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教學大綱


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:楊金峰(簡介並寄信)
翻譯:翁唯城(簡介並寄信)
編輯:簡志先(簡介並寄信)


教學大綱 (PDF)

「當我們做無意識的行為時,這行為是每天生活中直覺表現的行為,我們會在特別的方式上表現出我們自己是有知識性的。常常我們不能描述我們知道了什麼。當我們試著去描述時,常常發現解釋不清,或產生了明顯不適當的敘述。我們所知道的東西,是慣常上不明顯且隱含在我們的行為模式裡,以及我們面對事物的感覺裡。這似乎可以正確的說我們的知識是在我們的行為中。」
Don Schön:反射的執行者

「任何事物的意義,依賴於我們如何地把它連結到我們所知道的所有其他事物上。這是為什麼去尋找任何事物「真正意義」的這個行為幾乎總是錯的。只有一種意義的一個事物幾乎不會有任何意義。

然而,豐富的『意義網路』,提供了你許多不同的方式:假如你不能用一個方法解決一個問題,你可以試其他方法。當然,太多雜亂無章的連結關係將會使你的思緒糾結不開。而適當連結的意義結構會讓你的想法改變,去考慮到其它可能的選項,以及從許多觀點去想像事情,直到你找到一個可以行得通的方法。那就是我們意謂的思考!」
Marvin Minsky: 心智的社會



教科書

Bamberger, J. 《發展音樂直覺》(Developing Musical Intuitions) New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. (DMI)

Bamberger, J. 《音樂傾聽後的心智》(The Mind Behind the Musical Ear) Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. (MBME)



介紹

這門課的目標是有實用性的: 提出質問, 明確闡述, 當你能理解所接觸到的音樂時,就可以發展出強而有力的音樂直覺。

這課程的名稱表示三關語。發展中的音樂結構意指:

  • 你自己的音樂作品是發展中且逐漸呈現的結構。
  • 複雜的音樂作品隨時間的發展、演進、形成、構成。
  • 智識上的音樂結構會隨著發展和學習,主導著音樂上的直覺。

這些發展中的音樂結構將以四種活動來進行。任何時間中,主要的重點可能只在一個活動中,其他三個總會在附近盤旋:

為了完成這個修課,你須要專注在這四個緊密關連的四個活動上,和它們所要引伸出來的問題上。學習方式的進度是(盡可能)會規定好的,這方式是相當自然地在日常生活環境中,透過觀察、懷疑、練習、和實驗來學習;追根究底以及試著去解說一個物體、一個體系或一個活生生的生物行為如何表現,及其成因。

  1. 音樂作品中的實驗:
    Impromptu的電腦音樂環境來做作品計畫,將會是檢驗你自己的音樂直覺的一個來源。你將探索到節奏的結構、旋律的結構、音階、音程、和聲、結構的等級、以及發展的變化。學生們的作品將會在課堂中討論及演奏。

  2. 音樂分析中可選的方法:
    積極嘗試採用不同的方法來分析複雜的音樂作品。
    • 要注意到什麼樣的音樂元素?你可以如何述說?
    • 什麼樣的性質和關係會形成音樂的界限?這些如何被背景所影響?
    • 我們如何能解說為什麼人們聽到「相同」的作品,是不同的、有差異性的?
    • 分析如何影響到「聽覺」?
    • 對於一個特定作品有所謂的「適當聽覺」嗎?

  3. 音樂的認知和發展:
    音樂認知研究告訴我們什麼?例如:
    • 音樂的直覺/知識如何發展和改變?
    • 音樂的發展和其他領域的發展有關係嗎?
    • 有「音樂智慧」嗎?
    • 在音樂發展的不同階段裡和不同的音樂風格中,有哪些音樂參數是比較需要被考慮到的?
    • 上列的這些思考是如何的和音樂產生互動/影響?

  4. 呈現:
    樂譜、圖表、電腦語言和方法的描述:
    • 記錄了什麼樣的個體和它們之間的關係?
    • 我們聽到的東西,甚至是我們相信存在為音樂物體的東西,是如何的展現出來或隱藏起來?
    • 為什麼敘述內容(樂譜,分析的各項類別)常常混淆了直覺上聽到的東西和我們直覺性地演奏?
    • 什麼是「感知單位」和「敘述單位」間的差異?

這學期在期末的專題中高潮結束。同學可以從三種方式中選擇一種來做,以組合方式來做,或者提出原創性的構想:

  • 一個實驗研究專題(認知、感知、意義的理解)
  • 一個音樂分析專題
  • 一個表演和作品的分析


期末專題

期末專題將會和課程中其他的活動有關聯性。專題應該在學期初選好,隨著作品中必要的部分來推展。例如:

如果你選擇一個實驗研究專題,你要討論的問題和你的方法論應該在學期中以前形成,並利用學期後半段的時間完成你的專題。

假如你選擇分析和比較一個作品的不同演奏錄音,這作品應該在學期初選好,這樣的話你可以探索產生出的問題之發展。

對於想要選擇研究和表演一個作品的同學,你選擇的作品(作品和指導者諮詢)應該是你有興趣且有挑戰性的,而且,這作品是足夠複雜而需要做深思分析。做個你練習作品進度的記錄,你將記載你練習進行時,如何解決面對到的問題和困境,過程中出現的新見解,以及你對於這作品的「聽覺」的改變。這記錄和對這作品的分析 將是你期末報告的基礎材料。



