MIT OpenCourseWare


Required Texts

Paterson, Thomas G., J. Garry Clifford, and Kenneth J. Hagan. American Foreign Relations. Vol. 2: A History Since 1895. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000. ISBN: 0395938872.

Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. ISBN: 0195030974.

Herring, George C. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996. ISBN: 0070283931.

Kennedy, Robert F. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999/1971. ISBN: 0393318346.

A book that will improve your papers (also used for another course - 17.432):

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed. Rev. by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN: 00226816273.

Turabian is not required for 17.40 but you will want to own a copy. She has the basic rules for how to format footnotes, etc. Learn and obey them.

In addition to the readings given in the table, see the bibliographies for further reading.

Readings (PDF)

課程單元 閱讀資料
Theories and Strategies
1 Introduction
2 Overview of American Foreign Policy Since 1914 Kennedy, Paul. Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Tables.

Oye, Kenneth, ed. Eagle in a New World. Tables.

Class discussion will focus on tables 6, 17, 18, 31, 35, 4-1, and chart 2 on pages 3, 6, 7, 15, 16, 19, and 20 (handwritten numeration), so study these seven with more care; skim the rest.
3-5 Theories of American Foreign Policy

Van Evera, Stephen. "Offense, Defense and the Causes of War." Manuscript, 1-36.

Your instructor's summary of the argument, made famous by Robert Jervis, that war is more likely when conquest is easy. A key related argument: international conflict arises largely from the "security dilemma"—the tendency of states to threaten others' security by their efforts to secure themselves.
Can the U.S. prevent war by making conquest hard in world trouble-spots?
Have America's past conflict with others arisen from the security dilemma?

Walt, Stephen. "Explaining Alliance Formation." Chapter 2 in The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990, pp. 17-49.

Walt presents competing hypotheses on how states choose their friends. Which hypotheses are valid? Do your answers matter for the kind of foreign policy you would recommend?

Jervis, Robert. Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976, pp. 58-84.

Some ("spiral model" advocates) say international conflict is best resolved by the carrot, while using the stick merely provokes; others ("deterrence" advocates) would use the stick, warning that offering carrots ("appeasement") leads others to make more demands. Who's right? Probably both—but under what circumstances? And how can you tell which circumstances you face?

Isaacson, Walter, and Evan Thomas. The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made. NY: Simon and Schuster, 1986, pp. 171-173, 731-733.

Does the American foreign policy elite share America's wider democratic values? We learn here that George Kennan thought women, blacks, and immigrants should be denied the vote; Kennan and Dean Acheson saw little wrong with the white minority governments in Rhodesia and South Africa; and John McCloy adopted the cause of Iran's Pahlevi family. Not your typical League of Women Voters views.

Hersh, Seymour. The Price of Power. NY: Summit, 1983, pp. 108-111.

What to make of the attitudes of Richard Nixon, Henry Kissinger, and Alexander Haig reported here? (Are such attitudes widespread among foreign policymakers? Do such attitudes matter?)

Pearson, David. "The Media and Government Deception." Propaganda Review (Spring 1989): 6-11.

Pearson thinks the American press is obedient to official views, and afraid to criticize. Anti-establishment paranoia or the real picture?

Jordan, Eason. "The News We Kept To Ourselves." New York Times, April 11, 2003.

The press can be cowed into practicing self-censorship. This allows tyrants to intimidate the press into painting themselves in rose-colored hues.

Kristoff, Nicholas. "Save Our Spooks." New York Times, May 30, 2003.

Governments misperceive the world if their intelligence agencies misreport foreign realities. This can happen if government leaders press their intelligence agencies to tell the leaders what they want to hear regardless of the facts.

Beschloss, Michael R. "Foreign Policy's Big Moment." New York Times, April 11, 1999.

Claimed here: during political campaigns U.S. politicians pander to U.S. voters by framing dangerous foreign policy positions that they cannot abandon once in office. The country is thereby led into folly. A corollary: a prime threat to America is ... an American public that responds well to irresponsible pandering.

6-8 American Interests and Grand Strategies Gaddis. Strategies of Containment. pp. 3-53.

George Kennan was a prime intellectual architect of America's Cold War containment policy. In pages 25-53 Gaddis explicates his ideas.

Van Evera, Stephen. "American Intervention in the Third World: Less Would Be Better." Security Studies 1, no. 1 (Autumn 1991): 1-24.

The instructor's largely Kennanite analysis of past American strategy toward the Third World.

