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課程大綱
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HASS強調溝通課程

課程目標:解釋並評價美國過去和現在的外交政策:過去美國捲入國外戰爭與軍事干預的原因是什麼?美國政策的結果是好是壞?換成其他政策,對美國和/或更廣大的世界是否更有用?主導美國政策的信念是對是錯?如果是錯的,如何解釋這些錯誤的認知?本課程將應用支持美國政策因果的一般理論,來解釋並評價過去和現在的政策。

本課程詳盡探討美國20世紀的外交政策史,另外包含一些功能性主題如:美國軍事政策、美國對外經濟政策、美國對國外的人權和民主政策也涵括在內。最後,我們要預測並為未來開出處方:對當前的問題和危機,美國應採取何種政策?包括:對抗蓋達組織和更廣泛的恐怖戰爭、伊拉克和海珊、台灣海峽、中非衝突等;在全球環境和人權問題中,美國應該採取何種立場?

這是一個HASS通訊密集課程,為HASS CI的必修科目。屬於人文、藝術、社會科學中的通訊密集科目,學生必須撰寫3~5次至少20頁的書面報告,並將其中一次作業加以修定繳交。HASS CI 科目更進一步提供口頭表達、全程口頭報告、學生引導的討論,或課堂參與的機會;為了保障學生的書面報告和口頭表達得到充分的關注和機會,本科目每一節課以18名學生為限,不需班級授課的科目例外(帶班教授為唯一的講師)。在此情況下,如本科目搭配一位寫作助教時,註冊人數可增加至25人。

本課程為大學課程,研究生亦可參加。



課程規劃與必修科目

課程規劃:一般課程,每星期兩節,各一小時;討論課,每星期一節,各一小時。

評分依據課堂參與(15%)、各八頁的書面報告兩份(40%),期終考(30%)、兩次隨堂測驗(15%)。學生還必須就閱讀和講課內容撰寫三份不計分的心得報告、五次書面報告總計20頁。其中一份八頁的報告,必須以初稿繳交,以作為重新撰寫之評改。課堂中還有一次公開演講練習,學生人數以不超過十人為限。因此本課程符合HASS CI 所有課程的機械性需求。

討論課:學生最好在課前完成必須的相關閱讀資料並定期上課。本課屬強制性出席,無故缺席者將受懲罰。課堂包括一個以「國會聽證會」形式進行的公開演講練習,你將在聽證會中就一個外交政策議題,對小組提出架構並論證你的觀點。

書面報告:學生須就相關閱讀資料和課堂的心得,撰寫兩份不計分的短篇心得報告;並就課程資料引發的問題,撰寫兩份長篇報告。心得報告每篇共兩頁(請以雙行間距,而非1.5行間距撰寫),長篇報告共八頁,其中的一篇主題為「解釋一個過去的美國行為案例─美國行為的肇因是什麼?」另一篇作業則請評價一個過去的美國政策:這個政策適當嗎?換成另一個政策是否會產生更好的結果?

第一篇不計分的心得報告須在第六、七堂課繳交;第二篇則於第十一、十二堂課繳交。第一份長篇報告於第十八堂課繳交;第二份在第二十四堂課繳交。

請在規定時間之前,至少繳一份長篇報告的初稿,以取得助教關於修訂的評改,最好的做法是繳交兩份報告給助教。因此在你繳交完稿之前,請預留時間以給助教評改。

兩份心得報告都應針對閱讀或講課做進一步的論證,你的論證可以針對閱讀或講課提出的論證加以辯駁:可以贊同閱讀、講課的論證,可以評估或解釋閱讀、講課中所描述的政策或歷史事件,或者闡述當日新聞事件與閱讀、講課內觀點或事件的關聯。我們鼓勵你就閱讀、講課範圍內的政策或觀念做評價:它們是對或錯?好或壞?報告中,最好在開頭就把你的論證提出一至二行的概述,並做成兩頁左右的打字稿(雙行間,上下左右各為標準式的一吋留白)。這兩份報告雖不計分,卻是強制性的,你必須完成才能修滿課程參與的學分。