持續記錄

整個學期不斷地提醒你,保持連續紀錄你的作業。這是為了幫助你從(你的)作業中做反省;例如,去審視你在編成或修改所做的決定,,讓你注意到意外事件,去質問和說明你所做的回應。

當你繼續聆聽曲例時,尤其重要是從觀察你的作業結果中,尋找衍生出來的模式和一般性歸納,是尤其重要的。舉例來說,把注意力放在一般會不斷出現的條理性模式上,你將會開始去注意到更龐大而且更複雜的作品是相同結構形式的變化,你會發現那些結構形式出現在你已經練習過的簡單曲調裡。



Syllabus (PDF)

"When we go about the spontaneous, intuitive performance of the actions of everyday life, we show ourselves to be knowledgeable in a special way. Often we cannot say what it is that we know. When we try to describe it we find ourselves at a loss, or we produce descriptions that are obviously inappropriate. Our knowing is ordinarily tacit, implicit in our patterns of action and in our feel for the stuff with which we are dealing. It seems right to say that our knowledge is in our action."
Don Schön: The Reflective Practitioner

"The secret of what anything means to us depends on how we've connected it to all the other things we know. That's why it's almost always wrong to seek the "real meaning" of anything. A thing with just one meaning has scarcely any meaning at all.

Rich meaning-networks, however, give you many different ways to go: if you can't solve a problem one way, you can try another. True, too many indiscriminate connections will turn your mind to mush. But well-connected meaning structures let you turn ideas around in your mind, to consider alternatives and envision things from many perspectives until you find one that works. And that's what we mean by thinking!"
Marvin Minsky: Society of Mind



Texts

Bamberger, J. Developing Musical Intuitions. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. (DMI)

Bamberger, J. The Mind Behind the Musical Ear. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. (MBME)



Introduction

The goal of this class is practical: to interrogate, make explicit, and thus to develop the powerful musical intuitions that are at work as you make sense of the music all around you.

The title of the course is intended as a three-way pun. Developing Musical Structures means:

  • your own musical compositions as developing, emergent structures.
  • complex musical compositions developing, evolving, becoming, structuring over time.
  • mental musical structures developing and learning as they guide musical intuitions.

These developing musical structures will be pursued through four kinds of activities. While the primary focus may be on only one activity at any given moment, the others will always be hovering nearby:

To carry out this agenda, you will be involved in four closely interrelated activities and the questions they will raise. The process is modeled (as much as possible) on the kind of learning that occurs quite naturally in informal settings through observation, questioning, practicing and experimenting, probing for and trying to account for how and why an object, a system, or a living organism behaves as it does.

  1. Experiments in musical composition:
    Composition projects facilitated by the computer music environment, Impromptu, will be a source for interrogating your own musical intuitions. You will explore rhythmic structuring, melodic structuring, scales, intervals, harmony, structural hierarchy, and developmental transformations. Students’ compositions will be discussed and performed in class.

  2. Alternative approaches to musical analysis:
    Differing approaches to analysis of complex musical works will be considered and actively tested.
    • What are musical objects of attention? How can you tell?
    • What features and relations shape the boundaries of musical entities? How are these influenced by context?
    • How can we account for why people hear "the same" piece differently?
    • How does analysis influence "hearings?"
    • Is there such a thing as an "appropriate hearing" of a given composition?

  3. Musical cognition and development:
    What does music cognition research tell us -- for instance:
    • How does musical intuition/knowledge develop and change?
    • Does musical development relate to development in other fields?
    • Is there a "musical intelligence?"
    • What musical parameters are given preference at differing stages of musical development and in differing styles of music?
    • How do the above concerns interact with/influence musical?

  4. Representation:
    Notations, graphics, computer languages and procedural descriptions:
    • What kinds of entities and relations does each capture?
    • How does each reveal or conceal, what we hear -- even what we believe to exist as musical objects?
    • Why do descriptions (notations, analytic categories) often obscure what is intuitively heard and how we intuitively perform?
    • What are the differences between "units of perception" and "units of description?"

The semester culminates in a final project. Students may choose one of three types, a combination thereof, or propose an original design:

  • An experimental research project (cognition, perception, meaning-making)
  • A musical analysis project
  • A performance and analysis of a composition


The Final Project

The Final Project will bring together all the other activities in the course. The project should be chosen early on in the semester with its evolution an essential part of the work. For instance:

If you choose an experimental research project, your questions and your methodology should be developed by mid-term leaving time to carry out the project during the second part of the semester.

If you choose to analyze and compare recorded performances of a piece, the piece should be chosen early in the semester, so that you can trace the development of questions that arise.

For students who choose to study and perform a piece, the piece you choose (in consultation with the instructor) should be one that you find interesting and challenging, and one that is sufficiently complex so as to require thoughtful analysis. Keeping a log of your progress in learning your piece, you will note the problems and puzzles you confront as you go along, how they are resolved, new insights that occur along the way, and how your "hearing" of the piece changes. This log together with an analysis of the piece will be the bases for your final paper.



Log Keeping

Throughout the semester you will be reminded to keep a running log of your work. It’s purpose is to help you reflect on your work -- for instance, to interrogate your decision-making in composing or re-composing, to pay attention to surprises, to question and try to account for your responses.

Looking for patterns and generalizations as derived from observing the results of your work is particularly important when going on to the listening examples. For instance, paying attention to commonly recurring organizing patterns, you will begin to notice that larger and more complex works are elaborations of the same structural aspects you have found in the simple tunes you have been working with.







 
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