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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:黃貞毓(簡介並寄信)
編輯:侯嘉玨(簡介並寄信)

描述

本研討班課程探討兩位十九世紀的美國暢銷作家,他們關於蓄奴的作品廣受主流讀者好評。隨後,史托夫人所著的《湯姆叔叔的小屋》和馬克吐溫所著的《頑童流浪記》,為人奉為神聖,也遭到謾罵;為人欣喜閱讀,也遭取締。不管讀者抱持什麼樣的政治、文化立場,不管讀者是是個人或團體,這兩本書都受到不一的評價。若要瞭解這兩本小說對美國文化有何重大影響,我們就要從其歷史背景來看這兩本書,並認知史托夫人和吐溫與重要非裔美籍作家紙上對話,彼此紙上對話,也與自己其他作品紙上對話。從現在起,我們要探討史托夫人如何回應脫逃的奴隸暨作家並得到什麼樣的回應,計有弗雷德里克•道格拉斯、William Wells Brown、馬丁•德拉尼、哈莉葉•雅各。史托夫人努力建構不那麼屈從、更積極進取的非裔美籍奴隸典範,她另一本比《湯姆叔叔的小屋》還晚寫成的小說《德瑞得》就流露出對話的影響。何以《湯姆叔叔的小屋》傳頌下來,而《德瑞得》這本更複雜的小說卻遭遺忘呢?同樣地,我們會檢視吐溫如何回應先前一些作家並呼應他自己寫作《頑童流浪記》時的經歷,這本小說跟《湯姆叔叔的小屋》很像,兩者都結合備受爭議的題材,用感性而使人發笑的文學技巧,寫出受歡迎的作品。不過,諸如法蘭西斯•哈潑和查爾斯•闕斯奈特等後進作家,探討美國內戰結果的方式比吐溫更直接,而吐溫自己後來的中篇小說《笨瓜威爾森》就反映了十九世紀後期種族之間的緊張局勢,而不是《頑童流浪記》當中的懷舊觀點。然而,跟史托夫人一樣,吐溫早期作品寫的是卻是文化主流題材,不像他後來的作品重新考慮到蓄奴和後內戰的社會政治現實。這些作品在近代已極其簡化,其背景往往混亂、麻煩而有爭議,本課程會試著還原這些背景。

課程要求

出席和參與課堂討論(25%)

本科是討論課程,你和小組若要得高分,出席和參與課堂討論是不可少的。

  1. 出席 -每堂課都要到。如果時間跟其他科目或實習課衝堂,或你恰好預定要運動、工作或娛樂的話,請勿選修本科。倘若因病或家裡有急事,不得不缺課,得用電話、電子郵件或於上課時間親自向我請假。無故曠課者,將從期末成績扣除百分之一:遲到兩次視同缺課一次。

  2. 課堂討論 - 本班的目的是為了激發口頭表達並寫作技巧。要有充分預備,以參與課堂討論,不僅要表達意見,也要傾聽並回應他人。課堂外,學生也可以在討論區發表問題並回答問題;你應該一個禮拜至少發表一次言論。這些發表文章是要代替整個學期的期刊或閱讀心得報告,也讓你有機會試驗小論文和報告的構想是否可行。也就是說,無論是課堂上、網路上、教師辦公時間,你都可以參與討論。

書面報告(60%)

  1. 小論文 - 小論文應於指定日的課堂一開始繳交。你一定要繳交一些成果以獲得作業成績,即使你認為那並不是你最好的作品,無法替你的作業拿高分。經我許可而遲交的小論文,只要在指定日的下一堂課繳交,同樣有分數可拿。小論文若更晚繳交的話,每晚一天就扣多於或少於一分。

  2. 修改  - 只要你交論文後立刻安排討論會,研商作業要怎麼修改才好,並於討論會後一週內繳交,任一論文(最後的期末論文除外),我確實允許也鼓勵學生修改。你也可以隨時找寫作中心或找我討論商量。