Posen, Barry R., and Andrew L. Ross. "Competing U.S. Grand Strategies." In Strategy and Force Planning Faculty. Edited by Strategy and Force Planning. Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 1995, pp. 115-134.

A survey of four contending post-Cold War grand strategies. Which strategy is best? (Is this list complete?)

Sanger, David E. "Bush to Formalize A Defense Policy of Hitting First." New York Times, June 17, 2002.

The Bush Administration has embraced a general doctrine of preventive war against rogue states that aspire to develop weapons of mass destruction. Iraq is only the first rogue state that the administration would attack. Good idea?

Lieber, Keir A., and Robert J. Lieber. "The Bush National Security Strategy." U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda, An Electronic Journal of the U.S. Department of State 7, no. 4 (December 2002).

A friendly summary and assessment of the 2002 U.S. National Security Strategy (NSS), the document that frames the main elements of the strategy selected by the Bush II Administration, including its general doctrine of preventive war (see Sanger, "Bush to Formalize," directly above).

Ikenberry, G. John. "America's Imperial Ambition." Foreign Affairs 81, no. 5 (September/October 2002).

The Bush Administration has embarked on a fateful imperial rampage. It will end badly. Others will eventually coalesce to check the U.S.

"American Imperialism, Embraced." The New York Times Magazine. December 9, 2001.

Ricks, Thomas E. "Empire or Not? A Quiet Debate over U.S. Role." Washington Post. August 21, 2001.

More color on rising arguments for a U.S. empire in the U.S. conservative movement. Do Tom Donnelly and William Kristol have a good idea?

Lind, Michael. Made in Texas: George W. Bush and the Southern Takeover of American Politics. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp. 128-153.

What's causing the rise of imperialist thinking in Washington? Lind argues that the Bush coalition includes dangerous elements, including millennialist Christians who want to take U.S. Mideast policy in dangerous directions.

Lieber, Robert. "The Neoconservative Conspiracy Theory: Pure Myth." Chronicle of Higher Education, May 2, 2003.

Lieber disputes claims that a neoconservative clique dominates Bush foreign policy.

Kaufmann, Chaim. "See No Evil." Foreign Affairs 81, no. 4 (July/August 2002): 142-149.

The U.S. could have stopped genocide in Rwanda in 1994 and elsewhere but chose not to. Good choice? Should the U.S. intervene to prevent such horrors?

Cooper, Glenda. "U.S. Memos on Rwanda Cited." Boston Globe, August 23, 2001.

More color on U.S. inaction in Rwanda.

Kristof, Nicholas D. "Starved for Safety." New York Times, March 31, 2004.

Another genocide is now unfolding in the Darfur region of Sudan, where the Sudanese government is slaughtering inconvenient peoples by the thousands. Should the U.S. act? See Kristof's website for more columns on this horrific crime.

Gelb, Leslie H., and Justine A. Rosenthal. "The Rise of Ethics in Foreign Policy." Foreign Affairs 82, no. 3 (May/June 2003): 2-7.

Ethical concerns once played little role in U.S. foreign policy; now they have an important place at the table.

Revkin, Andrew C. "Scientists Say a Quest for Clean Energy Must Begin Now." New York Times, November 1, 2002.

A new study warns that we must start looking for clean energy sources now or we may destroy the planet. Later may be too late. No kidding. This will require broad international cooperation. Sadly we're not very good at international cooperation. Oh dear.

Bradsher, Keith. "Bird Flu is Back, Raising Fear of Spread Among Humans." New York Times, August 30, 2004.

The 1918 flu killed 675,000 Americans—more than the two World Wars combined. Bummer. Could it happen again? Maybe! The current avian flu in Asia is mighty scary. What's the answer? Worldwide preventive action. Again, everyone must cooperate. Hence this is a foreign policy problem.
America's Major Wars: World War I, World War II, Cold War, and Korea
9-11 World War I and World War II Paterson, Clifford, and Hagan. American Foreign Policy. pp. 55-62, 68-92, 117-125, 128-136, 141-153, 173-215.

A standard textbook history of American policies before and during the two world wars.
12-13 Cold War Origins and Conduct

The Korean War
Cold war origins and conduct

Paterson, Clifford, and Hagan. American Foreign Policy. pp. 222-249.

A standard textbook account of the Cold Wars's origins, from a viewpoint somewhat critical of U.S. policy.


