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教學大綱


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:肖睿娟(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)

除了評分制度,教科書,測驗和家庭作業規則,本教學大綱還包括時間安排,課外讀物和熱力學總論。

課程信息

測驗

將有兩個期中測驗,時間為一小時。在考試周將有一個期末測驗。

家庭作業

家庭作業一般會在每週五公佈,通常需要在下下周的週一交(即:你將有大約10天的時間來完成每個作業,儘管在其中的三天你將有兩個不同的作業。這樣的目的是讓你可以靈活安排時間)。第34講將不會公佈作業。鼓勵大家分組工作,整個組繳交一份作業。小組完成的家庭作業[1]將獲得5%的獎勵分。換句話說,如果作業分數是73,那麼組內的每個人的得分將是77[2]。我希望你們能將能把小組作業作為合作教學的媒介和一種節省時間的方法。關於小組作業:一些學生會掉入這樣一個陷阱,讓同組的其他成員去做艱辛的腦力勞動,而他們自己未來總是可以進步到足以考試。當然,這不僅僅是錯誤,並且也不是學習的有效方法——而且這也極沒禮貌。

家庭作業應在下下周的週一下午5點前繳交。如果選擇小組作業,那麼按時提交該組的作業是組內每個成員的職責。

允許並僅允許一次作業晚交。沒有例外。

期末評分

這門課程(3.00課程)的評分將由以下決定:

課堂參與(10%): 課堂上好的提問和評論將被記錄——你必須舉手使我們能維持一下課堂秩序。在提問的時候,你需要說出你的名字。學生也會被隨機問到一些當時課堂上的話題。一個學期內允許兩次不回答問題。若不來上課而又被提問,則算做兩次不回答問題,除非你已經通過電子郵件通知助教或教授你不能參加那次課。

學生若只為了引人注意將不會得到分數——只有富有成效的評論意見或者真正誠懇的提問才能獲得學分。

如果你想知道自己是否得分——請詢問。但是,如果你不確定,那麼可能你沒有積極地參與。

在複習課提問或在辦公時間來訪也視為參與。如果你為從沒參與課堂討論而不安,也可能通過為該課程(3.00課程)的網頁添加內容以獲得學分。

家庭作業(20%):一學期有一次家庭作業允許晚交一周。否則,作業必須毫無例外地在指定的日期的下午5點之前繳交,除非是你被允許遲交的那次作業.。家庭作業將用於檢驗解決問題的能力。

你們可以以組為單位繳交作業——也就是說,如果你選擇以小組形式工作,你僅需要為這個組繳交一份作業。作業小組的組員數目沒有限制。但是,如果以組為單位繳交作業,那麼組內的每個成員必須就自己所完成的部分繳交一份保密報告;這些部分會被綜合起來。我們將根據所有的保密報告來評分。

考試 I (20%): 將只包含從學期開始至考試I前一周的學習內容。

考試 II (20%): 將只包含考試I前一周直至考試II前一周的學習內容。

期末考試 (30%):將包含所有的授課內容。

網上有去年的考試題。今年考試的題型和去年相似,因此回顧去年的試題是明智的。考試中你會遇到概念問題——這類題你必須很仔細地讀,因為它們比較棘手。例如,一個典型的問題可能是:判斷下面這個語句的對錯,並說明理由。“孤立系統的熵永遠不會減少”,“如果兩個物體的吉布斯自由能相等,那麼這兩個固體在常壓下處于平衡態”。還有一些需要符號計算的簡單問題——你完全不需要使用計算器,但是如果它能讓你感覺更加安心,就帶上一個。不是開卷考試,不可帶筆記。

熱動力學是一個必須慢慢消化的課題。請努力堅持不懈的學習。“臨時抱佛腳”是得不到好的成績的。

簡要筆記

簡要的課堂筆記將會於每次課程[5]的前一個晚上在網上公佈。最好在上課之前簡要地通讀筆記。正如你將看到的,它們是為你在課堂上添加筆記而設計的。不要僅僅把筆記列印出來讀一讀就不去上課——因為這個筆記是用來幫助你理解和記憶課堂內容的。而且,如下所述,把筆記列印出來並在上面添加筆記是另一個為期末成績加分的方法。