  3. 編排 - 小論文必須用打字的,或用word打成文件,行與行之間要空一行,頁邊要有一定的留白,應包含標題,文法要正確,不得有錯字。

口頭報告(15%)

學期中,每個學生都要在一次課堂開始時負責做口頭簡報(不得超過十五分鐘)。該報告包含當天課文的背景,要提問題、議題和幾段文章,以供討論,並用教室檔案庫說明一個主題。要印講義,在報告那天發給全班並交給我。課程將結束時,學生也要上台報告他們的研究論文。


Description

This seminar looks at two bestselling nineteenth-century American authors whose works made the subject of slavery popular among mainstream readers. Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain have subsequently become canonized and reviled, embraced and banned by individuals and groups at both ends of the political and cultural spectrum and everywhere in between. To understand the monumental impact these novels have had on U.S. culture, we need to put them into their historical context and to recognize that Stowe and Twain wrote in dialogue with important African-American authors, with each other, and with other works by themselves. Hence we will look at the way Stowe responded to and was received by escaped slaves and writers like Frederick Douglass, William Wells Brown, Martin Delany, and Harriet Jacobs. Her novel Dred, coming later than Uncle Tom's Cabin, registers the effects of that dialogue as she worked to construct less compliant, more aggressive models of African-American slaves. Why was the later, more complex novel forgotten and the first preserved? Similarly, we will examine the ways Twain responded to previous authors and his own experience in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a novel similar to Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin in combining controversial material with sentimental and comic literary techniques to produce a popular work. Later African-American authors like Frances E. W. Harper and Charles Chesnutt addressed the outcome of the Civil War more directly than Twain did, however, and his own later novella, Pudd'nhead Wilson, reflects the racial tensions of the late nineteenth century rather than the more nostalgic view of Huckleberry Finn. As with Stowe, though, his earlier work stands in the cultural mainstream rather than his later reconsideration of slavery and post-Civil War social and political realities. This course will attempt to restore the often messy, troubling, and contentious context surrounding works that have become vastly more simplified in recent times.

Course Expectations

Attendance and Participation (25%)

This is a discussion course where your attendance and participation in class are vital to your success and that of the group.

  1. Attendance - You are expected to attend every class. Do not sign up for this course if you have a conflict with another class, recitation, sports commitment, or job. If you must miss class because of a medical or family emergency, you should notify me of the fact by phone, e-mail, or in person by the time of the class. Any unexcused absence deducts a percentage point from your final grade: two latenesses count as one absence.

  2. Class Participation - This class is designed to challenge speaking as well as writing skills. Be prepared to contribute to class discussion, not only by speaking but also by listening and responding to others. A discussion forum will allow students to post and respond to questions outside of class; you should contribute at least once a week. These postings are in lieu of reading response papers or journals throughout the term and make it possible to try out ideas for essays and reports. Participation, then, can take place in class, online, and during office hours.

Written Work (60 %)

  1. Essays - Essays are due at the beginning of the class on the day assigned. You must hand in something, even if you do not consider it your very best, in order to receive credit for the assignment. Late essays (with an extension from me) will receive a grade, as long as they come in by the following class. After that the grade goes down one plus or minus for each day late.

  2. Revisions - I do allow and encourage revisions of any paper (except the last), if you schedule a conference immediately to discuss the work and can submit a new essay within a week after the conference. You may also consult the Writing Center or me at any time to discuss papers.

  3. Format - Essays must be typed or word-processed, double-spaced, and adequately margined, should include a title, and need to observe the conventions of grammar and spelling.

Reports (15%)

Each student will be responsible for making a brief presentation (no more than 15 minutes) at the beginning of one class during the term. This report involves providing context for the day's reading, raising questions, issues, and passages for discussion, and illustrating a topic using the classroom archive. A print handout should be prepared to distribute to the class and hand in to me on the day of the report. Students will also report on their research papers as the class draws toward its conclusion.


 
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