Paterson, Clifford, and Hagan. American Foreign Policy. pp. 266-275.
Interlude: U.S. National Security Policy; The Terror War; U.S. Foreign Economic Policy
14 American National Security Policy, 1945-Present Jordan, Amos A., William J. Taylor, and Lawrence J. Korb. "The Evolution of American National Security Policy." Chapter 4 in American National Security: Policy and Process. 4th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993, pp. 63-86.

Gaddis. Strategies of Containment, pp. 54-197. Review also pp. 3-53.

An excellent analytic account of American security policy under Truman and Eisenhower, by a leading American historian.

Rees, Martin. Our Final Hour: A Scientist's Warning: How Terror, Error, and Environmental Disaster Threaten Humankind's Future in this CenturyOn Earth and Beyond. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp. 41-60, 73-88.

The advance of science has a fearsome byproduct: we are discovering ever more powerful means of destruction. These destructive powers are being democratized: the mayhem that only major states can do today may lie within the capacity of millions of individuals in the future unless we somehow change course. Deterrence works against states but will fail against crazed non-state organizations or individuals. How can the spread of destructive powers be controlled?

For more on controlling the longterm bioweapons danger see: The Controlling Dangerous Pathogens Project.

Kelly, Henry C. "Terrorism and the Biology Lab." New York Times, July 2, 2003.

The biology profession must realize that its research, if left unregulated, could produce discoveries that gravely threaten our safety. Biologists must develop a strategy to keep biology from being used for destructive ends.

Meselson, Matthew. "Averting the Hostile Exploitation of Biotechnology." CBWCB (June 2000): 16-19.

We must pursue arms control measures to limit the spread of biological weapons.

"Nuclear Breakout." New York Times, July 27, 2003.

"Curb the Spread of Nuclear Arms." New York Times, July 29, 2003 (letters).

A snippet arguing that to halt nuclear proliferation the world must strengthen the 1968 nuclear non-proliferation treaty. Today that treaty doesn't even ban the enrichment of uranium or reprocessing of plutonium, the two basic methods of making nuclear bombs. Let's do something about it! And letters in reaction.

Perry, William. "Preparing for the Next Attack." Foreign Affairs 80, no. 6 (November/December 2001): 31-45.

Perry, a former U.S. Defense Secretary, warns that al Qaeda will strike again, this time with weapons of mass destruction, unless we avert their attack. He's cool toward national missile defense—a favorite Bush administration project—because Al Qaeda won't use missiles to send us its horrors.

Seitz, Frederick. "Missile Defense Isn't Rocket Science." Wall Street Journal. July 7, 2000.

A positive view of national missile defense.

For more discussion of the latest U.S. strategy statement see the "Defense Strategy Review Page " of the Project on Defense Alternatives.
15-16 The U.S. War on Terror "The Uranium Underground." Time, December 17, 2001, 40-45.

Vast amounts of nuclear materials are swishing around the former Soviet Union unguarded—enough to build tens of thousands of atomic bombs. Washington doesn't seem to care much. Is this stupid or what? Duck and cover!

Benjamin, Daniel, and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. 2nd ed. NY: Random House, 2003, pp. 38-55, 61-68, 91-94, 447-489.

Pages 38-55, 62-68, 91-94 describe the Islamist currents of thinking that spawned Osama Bin Laden's Al Qaeda. Al Qaeda's violence stems from a stream of Islamist thought going back to ibn Taymiyya, a bellicose Islamic thinker from the 13th century; to Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792), the harsh and rigid shaper of modern Saudi Arabian Islam; to Rashid Rida (1866-1935) and Hassan al-Banna (?-1949); and above all to Sayyid Qutb (?-1966), the shaper of modern Islamism. Taymiyya, al-Wahhab and Qutb are covered here. Covered also (pp. 91-94) is the frightening rise of apocalyptic thinking in the Islamic world. What causes the murderous thinking described here?
Pages 447-489 are a survey and evaluation of Bush administration counter-terror strategies.
Not assigned but also valuable are pages 219-393, a survey of Clinton administration counter-terror strategies and policies.

Chyba, Christopher F. "Toward Biological Security." Foreign Affairs 81, no. 3 (May/June 2002): 122-137.

The danger posed by biological weapons in terrorist hands may be even scarier than the danger of nuclear weapons.

Chait, Jonathan. "The 9/10 President." New Republic, March 10, 2003, 18-23.

The Bush Administration's program for homeland security is surprisingly lame. There are big holes in the homeland security program.

Schwartz, Stephen. "The Real Saudi Arabia." Wall Street Journal, May 15, 2003.