不會提供筆記的複印本給你們——你必須自己下載並列印它們。很多圖片是彩色的。不一定把它們列印成彩色,但彩印可能會有用。

時間安排

本課程的每週預計花費時間為十二小時。你們每週要花四個小時來上課和複習。每週至少應花費8個小時來複習課堂內容,閱讀參考書,做家庭作業和準備考試。我的建議是你們每週至少用8個小時堛3個小時來複習課堂內容——這樣你就能留出有規律的時間去學習。

考試或作業中出現的任何問題都涵蓋在課堂內容和課堂筆記中。但是,你可通過閱讀課本或其他關於熱動力學的資料來補充課堂筆記。

我建議你們把自己的課堂筆記記在列印出來的簡要筆記上(或許要用附加的紙),然後每次課堂後,把筆記整齊地重新抄寫一遍。你可以把它們重新抄寫到新列印的簡要筆記上,或者完全按照你自己的方式重寫一遍。用那樣的方式,你就能經常複習課堂上的要點,並會看到所有的內容是如何組合在一起;我相信你們將會驚訝於這竟是如此有效的一種學習策略。事實上,我對這一點深信不疑,因此我做出如下的協定:任何把認真重寫的筆記給我看的人將獲得——作為獎勵——他們其中一次期中考試分數和當次考試最高分數之間差值的一半。要獲得這種獎勵,你必須在每次測驗的至少前一天出示你認真重寫過的筆記(例如:一個學期三次),來決定你是否已足夠勤奮以獲得該獎勵。

課外閱讀

儘管這門課程沒有正式的課本,你們還是應當每週花費幾小時來讀書。你們都已有足夠的能力為課堂上難以理解的部分找些補充材料。下文有一個部分列出了成千上萬熱力學書籍中的其中一些。人們往往覺得他在看的熱力學書比上一本好。我認為這是因為熱動力學難以理解,學生真的需要多接觸一些難點才能弄懂。

如果你在尋找某一課外讀物時有困難——請問我!

與精通的鬥爭使熱力學的教授們陷入了一個兩難境地:熱力學的第一堂課是應該講授用公式求解一些標準問題——還是應當從更哲學的角度講授課程。我並不確定哪種才是最好的方法。在我受教育時,接受的是第一種實用型方法,但我選擇了第二種方法來講授麻省理工學院的這個課程(3.00課程)。因為我發現從長遠來看,這種方法更加有趣和實用。我非常明白這種理論方法不是對每個學生都是最好的;但是,我希望它對於大多數學生來說是最好的方法。

為了設置一些難題,我與這門課以前的助教一起,為每週編寫了一系列實務的問題。你可以在該課程(3.00課程)網頁上找到。我鼓勵大家去研究這些實際的問題。

關於熱動力學

很多人把熱動力學視為枯燥無味的課——就象家長們經常對孩子說“先把蔬菜吃掉”那樣(因為乏味的蔬菜是人體必需,並要慢慢消化的東西)。熱力學是建立對自然過程的一種縝密的理解。它確實會很枯燥,並且只有建立起了堅實的基礎,才能應用到實際中去。而我認為它不一定會是枯燥的,我鼓勵大家處處留心,嚴謹地發展一個學科,並發現其中之美。蔬菜也可以是美味的。

你們將學到材料科學的知識,其中大部分內容都依賴於對熱力學的理解。可惜,你們中的大多數人對未來三年堙A為成為專業材料科學家所將要學習的所有有趣的東西一無所知,也不知道它們是多麼依賴現在的這門課程。所以,有一些時候你們要很用功地學一些東西,卻不知道為什麼要學。假如我們有無限的時間,我將介紹熱力學每一個概念的實用方面,然後嚴格地講授這些概念,然後介紹它們是如何被應用到實際當中去的。但是,我必須在有限的時間堭迮鳩A們大量的概念。而且,有些概念是基本且重要的,所以任何一個實例看上去都是人為的[6]。我努力把你們需要知道的熱力學知識提煉成37節課——有時你們必須要相信,我是在努力教授一些有用的東西。

