and use single spacing.

Use an ellipsis (three spaced dots) to indicate omitted material. If the omission begins after a complete sentence, retain the original period and then introduce the ellipsis.

Use square brackets [ ] to indicate your additions or changes in the original material.

Examples follow.

Quoted passage integrated into your text:

The Shadow-Line repeatedly dramatizes scenes of tense conversation and figures. As David Thorburn writes, "Though all his people are orphans, Conrad remains one of the great portrayers of the anguished impotence of fatherhood. One of his defining subjects is maturity's useless generosity toward the young."1

Extended quotation, separated by indentation from your text:
George Eliot's power to create and sustain an intimate communion with her readers, her sad stringent awareness of how society shapes and constrains us, her respect for the ordinary heroism of daily life, her moral wisdom and generosity -- all this is crystallized in the final paragraphs of her greatest novel:

Certainly those determining acts of . . . [Dorothea's] life were not ideally beautiful. They were the mixed result of young and noble impulse struggling amidst the conditions of an imperfect social state, in which great feelings will often take the aspect of error, and great faith the aspect of illusion. For there is no creature whose inward being is so strong that it is not greatly determined by what lies outside it . . . .

Her finely-touched spirit had still its fine issues, though they were not widely visible. Her full nature . . . spent itself in channels which had no great name on the earth. But the effect of her being on those around her was incalculably diffusive: for the growing good of the world is partly dependent on unhistoric acts; and that things are not so ill with you and me as they might have been, is half owing to the number who lived faithfully a hidden life, and rest in unvisited tombs.
2

1. Conrad's Romanticism. New Haven, 1974, pp. 45.
2. Middlemarch, ed. Gordon Haight. Boston, 1956, pp. 612-13. First published 1871-72.




 
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