Al-Hattan, Sulaiman. "Homegrown Fanatics." New York Times, May 15, 2003.

Saudi Arabian society is dominated by a hateful and xenophobic version of Islam—Wahhabism. Unless Wahhabism is tempered Saudi Arabia will export more terror against the non-Muslim world.
17-18 American Foreign Economic Policy, 1945-Present "World Trade: Jousting for Advantage." The Economist, September 22, 1990, 5-25.

"World Trade: All Free Traders Now?" The Economist, December 7, 1996, 21-23.

The first item is a pro-free-trade survey of the basic questions in trade, and a preview of the now-passed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT), Uruguay Round. Focus on pages 12-19, "The Economics of Free Trade," which explicates David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage; you can skim the rest. The second item surveys later trade issues.

"Pakistanis Fume as Clothing Sales to U.S. Tumble." New York Times, June 23, 2002.

The U.S. could provide large benefit to the poor of Pakistan by dropping its barriers to the import of Pakistani textiles. This could also jolly up the Pakistanis to support the U.S terror war. But the U.S. textile lobby won't allow it. U.S. special interests override the U.S. national interest. Too bad for you and me.

"Raising Farm Subsidies, U.S. Widens International Rift." New York Times, June 15, 2002.

The U.S. waves the free trade banner—except when it doesn't want to. U.S. strictures on imports of agricultural products and textiles are a major blow to the world's poor.

Shelton, Judy. "More Aid? Sounds Great. But Wait ..." Wall Street Journal, February 15, 2002.

Shoving money at poor states doesn't make them richer. Instead western societies should help poor states improve their governance—i.e., to control corruption and bolster the rule of law. Better economic performance will follow.
Cold War Crises: Berlin, Taiwan Straits, and Cuba 1962
19-20 The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

Other Cold War Crises
Paterson, Clifford, and Hagan. American Foreign Policy, pp. 291-295 and 335-340.

Standard synopses of the Taiwan Straits crises and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Kennedy. Thirteen Days, 1-106.

A gripping memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis by a central participant.

Kaplan, Fred. "Kennedy and Cuba at 35." Boston Sunday Globe, October 12, 1997, D1-D3.

Later revelations about the Cuban Missile Crisis. JFK was the most dovish official in the government. He secretly traded the U.S. Jupiter missiles in Turkey for the Soviet missiles in Cuba. He was willing to give even further if needed. What if someone else had been president?

For more on the Cuban Missile Crisis you can visit an excellent website on the crisis put together by the National Security Archive. Documents can be seen, tapes can be listened to, and intelligence photos can be viewed at this site. And for more sources on the crisis see a website from Harvard's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
American Interventions in the Third World
21-22 The Indochina War, 1950-1975 Paterson, Clifford, and Hagan. American Foreign Policy, pp. 315-333, 340-354.

Herring. America's Longest War, Chapters 4 and 7, pp. 121-157, 242-283.

A more detailed account, from a middle-of-the-road perspective, of the key decisions to escalate and de-escalate the war. Herring's book is the most prominent general history of the war.

Johnson, Lyndon B. "American Policy in Viet-Nam." In The Viet-Nam Reader. Edited by Marcus G. Raskin and Bernard B. Fall. NY: Vintage, 1967, pp. 343-351.

This statement, Johnson's famous Johns Hopkins University speech of April 7, 1965, was the fullest official explication of the case for the war.

Sanders, Sol W., and William Henderson. "The Consequences of 'Vietnam." Orbis 21, no. 1 (Spring 1977): 61-76.

The authors re-evaluate the propositions at issue in the debate over the war, concluding that postwar events show that the hawks were right and the doves wrong.

Clifford, Clark and Richard Holbrooke. Counsel to the President. NY: Random House, 1991, pp. 612-614.

A short counterpoint to Sanders and Henderson.

23-24 Other American Interventions and Non-Interventions Those of 1900-1934 (Panama, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Mexico, Russia); 1945-1993 (Iran 1953, Guatemala 1954, Chile 1973, Angola 1975, Indonesia 1957, Guyana 1964, Congo 1960ff, the wars of the Reagan Doctrine, Panama 1989, Persian Gulf 1991, Somalia 1992-93); and non-interventions (Mexico in 1930s; Bolivia in 1950s).

Paterson, Clifford, and Hagan. American Foreign Policy. pp. 32-51, 97-101, 153-162, 164-167, 379-383, 440-446, 477-493.