從我第一次接觸熱力學開始,我就真的深深地喜歡上它。它優雅而美麗。並且,我覺得需要花費很多年時間才能掌握這個學科。我相信對這門學科透徹的理解——尤其是對第二定律的理解——能將合格的科學家從業餘愛好者和冒充者中區分出來。

但是,我鼓勵你們懷疑我所告訴你們的東西。這媞K錄了其他人對熱力學的一些看法:

對於一個理論,其前提越簡單,所涉及不同的東西越多,應用範圍越大,它就越深刻。因此,經典熱力學給了我深刻的印象。我深信,在其基礎概念的應用框架堙A它是唯一永遠不會被推翻的,關於宇宙內容的物理理論。
——阿爾伯特. 愛因斯坦(A. Einstein)

偶爾被惹怒的時候,我問大家有多少人能描述熱力學第二定律。反應很冷淡:也是否定的。但其實我只是在問一道科學問題,難度等於“你讀過莎士比亞的作品嗎?”
-C.P. Snow[7].

熵增定律——熱力學第二定律——我認為,佔據著自然定律中最重要的位置。如果有人向你指出你寵愛的宇宙理論與Maxwell方程不一致——那麼就是Maxwell方程太差勁。如果發現它與觀察所得相矛盾——那是有時沒把實驗做好。但是如果你的理論被發現違背了熱力學第二定律,我可以告訴你毫無希望了;你的理論只能在極度的恥辱中崩潰。
-Sir A.S. Eddington.

Lisa,進來。在這個屋子塈畯抰穘`熱力學第二定律。
-Homer Simpson.

課本和閱讀材料

主要課本

學習材料主要來源於課堂筆記。你們應該在來上課之前列印出課堂筆記,或者做你們自己的筆記並且把它們與列印的課堂筆記結合起來。

去年我使用了Denbigh所寫的經典教科書作為課堂材料的補充。學生不喜歡它,因為對於熱力學入門課程而言,Denbigh有一點超前,但是它是我所知道的最好的熱力學課本。它嚴謹而且描述詳盡。對這門課程和以後來說,它都是一本有用的參考書——我鼓勵你們都買一本。

附加的參考資料

在這門課程的第一部分,流覽一下Fermi經典的專論,可能也很有用。這是一個基礎熱力學的經典介紹——這也是一個協定。Fermi的書中涵蓋的內容是普遍的,並且可以應用到物理學和工程學的所有分支中。那些材料科學的特定概念將在課堂中涉及。

在其他上百本熱力學的課本[8]中挑一兩本看看也將非常有用。每個人有不同的學習方法,你也應找到一種特別適合你的。有如此多的熱力學課本的原因,也許是幾乎沒有人在解釋材料的最好方式上觀點一致。你將會發現書與書之間的符號表示差別很大(有時甚至在同一本書中也有不同)。通過把符號上的不同挑選出來,你往往就能學到東西——畢竟,那只是對於一些有價值的學科資料而言。如果你研究一下類似資料所採用的不同方法,你將學到更多。當你開始能鑒別出幾乎每本教科書中存在的概念錯誤時,你就開始掌握這門學科了。

Gaskell和Devereux的書在其他好大學的材料科學課程中被廣泛應用。尤其是Gaskell的課本,給材料科學家提供了大量實際問題。記住,不同的書上符號表示會不同,然而,這些書會幫助闡明複雜的主題,並提供附加的實際問題。

Landau和Lifshitz叢書中的統計物理學,是經典熱力學和統計熱力學方面非常先進的述作。它非常乏味,但如果你需要瞭解更多熱力學的知識,這將是非常好的資料。

Denbigh的書或許是化學平衡方面最完整的教科書了。它非常厚,但寫得很好。Bent所寫的介紹中有許多非常清楚的例子和歷史軼事,我在備課時經常使用。

除了費米(Fermi)之外,普朗克(Planck)也寫了短而可讀性極強的關於熱力學的介紹論文。薛定鄂(Shrodinger)給統計熱力學寫了非常好的介紹,也成了一個協定(但也許對這門課程而言太超前了)。你們也許在其他的領域堭腔硃L這些作者——他們在熱力學解述方面的興趣證明了對熱力學連貫理解的重要性,絕大部分專業科學家都把其作為進一步研究的基礎。Chandrasekhar在他的書中,花整整一章來寫熱力學第二定律的微分幾何。熱力學最完整和基本的發展是吉布斯(J. Willard Gibbs)的一篇文章。即使吉布斯的這篇文章非常難讀,但它還是熱力學最精華的參考。在我準備講稿時,我盡可能多地使用到它。