遲繳報告將受處罰,報告截止日前已獲准延期者不在此限。除有緊急狀況發生,一概不得延期。

你的報告也許會因為隨時吸收當前的國際事務而修改。下列三份出版物都提供最卓越的報導:紐約時報經濟學人(週刊)、遠東經濟評論(也是週刊)。

尋求MIT寫作與溝通中心(http://web.mit.edu/writing)的協助,你的報告和演講也會獲得改善。

隨堂測驗:第九、二十堂課各有一次簡短的隨堂測驗(15分鐘),每一測驗將提出三個簡短(定義-和-辨認)問題。

期末考:期末考前會發一張問題研讀表傳閱,期末考的問題會出自這張研讀表。我們鼓勵學生一起研究、準備答案。期末考還包括不在研讀表中的簡答題。

Films:17.40電影學會。學期中將安排兩場選擇性的影片觀賞,主題由全班決定,並由17.40電影學會的專家Daniel Landau提供建議,包括古巴飛彈危機、越戰或其他主題。

應購書籍:

Paterson, Thomas G., J. Garry Clifford, 與 Kenneth J. Hagan. 合著,《美國外交關係》第二冊《1895年後的一段歷史》第五版。波士頓:Houghton Mifflin出版社,2000年。

Gaddis, John Lewis著《圍堵戰略:對美國國家安全政策的一個批判性的評鑑》。紐約:牛津大學出版社,1982年。

Herring, George C著《美國最長的一個戰爭:美國與越南,1950-1975》第三版。紐約:麥格羅•希爾出版社,1996年。

羅勃.F.甘迺迪著《十三天:古巴飛彈危機回憶錄》第三版。紐約:W.W. Norton出版社,1999/1971年。

以上書單Dewey圖書館皆有庫存,其他指定閱讀資料都備有影印課堂筆記,學生可自Technology Copy Center購買。

可改善你的報告的一本書(17.432課程也使用):

Turabian, Kate L著《期末報告與論文寫作手冊》第六版, John Grossman 與 Alice Bennett 修訂。芝加哥:芝加哥大學出版社,1996年。

Turabian之著作非17.40課程所必須,不過你會想擁有一份拷貝本。她提出一些有關註解編排等的基本規則,你要學習並遵循這些規則。

如果你的書面報告需要進一步閱讀時,可洽詢杜威圖書館的「進階閱讀資料」,這些書籍皆以井字符號("#")標示。

十四週內的指定閱讀資料,每週平均八十五頁,不過請注意有些星期內的閱讀資料比較吃重,為了完成大量的資料閱讀,請預做計劃、安排時間。





Syllabus
(PDF)

A HASS Communications-Intensive Course

Course mission: To explain and evaluate past and present United States foreign policies. What caused the United States' past involvement in foreign wars and interventions? Were the results of U.S. policies good or bad? Would other policies have better served the U.S. and/or the wider world? Were the beliefs that guided U.S. policy true or false? If false, what explains these misperceptions? General theories that bear on the causes and consequences of American policy will be applied to explain and evaluate past and present policies.

The history of United States foreign policy in the 20th century is covered in detail. Functional topics are also covered: U.S. military policy, U.S. foreign economic policy, and U.S. policy on human rights and democracy overseas. Finally, we will predict and prescribe for the future. What policies should the U.S. adopt toward current problems and crises? These problems include the war against Al Qaeda and the wider war on terror; Iraq and Saddam Hussein; the Taiwan Straits; the Central African conflicts; and more. What should be the U.S. stance on global environmental and human rights questions?

This is a HASS Communications Intensive course, and so helps fulfill the HASS CI requirement. Communications intensive subjects in the humanities, arts, and social sciences require at least 20 pages of writing divided among 3-5 assignments. Of these 3-5 assignments, at least one should be revised and resubmitted. HASS CI subjects further offer students substantial opportunity for oral expression, through presentations, student-led discussions, or class participation. In order to guarantee sufficient attention to student writing and substantial opportunity for oral expression, the maximum number of students per section in a HASS CI subject is 18, except in the case of a subject taught without sections (where the faculty member in charge is the only instructor). In that case, enrollments can rise to 25, if a writing fellow is attached to the subject.

This is an undergraduate course but is open to graduate students.