Barnet, Richard J. "The Subversion of Undesirable Governments." Chapter 10 in Intervention and Revolution: America's Confrontation with Insurgent Movements Around the World. NY: Meridian, 1972, pp. 264-293.

A short history of some of the better-known CIA Cold War covert operations.

Schraeder, Peter J. "Paramilitary Intervention." Chapter 8 in Intervention Into the 1990s. 2nd ed.Edited by Peter J. Schraeder. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1992, pp. 131-151.

Focus on pages 137-149 ("The Reagan Doctrine and Paramilitary Intervention"), skim the rest. The four wars waged under the rubric of the Reagan Doctrine are described here.

Pollack, Kenneth. The Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq. NY: Random House, 2002, pp.11-54.

How did the U.S. confrontation with Saddam Hussein develop? Pollack offers excellent background.

Bumiller, Elisabeth. "Was a Tyrant Prefigured by Baby Saddam?" New York Times, May 15, 2004.

Saddam Hussein was severely abused as a child and as a result suffered narcissism and other personality disorders. Does this help explain the 1991 and 2003 Iraq wars? Can the U.S. deter or coerce such people if it better understands their personal demons?

Zeller, Tom. "Building Democracy is Not a Science." New York Times, April 27, 2003.

The United States' mixed record at exporting democracy by intervention is summarized here.
The Road Ahead: Current Crises and Future Policies
25-26 Current Issues and Crises

Overviews of Bush Administration Foreign Policy

The Future of American Foreign policy
Huntington, Samuel P. "The Coming Clash of Civilizations: Or, the West Against the Rest." New York Times, June 6, 1993.

Humankind will again be at its own throat, this time in a confrontation of great civilizations.

Kristoff, Nicholas D. "The Real Chinese Threat." New York Times Magazine, August 27, 1995, 50-51.

The Chinese are coming.

Kagan, Robert. "China's No. 1 Enemy." New York Times, May 11, 1999, A27.

China hates the United States. Appeasing China will only encourage Chinese expansionism and bring on a Sino-American clash. Let's get tough on China.
Note: In 2003-2004 the Bush Administration found itself cooperating with China against the grave threat posed by North Korea's advancing nuclear weapons program. What light does this shed on Kagan's argument?

Freeman, Chas. W., Jr. "Preventing War in the Taiwan Strait." Foreign Affairs 77, no. 4 (July/August 1998): 6-11.

Taiwan could suck the U.S. into a Taiwan-PRC conflict unless the U.S. restrains Taiwan now.

Kristof, Nicholas D. "The Nuclear Shadow." New York Times, August 14, 2004.

We are losing control of nuclear weapons. No one in Washington seems to care. A collective snore is heard from the government. This is a recipe for immense calamity. Isn't it obvious that unless we take prompt action terrorists will get hold of nuclear materials, make nuclear weapons, and nuke us until we glow?

Perkovich, George. "Bush's Nuclear Revolution." Foreign Affairs 82, no. 2 (March/April 2003): 2-8.

A traditional arms controller's view of how to limit nuclear proliferation: "Strengthen treaties that limit proliferation; downsize the U.S. nuclear arsenal; move toward total nuclear disarmament. Bush has it all wrong." Is this sensible? Is total nuclear disarmament a feasible or practical goal?

Sanger, David. "The North Korean Uranium Challenge." New York Times, May 24, 2004.

Saddam's Iraq didn't have nuclear weapons or a nuclear program. North Korea has both—and it has a nutty government that might sell the nukes it makes to the highest bidder. What to do? Smash 'em? Won't work. Cut a deal? The Bush administration is opposed. Overthrow the North Korean government? That's tough work. But we better do something!!

French, Howard W. "When Liberians Looked to America in Vain." New York Times, July 13, 2003.

In the 1980s and 1990s the United States turned a blind eye toward the bloody rampages of Liberian dictators Samuel K. Doe and Charles Taylor. They then ignited vicious wars that spread to the wider West African region.

Klinkenborg, Verlyn. "Be Afraid. Be Very Afraid." New York Times Book Review, May 30, 2004.

Recent science paints a frightening picture of the human impact on the global climate. Are we creating a hell that, once in, we cannot escape? This seems a increasingly plausible, perhaps likely!

Browne, John. "Beyond Kyoto." Foreign Affairs 83, no. 4 (July/August 2004): 20-32.

Browne outlines a program for action to address the grave and growing danger of climate change.

Lieber, Keir A., and Robert J. Lieber. "The Bush National Security Strategy." U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda, An Electronic Journal of the U.S. Department of State 7, no. 4 (December 2002): assigned above on page 5.