你們應該有一本關於多變數微積分的好書。麻省理工學院的18.02課程是這門課程的必備先修課程。

參考書目

Bent, Henry A..《第二定律:經典和統計熱力學概述》,牛津大學出版社,1965。

Chandrasekhar, S.《甯P結構研究概述》,紐約:多佛出版社,1939。

Denbigh K.《化學平衡原理》,第三版,劍橋大學出版社,1971。

Devereux, Owen F. 《冶金熱力學》,紐約:John Wiley and Sons,1983。

Fermi, Enrico. 《熱力學》,紐約:多佛出版社,1936。

Gaskell, David R. 《冶金熱力學介紹》,紐約:McGraw-Hill, 第二版,1981。

Gibbs, J. Willard. 《不同種類物質的平衡》,(1876)。選集1,Longmans, Green, and Co.,1928。

Lifshitz, E.M.和 L.P.Pitaevskii. 《統計物理》,第三版,第一部分。紐約:Pergammon出版社,1980,第365ff頁。

Planck, Max. 《熱力學論文》,第七版,紐約:多佛出版社,1926。

Shrodinger, Edwin. 《統計熱力學》,多佛,1989。

註腳

家庭作業[1]
每組由兩人以上組成。

77[2]
對組員的告誡如下。

家庭作業[3]
你與你的小組成員只能遲交一次作業。作業到期後的一周內繳交還是可以接受的——那就是說:你的作業有一周的寬限期。

組[4]
遲交作業將由組內所有成員共同承擔責任。

課程[5]
至少,我將盡力做到準時。

人為的[6]
想一想如何試圖激發一個非常年輕的學生去學乘法,代數,牛頓定律,或者微積分——有些東西為了生活你就是必須知道。

斯諾(Snow)[7]
斯諾(C.P. Snow)(1905-1980)是一名物理學家和長篇小說家,在各種其他事物中探求科學的文化以及科學與文化的關係。公平地說,這個引用是斷章取義的,因為在他的書《兩種文化》(Two Cultures)中,斯諾揭露了一群人的偽善,這是一群自由主義藝術家,他們藐視被他們稱為小心眼的科學家。但是,我認為把相同的問題放到一群現代科學家中,也許有相同的反應。

課本[8]
有時你將能找到一個棘手的家庭作業的全部答案——我認為轉錄你在其他地方找到的答案是完全可以接受的。但是,是否要注明出處則是我留給你的道德問題。




In addition to information on grading, textbooks used, exams, and homework policies, the syllabus includes sections on time management, outside reading, and an overview of thermodynamics.

Course Information

Exams

There will be two midterm exams, one hour. There will be a final exam during exam week.

Homework

Homework assignments will be posted almost every Friday and will usually be due the Monday of the following week (i.e., you will have about 10 days to complete each homework, although on three of those days you will have two different assignments. The intent is allow you a bit of flexibility so that you can budget your time accordingly). No homework can be assigned that will be Lecture 34. You are encouraged to work in groups and turn in a single homework for the entire group. Group homeworks[1] will receive a 5% bonus score. In other words, if the homework score is 73, then everyone in the group will receive a 77[2]. I hope that you will use the group homeworks as a vehicle for cooperative teaching and learning as well as a time-saving device. Regarding the group homeworks--some students fall into a trap of letting other members of their group do the hard intellectual work and think that they can catch up in time to take the exams. Of course, this is not only a mistake and not an effective way to learn--it is also bad manners.

Homeworks will be due the following Monday at 5pm. If you choose to work in a group, it is each group member's responsibility that the group's homework is turned in on time.

You will be allowed one and only one late homework[3]. No exceptions.

