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測驗


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燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:馬景文(簡介並寄信)
編輯:侯嘉玨(簡介並寄信)

「17.315 比較醫療政策」這門課有兩次考試。期中測驗美國制度的背景資料。期末測驗從比較部份和綜合全部教材獲得政策教訓的能力。

17.315, Comparative Health Policy has two examinations. The midterm tests for background information on the U.S. system. The final examination tests the ability to draw policy lessons from comparative sections and integration of all course material.

期中測驗
Midterm Examination

以論文形式回答以下兩題。每份答案應該是大約五頁,隔行。引述資料來源。

Answer in essay form two of the following questions. Each answer should be approximately five pages doubled-spaced. Cite your sources.

  1. 有過去十年間,美國醫療照護制度的以市場為主的變革,和克林頓的醫療保障計劃是差不多同樣的戲劇化。最近的變革,和克林頓計劃的倡議,有那些異同之處?
    The market-focused changes in the American health care system that have occurred in the last decade are nearly as dramatic as would have been required under the Clinton Health Security Plan. What are the similarities and differences between the recent changes and those called for in the Clinton plan?
  2. 有那些美國人沒有保障?為什麼他們沒有保障?你會如何描述他們取得醫療服務的途徑?
    Who are the uninsured in America? Why are they not covered? And how would you describe the access to health services they have?
  3. 為什麼健康情況不是比較醫療照護制度的良好標準?考慮到我們為美國醫療照護制度所作的一切,有那些更好的比較標準?
    Why is health status not a very good measure with which to compare health care systems? Considering the work we have done on the US health care system what might be better measures for such comparisons?
  4. 解釋為什麼大多數美國人現在面對的,是一個以就業為基礎,私人融資的醫療保險制度?政府有那些決策造就了現在的主導結構?現在是否有一些持續的政策令這會根深蒂固?
    Explain how we ended up with an employment-based, privately financed health insurance system for most of American population. What were the governmental decisions that made that structure the one that dominates? Are there some on going policies that encourage its perpetuation?

期末測驗
Final Examination

回答以下五條問答題的三題。留意考試的可用時間,和盡可能引用資料來源。

Write on three of the following five questions. Remember to conserve the time available to you and to give citations where possible.

  1. 選出任何兩個課程有描述和討論的美國以外的醫療制度,作出比較;認定和解釋兩者的制度目標,結構和效果有何重大分歧之處?
    Contrast any pair of the non-US health systems that were described and discussed in the course to identify and explain important differences in their system goals, structures and effects.
  2. 了解到這課程檢視其他國家的醫療制度變革的環境因素,我們會期待美國醫療照護制度有那些重大改變?
    Given the circumstances surrounding the adoption of major health system changes in the other countries examined in the course, when should we expect major change in the US health care system?
  3. 有些國家的公營體系控制的國家醫療開支比美國為多,但在「科學化」計劃分配醫療照護資源,取得新醫療方法,投資於研究,或控制醫療護理風險等方面,相對於美國政府不會做得更多,甚或更少。這是否令人感到詫異或奇怪?分配資源,究竟可以如何「科學化」?應如何判斷分配方案的高下?
    Is it surprising or strange that the governments in nations where the public sector controls a higher percentage of national health expenditures than it does in the United States do no more, perhaps even less, than the US government does in "scientifically" planning the allocation of health care resources, access to new medical treatments, research investments or the control of health care risks? How scientific can you be about these allocations? How would someone judge one allocation better than another?
  4. 訟如何改變了美國的醫療政策?透過訴訟,而不是依靠立法,來形成政策有什麼成本和效益?為什麼在我們研讀的其他國家中,訴訟的政策作用不是這樣重要?
    How has litigation shaped health policy in the United States? What are the costs and benefits of policy formation through litigation rather than legislation? Why is litigation's role in policy less of an issue in the other countries we studied?
  5. 評論克林頓的醫療計劃。集中討論計劃,而不是推銷計劃的政治。如果計劃得到接納,是否行得通?如克林頓成功爭取計劃通過,你以為下一批問題會是什麼?計劃有那些最好和最劣的地方?如果可以,作答時引用你研習過的其他國家的教訓。
    Critique the Clinton Health Plan. Focus on the plan, not the politics of selling it. Would it have worked if adopted? Where would you expect the next set of problems to arise if Clinton were successful in gaining its passage? What were its best and worst features? Use what you learned about other countries if you can in your answer.

 
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