Prestowitz, Clyde. "Why Don't We Listen More." Washington Post, July 7, 2002.

Bush is losing the U.S. friends by acting with little regard for their interests and ideas. Instead the U.S. should consult its friends and take their interests into account before acting.

Historiographical Surveys on American Foreign Policy

Combs, Jerald A. American Diplomatic History: Two Centuries of Changing Interpretations. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.
An excellent overview of American diplomatic historiography.

Carroll, John M., and George C. Herring, eds. Modern American Diplomacy. Rev. ed. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1996.
A collection of bibliographic review essays on aspects of American diplomatic history.

Haines, Gerald K., and J. Samuel Walker, eds. American Foreign Relations: A Historiographical Review. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1981.
Like Carroll and Herring, a collection of bibliographic review essays.

Hogan, Michael, ed. America and the World: The Historiography of American Foreign Relations since 1941. NY: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Fourteen historiographical reviews, most from the journal Diplomatic History.

Bibliographies on American Foreign Policy

Beisner, Robert L., and Kurt W. Hanson. American Foreign Relations Since 1600: A Guide to the Literature . 2nd ed. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2003.
An enormous and excellent annotated bibliography. You should often start your research here.

———. "The Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations (SHAFR)." In Guide to American Foreign Relations Since 1700 . Edited by Richard Dean Burns. Santa Barbara, CA: ANC-Clio, 1983.

Beede, Benjamin R. Intervention and Counterinsurgency: An Annotated Bibliography of the Small Wars of the United States, 1898-1984 . NY: Garland, 1985.

Smith, Myron J., Jr. The Secret Wars: A Guide to Sources in English. Vol. 2: Intelligence, Propaganda and Psychological Warfare, Covert Operations, 1945-1980. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio, 1981.

For more Bibliographies see also

Foreign Affairs: This journal's "Recent Books on International Relations" section reviews most important books on U.S. foreign policy.

American Historical Review: More than half of this journal is devoted to useful book reviews, many of books on U.S. foreign relations.

Paterson, Thomas G., J. Garry Clifford, and Kenneth J. Hagan. American Foreign Relations. Vol. 2: A History Since 1895. 5th ed. 2000.
This text (assigned for this course) has useful bibliographical notes at the ends of chapters.

Combs, Jerald A. The History of American Foreign Policy. 2 vols. NY: Knopf, 1986.
This text also has useful bibliographical notes at the ends of chapters.

Web Sites to Consult

A research guide to Internet resources on American foreign policy. See other web sites referenced there.

This is the National Security Archive web site, an excellent source of primary documents about U.S. foreign and security policy.

Textbooks and Surveys

Bailey, Thomas A. A Diplomatic History of the American People. 10th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980. ISBN: 132147262.

Combs, Jerald A. The History of American Foreign Policy. 2 vols. NY: Knopf, 1986.

Jones, Howard. Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations to 1913. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002.

———. Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations from 1897. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002.

Wittkopf, Eugene R., Charles W. Kegley, Jr. and James M. Scott. American Foreign Policy. 6th ed. Florence, KY: Thompson Wadsworth, 2002. ISBN: 0534600484.

Hartmann, Frederick H., and Robert L. Wendzel. America's Foreign Policy in a Changing World. NY: HarperCollins, 1994.

Melanson, Richard A. American Foreign Policy Since the Vietnam War. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.

Kennan, George F. American Diplomacy, 1900-1950. NY: New American Library, 1951.

Stoessinger, John G. Nations in Darkness: Russia, China, and America. 5th ed. NY: McGraw, 1990. ISBN: 75409208. (An interpretive survey.)

Historical Document and Essay Collections

Paterson, Thomas G., and Dennis Merrill, eds. Major Problems in American Foreign Relations. 2 vols. 4th ed. Lexington: D.C. Heath, 1994. ISBN: 066935077X, 0669350788.

Paterson, Thomas G., ed. Major Problems in American Foreign Policy. 2 vols. 3rd ed. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1989. ISBN: 0669158569, 0669158577.


Foreign Affairs. The first and most famous journal of American foreign policy opinion. Published by the Council on Foreign Relations. For many decades it offered yawnsome pontifications by senior officials who repeated conventional wisdoms but now covers many issues very well.

Foreign Policy. A prominent if irritatingly undocumented journal of current policy.

Diplomatic History. The main journal covering American diplomatic history.

Journal of Cold War History. A good new history journal.