Final Grade

The grade in 3.00 will be determined by:

Class Participation (10%): Records will be kept for good questions and comments during lectures--you must raise your hand so we can maintain some order in the classroom. You will also need to state your name when asking a question. Students will also be asked randomly about the current lecture topic. You are allowed to pass on making a comment twice during the semester. Not being present at a lecture in which you are asked a question counts as two passes, unless you have informed the TA or professor that you cannot attend a particular lecture by sending them email.

Students will not get credit for showing off--only productive comments or genuine questions will receive credit.

If you are curious whether you are getting credit--please ask. However, if you are unsure, then you are probably not participating actively.

Asking questions during recitation or coming to office hours also count as participation. If you fear that you are getting very far behind in class participation, it is possible to get some credit for creating web content to add to the 3.00 website.

Homework (20%): You are allowed to turn in one homework up to a week late. Otherwise, homework is due by 5pm on the assigned day with no exceptions except your one free late homework. Homework will tend to test problem solving ability.

You can turn in homeworks as a group--in other words, if you choose to work as a group, you only need to turn in one problem set for the group[4]. There is no limit on the number of people of homework group. However, if you turn the problem set as a group then each member of the group must turn in a confidential report of the fraction that each member contributed; the sum of fractions will be unity. We will assign credit based on all the confidential reports.

Exam I (20%): will cover only material from the beginning of the semester to week before Exam I.

Exam II (20%): will cover only material from the week before Exam I up to the week before Exam II.

Final Exam (30%): will cover all lecture material.

There are exams from last year on the web. It would be wise to look at them as this year's exams will follow a similar format. You should expect conceptual questions on exams--the kind you should read very carefully because they can be tricky. For instance, a typical question may be: Explain whether and why the following statements are true or false. "The entropy of an isolated system can never decrease.'' "If the Gibbs Free energy of two bodies are equal, then the two bodies are in equilibrium at constant pressure.'' There may simple questions that require symbolic computation--you definitely won't need a calculator, but bring one with you if it helps you feel more comfortable. No notes or open book exams.

Thermodynamics is a subject that must be digested slowly. Please try to keep up and work at a constant rate. Cramming for a thermodynamics exam is usually a recipe for poor performance.

Abridged Notes

Abridged lecture notes will be available on the web the night before each lecture[5]. Looking over the notes briefly before the lecture is a good idea. As you will see, they are designed for you to add notes during the lectures. Just printing the notes and reading them in lieu of attending lectures is not a good idea--the notes are designed as an aid to your comprehension and retention of lectures. Also, as described below, printing the lectures and taking notes on them will also provide another means of accruing points towards your final grade.

Copies of the notes will not be provided you--you must download and print them yourselves. Many of the figures are in color. It is not necessary to print them in color, but it may prove to be useful.

Time Management

This is a 12 unit course. You are expected to spend 4 waking hours a week in lecture and recitation. You should be spending a minimum of eight hours a week reviewing lecture material, reading books on reserve, doing homework, and studying for exams. My advice to you is that you spend at least 3 of those 8 hours reviewing lecture material each week--and that you set aside regular time to study.

Everything that will appear on the exams or the homeworks will be covered in the lectures and lecture notes. However, you will want to supplement the lecture notes with reading from the text or other sources on thermodynamics.

I recommend that you take your own lecture notes on the printed versions of the abridged notes (perhaps with extra paper) and then recopy the notes neatly at a time shortly after the lecture. You could recopy on freshly printed versions of my notes or rewrite it them completely yourself. That way, you are constantly reviewing the important points and will see how everything fits together; I believe you will be surprised at how effective a studying strategy that this is. In fact, I believe it so strongly that I will make the following bargain. Anyone who shows me that they are carefully re-copying the notes will receive--as a reward--half the difference between their score on one of the midterms and the top score for the class for that midterm. To receive this bonus, you must show your carefully recopied notes at least one day before each exam (i.e., three times during the semester). To determine whether you have been sufficiently assiduous to receive this bonus.