Format and Requirements

Class format: Two 1-hour general meetings and one 1-hour discussion section meeting per week.

Grades are based on section participation (15%), two 8-page papers (40%), final exam (30%), and two quizzes (15%). Students must also complete three ungraded response papers that react to class readings or lectures. The five writing assignments will total 20 pages. One of the 8-page papers must be submitted in draft for comments for rewrite. There will be a public speaking exercise in section. Sections will include 10 students or fewer. Thus this course conforms to the mechanical requirements for all HASS communication-intensive courses.

Discussion sections: Students are expected to complete required readings before section and to attend section regularly. Section attendance is mandatory. Unexcused absence from section will be penalized.

Sections will include a public speaking exercise, in the format of "congressional hearings" where you are asked to frame and defend to the group a viewpoint on a foreign policy issue.

Papers: Students will write two short ungraded response papers that react to course readings and lectures, and two longer papers on questions arising from the course material. The two response papers each will be two pages long (double-spaced--not 1.5-spaced, please). The longer papers will be 8 pages. One 8-page paper assignment asks you to explain a past case of American conduct--what accounts for American behavior? A second 8-page assignment asks you to evaluate a past American policy: was the policy appropriate, or would another policy have produced better results?

The first ungraded response paper is due in the week of class #6, #7; the second is due in the week of class #11, #12. The first 8-page paper is due in class #18. The second is due in class #24.

We require that you submit a rough draft of at least one of your 8-page papers before its due date in order to get comments for rewrite from your TA. You are wise to submit both papers to your TA for comments. So please leave yourself time to get comments on drafts of the 8-page papers from your TAs before you submit final drafts.

Your two response papers should advance an argument about the reading or lectures. Your argument can dispute argument(s) advanced in the reading or lectures; can concur with argument(s) advanced in the reading or lecture; can assess or explain policies or historical events described in the reading and lectures; or can relate current events in the press today to ideas or events in the readings or lectures. We encourage evaluation of policies or ideas covered in the reading or lecture. Are they right or wrong? Good or bad? Somewhere in your paper--preferably at the beginning--please offer a 1-2 sentence summary of your argument. Both papers should be about two typed pages (double-spaced, with standard one-inch margins on left, right, top and bottom). They will not be graded but are mandatory and must be completed to receive full credit for class participation.

Late papers will be penalized unless extensions are granted well in advance of the paper deadline. Extensions will not be granted except in emergency situations.

Your papers may be improved by keeping up with current international affairs during the semester. Three publications offer especially excellent coverage: the New York Times, the Economist (a weekly), and the Far Eastern Economic Review (also a weekly).

Your papers and public speaking may also be improved by seeking help from MIT's Writing and Communications Center (http://web.mit.edu/writing). They give good writing advice and have useful practice facilities for public speaking.

Quizzes: Two short (15 minute) quizzes will be given in class #9, and class #20. Three short (define-and-identify) questions will be asked on each quiz.

Final exam: A list of study questions will be circulated before the final. The final exam questions will be drawn from this list. Students are encouraged to study together to prepare their answers. The final will also include short-answer questions that will not be distributed in advance.

Films: The 17.40 film society. Two optional evening film-showings will be organized during the term, on topics to be chosen by acclamation of the class, with advice from 17.40 film maven Daniel Landau. Topics could include the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, or other subjects.

Books to purchase:

Paterson, Thomas G., J. Garry Clifford, and Kenneth J. Hagan. American Foreign Relations. Vol. 2: A History Since 1895. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Herring, George C. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Kennedy, Robert F. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999/1971.

These books are also on reserve at Dewey library. All other readings will be available as photocopied course notes, and can be purchased from the Technology Copy Center.

A book that will improve your papers (also used for another course - 17.432):

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed. Rev. by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Turabian is not required for 17.40 but you will want to own a copy. She has the basic rules for how to format footnotes, etc. Learn and obey them.

Some of the "further readings" are on reserve at Dewey library, for your consultation should you want to do further reading for your paper assignments. These are denoted with a pound ("#") sign.

Assigned readings average 85 pages per week over 14 weeks. However, note that readings are heavier for some weeks. You should plan ahead and budget your time so you can complete the heavy readings.




 
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