International Security. The leading American journal of military and foreign policy.

Security Studies. Another journal of military and foreign policy.

The National Interest. The leading conservative foreign policy journal.

Survival. A Europe-oriented journal of military and foreign policy.

American Historical Review. A general historical journal that once gave good coverage to American diplomatic history but has lately drifted into postmodern gibberizing.

Press and Radio on World Affairs

The Economist. A British weekly newsmagazine. The best single printed news source on current world affairs.

The Far Eastern Economic Review. A fine newsmagazine covering Asian affairs.

BBC World Service. Good world news coverage, aired in Boston at 9:00-10:00 a.m., 1:00-2:00 p.m., and 12:00-2:00 a.m. weekdays, and 4:00-5:00 Saturdays and Sundays, on WBUR (90.9 FM radio). Less fun than KISS 108 but better for your brain.

Readers on 1990s Policy Questions

Oye, Kenneth A., Robert J. Lieber and Donald Rothchild. Eagle in a New World: American Grand Strategy in the Post-Cold War Era. NY: HarperCollins, 1992.

Rourke, John T. Taking Sides. 11th ed. Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin, 2003. ISBN: 0072845155.

Theories of International Politics and of American Foreign Policy

Holsti, Ole R. "Models of International Relations and Foreign Policy." Diplomatic History 13, no. 1 (Winter 1989): 15-44.

Art, Robert J., and Robert Jervis, eds. International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues. 3rd ed. NY: 1992. ISBN: 673521613.

Holsti, K.J. The Dividing Discipline: Hegemony and Diversity in International Theory. Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1985.

Waltz, Kenneth N. Theory of International Politics. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1979.

Cohen, Benjamin. The Question of Imperialism. NY: Basic Books, 1973.

Ikenberry, G. John, ed. American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays. NY: HarperCollins, 1989.

Kegley, Charles W., Jr., and Eugene R. Wittkopf, eds. The Domestic Sources of American Foreign Policy: Insights and Evidence. NY: St. Martin's, 1988.

Peace Movements

Johnson, Robert David. The Peace Progressives and American Foreign Relations. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994.

Foreign Lobbies, Propaganda, and the Press as Influences on American Foreign Policy

Smith, Tony. Foreign Attachments: The Power of Ethnic Groups in the Making of American Foreign Policy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Mannheim, Jarol B. Strategic Public Diplomacy and American Foreign Policy. NY: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Koen, Ross Y. The China Lobby in American Politics. NY: Harper and Row, 1974.

Cull, Nicholas John. Selling War: The British Propaganda Campaign Against American "Neutrality" in World War II. NY: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Peterson, Horace C. Propaganda for War: The Campaign Against American Neutrality, 1914-1917. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939.

Squires, J. Duane. British Propaganda at Home and in the United States from 1914 to 1917. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1935.

Lind, Michael. "The Israel Lobby." Prospect, April 1, 2002

Garfinkle, Adam. "Israel Lobby Part II." Prospect, September 2002.

Birnbaum, Jeffrey. "The Influence Merchants." Fortune, December 7, 1998, 134-152.

Especially the chart on page 137. Washington insiders rank the Israel lobby the second most powerful lobby in Washington, behind only the AARP and ahead of the NRA, the AMA, the AFL-CIO, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the VFW, and others.

Tivnan, Edward. The Lobby: Jewish Political Power and American Foreign Policy. NY: Simon and Shuster, 1987.

Findley, Paul. They Dare to Speak Out: People and Institutions Confront Israel's Lobby. Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill and Co., 1985.

Strobel, Warren P. Late-Breaking Foreign Policy: The News Media's Influence on Peace Operations. Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 1998.

Neuman, Johanna. Lights, Camera, War: Is Media Technology Driving International Politics? NY: St. Martin's, 1996.

Seib, Philip. Headline Diplomacy: How News Coverage Affects Foreign Policy. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.

American Grand Strategy

Art, Robert J. "A Defensible Defense: America's Grand Strategy After the Cold War." International Security 15, no. 4 (Spring, 1991): 5-53.
A survey of American interests and strategic choices after the Cold War.

Gholz, Eugene, Daryl G. Press, and Harvey M. Sapolsky. "Come Home America: The Strategy of Restraint in the Face of Temptation." International Security 21, no. 4 (Spring 1997): pp. 5-48.

Walt, Stephen M. "The Case for Finite Containment: Analyzing U.S. Grand Strategy." International Security 10, no. 1 (Summer 1989): 5-49.
A late Cold War argument for U.S. engagement in Europe and withdrawal from the Third World.