Outside Reading

Although there is no formal text for this course, you should be doing a couple hours a week of reading. You are all mature enough to find readings on your own that supplement parts of the lecture that are hard to understand. There is a section below that lists some of the thousands of books on thermodynamics. People tend to like the second book on thermodynamics that they use more than the first. I think this is because thermodynamics is deceptively subtle and students really need some familiarity with the difficulties before they can understand them.

If you are having trouble finding outside reading for a particular--ask!

This struggle with familiarity creates a dilemma for professors of thermodynamics: should the first course in thermodynamics be taught as formulaic solving of the standard problems--or should one try to teach the more philosophical aspects of the subject. I am not sure which is the best approach. I was educated with the practical first approach, but I have chosen the second for MIT 3.00 because I find it more interesting and hopefully more useful in the long-run. I am pretty sure that this theoretical approach is not the best for every student; but, I hope that it is best for the majority.

As a hedge, I have worked with past TA's of this course to create a library of practical solved problems for each week. You can find these on the 3.00 website. I encourage you to study the practical problems.

About Thermodynamics

Many consider this a "vegetables'' class--as in "eating your vegetables first.'' It is true that thermodynamics is about developing a rigorous understanding of natural processes. And it is true that thermodynamics can become tedious and also true that the useful applications don't begin until a solid foundation is developed. However, I don't think it necessarily has to be boring and I encourage you to keep your minds open about the beauty of developing a subject rigorously. Veggies can be tasty as well.

Much of what you will learn about materials science will rely on your comprehension of thermodynamics. Unfortunately, most of you do not yet know about all the wonderful things you are going to learn over the next three years as you become a professional materials scientist and how they depend on this course. So, there will be times when you will be struggling to learn something without knowing why you should bother to learn it. Had we an infinite amount of time, I would introduce a practical aspect of each thermodynamic concept, then rigorously teach you the concept, and then show how it applies in a particular case. However, there are a large number of concepts that I must teach you in a finite amount of time. Furthermore, some concepts are so basic and essential that any practical example would seem artificial[6]. I have tried to distill the thermodynamics you will need to know into 37 lectures--sometimes you are going to have to trust that I am trying to teach you something useful.

I truly and deeply like thermodynamics and have liked it since the first time I took it. It is elegant and beautiful. I also think that it takes many years to master this subject. I believe that a thorough understanding of the subject--especially of the second law--separates qualified scientists from amateurs and pretenders.

However, I encourage you to be skeptical about what I tell you. Here are some excerpts from what others have said about thermodynamics:

A theory is the more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises, the more different kinds of things it relates, and the more extended its area of applicability. Therefore the deep impression that classical thermodynamics made upon me. It is the only physical theory of universal content which I am convinced will never be overthrown, within the framework of applicability of its basic concepts.
-A. Einstein.

Once or twice I have been provoked and asked the company how many of them could describe the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The response was cold: It was also negative. Yet I was asking something which is about the scientific equivalent of "Have you read a work of Shakespeare's?''
-C.P. Snow[7].

The law that entropy always increases-the second law of thermodynamics-holds I think, the supreme position among the laws of Nature. If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the universe is in disagreement with Maxwell's equations--then so much worse for Maxwell equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation--well these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes. But if your theory is found to be against the second law of Thermodynamics, I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation.
-Sir A.S. Eddington.

Lisa, get in here. In this house we obey the laws of thermodynamics!
-Homer Simpson.

Text and Reading Materials

Primary Text

The primary source of material will come from the lecture notes. You should print out the lecture notes before coming to class, or make your own notes and combine them with the printed lecture notes.

Last year I used a classical textbook by Denbigh in this course to supplement the lecture material. The students didn't like it because Denbigh is a bit advanced for a first thermodynamics course, but it is the best thermodynamics book that I know of. It is rigorous and descriptive. It will be a useful reference for you in the future as well as this class--I would encourage you to get your hands on a copy.

Additional Reference Material

In the first part of this course, it might also be useful for you to browse through the classic monograph by Fermi . It is a classic introduction to the fundamentals of thermodynamics--it is also a bargain. The coverage in Fermi is generic and applicable to all branches of physics and engineering. Concepts that are specific to materials science will be covered in the lectures.

It is very useful to take a look at one or two of the hundreds of other thermodynamics texts[8]. Everyone learns in different ways and you may find one that is particularly suitable for you. Perhaps the reason that there are so many thermodynamics texts is that few people agree on the best way to explain the material. You will find that notation varies considerably from book to book (and sometimes even within a single text). You can often learn just by sorting out differences in notation--after all, it is only the subject material that counts. You will learn even more if you study the different ways that similar subject material is developed. You will begin to master the subject when you start identifying the conceptual errors that exist in nearly every textbook.

Gaskell and Devereux are widely used in Materials Sciences courses at other good universities. Gaskell, in particular, is full of practical worked problems for materials scientists. Keep in mind that notation varies from textbook to textbook; nevertheless, these books may help clarify complicated topics and provide additional practical problems.

Statistical Physics from the Landau and Lifshitz series is an excellent advanced treatise on both classical and statistical thermodynamics. It is ponderous, but is a good investment if you find yourself needing more thermo.

Denbigh is perhaps the most complete textbook on chemical equilibrium. It is dense but very well-written. The introductory book by Bent has a number of very clear examples and historical anecdotes, I used it very often while preparing lectures.

Besides Fermi, Planck also wrote short and very readable introductory treatises on thermodynamics. Shrodinger has a very nice (but perhaps too advanced for this course) introduction to statistical thermodynamics that is also a bargain. You probably associate these authors with other topics--their interest in the formulation of thermodynamics demonstrates the importance that most professional scientists place on a coherent understanding of thermodynamics as a foundation for advanced study. Chandrasekhar devoted an entire chapter of his book on Stellar Structure to the differential geometry of the second law of thermodynamics. The most complete and fundamental development of thermodynamics is a single paper by J. Willard Gibbs. Even though it is very difficult to read, Gibbs is the quintessential reference in thermodynamics. I've tried to use Gibbs as much as possible when I prepared the lectures.

You should have a good book on multivariable calculus. MIT's 18.02 is a prerequisite for this course.

Bibliography

Bent, Henry A. The Second Law: An Introduction to Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics. Oxford University Press, 1965.

Chandrasekhar, S. An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure. New York: Dover Publications, 1939.

Denbigh K. The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium. 3rd edition. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1971.

Devereux, Owen F. Topics in Metallurgical Thermodynamics. NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1983.

Fermi, Enrico. Thermodynamics. New York: Dover Publications, 1936.

Gaskell, David R. Introduction to Metallurgical Thermodynamics. NY: McGraw-Hill, 2nd edition, 1981.

Gibbs, J. Willard. "On the equilibrium of heterogeneous substances." (1876). In Collected Works 1, Longmans, Green, and Co., 1928.

Lifshitz, E.M., and L.P.Pitaevskii. Statistical Physics. 3rd edition. Part 1. New York: Pergammon Press, 1980, pages 365ff.

Planck, Max. Treatise on Thermodynamics. 7th edition. New York: Dover Publications, 1926.

Shrodinger, Edwin. Statistical Thermodynamics. Dover, 1989.

Footnotes

Homeworks[1]
Groups are comprised of two or more people.

77[2]
With the caveat about group participation described below.

Homework[3]
You can be associated through your group with only one late homework. Acceptable homeworks expire one week after their due date--i.e., you get one week's grace for a late homework.

group[4]
Late homeworks will be charged to all members of the group.

Lecture[5]
At least, I will do my best to get them there on time.

Artificial[6]
Think about how you might try motivate a very young student to learn multiplication, algebra, Newton's laws, or calculus--there are some things that you just need to know to get on with life.

Snow[7]
C.P. Snow (1905-1980) was a physicist and novelist that explored, among other things, the culture of science and the relationship of science to culture. To be fair, this quote is out of context, for in his book Two Cultures, Snow is exposing the hypocrisy of company is a group of liberal artists who scoff at what they call the narrow-mindedness of scientists. However, I think that the same question, if applied to a modern group of scientists, might have the same reaction.

texts[8]
Sometimes you will find the entire solution to a troublesome homework question--I think it is perfectly acceptable to transcribe a (homework) solution that you find elsewhere. However, attribution is a moral question that I will leave to you.




 
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