Lynn-Jones, Sean M., and Steven E. Miller, eds. America's Strategy in a Changing World: An International Security Reader. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992.

David, Steven R. "Why the Third World Matters." International Security 14, no. 1 (Summer 1989): 50-85.
A late Cold War argument for continued engagement in the Third World.

Spykman, Nicholas. America's Strategy in World Politics: The United States and the Balance of Power. NY: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1942.
A prominent early argument for European engagement, premised on geopolitics.

Burnham, James. Containment or Liberation? An Inquiry into the Aims of United States Foreign Policy. NY: John Day, 1954.
The best statement of the rollback viewpoint.

Tucker, Robert W. A New Isolationism: Threat or Promise?. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Associates, 1972.
A statement of the isolationist viewpoint.

David, Steven R. "Why the Third World Still Matters." International Security 17, no. 3 (Winter 1992/93): 127-159.
David argues that the Third World mattered in the Cold War and still matters today. An anti-Kennan view.

Huntington, Samuel P. "America's Changed Strategic Interests." Survival 33, no. 1 (January/February 1991): 3-17.
A conservative view of America's post-Cold War global interests.

The United States and Human Rights

Terry, Fiona. Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002.

Forsythe, David P. Human Rights and World Politics. 2nd rev. ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.

Forsythe, David. Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy: Congress Reconsidered. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1988.

Claude, Richard, and Burns Weston, eds. Human Rights in the World Community: Issues and Action. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.

Schoultz, Lars. Human Rights and United States Policy Toward Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.

Human Rights Watch. The Bush Administration's Record on Human Rights in 1989. NY: Human Rights Watch, 1990.

Human Rights Watch. World Report 1990. NY: Human Rights Watch, 1991 and later years.

Slater, Jerome, and Terry Nardin. "Nonintervention and Human Rights." Journal of Politics 48 (1986): 86-96.

Halperin, Morton H., and David Scheffer, with Patricia L. Small. Self-Determination in the New World Order. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment 1992.

Lacqueur, Walter, and Barry Rubin, eds. The Human Rights Reader. Rev. ed. NY: Meridian, 1990.

Marks, Stephen P. "Promoting Human Rights." In World Security. Edited by Michael T. Klare and Daniel C. Thomas. NY: St. Martin's 1991, pp. 295-320. What are human rights, and how can they best be protected? Is it America's business to protect them?

The United States and Conflict Prevention/Conflict Termination

Rubin, Barnett. Blood on the Doorstep: The Politics of Preventive Action. NY: Council on Foreign Relations, 2003.

The United States and Democracy

Carothers, Thomas. Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999.

Smith, Tony. America's Mission: The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Foreign Aid and NGOs

Maren, Michael. The Road to Hell: The Ravaging Effects of Foreign Aid and International Charity. NY: Free Press, 1997.

The United States and World War I

Gregory, Ross. The Origins of American Intervention in the First World War. NY: W.W. Norton, 1971.

Link, Arthur S. Woodrow Wilson: Revolution, War, and Peace. Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1979.

Clements, Kendrick A. The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1992, pp. 93-203.

Knock, Thomas J. To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order. NY: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Nordholt, Jan Willem Schulte. Woodrow Wilson: A Life for World Peace. Translated by Herbert Rowen. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Levin, N. Gordon. Woodrow Wilson and World Politics: America's Response to War and Revolution. NY: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Coogan, John W. The End of Neutrality: The United States, Britain, and Maritime Rights, 1899-1915. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981.

Peterson, Horace C. Propaganda for War: The Campaign Against American Neutrality, 1914-1917. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939.

Squires, J. Duane. British Propaganda at Home and in the United States from 1914 to 1917. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1935.

Beard, Charles A. The Devil Theory of War: An Inquiry into the Nature of History and the Possibility of Keeping Out of War. NY: Vanguard Press, 1936.

Buerhig, Eward H. Woodrow Wilson and the Balance of Power. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1968.

May, Ernest R. The World War and American Isolation, 1914-1917. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. Excerpted in The Use of Force. Edited by Robert J. Art and Kenneth N. Waltz. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971, pp. 298-315.

The United States and World War II

Doenecke, Justus D., and John E. Wilz. From Isolation to War, 1931-1941. 3rd ed. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 2003. ISBN: 0882959921.
The best single-volume survey.

Doenecke, Justus D. "U.S. Policy and the European War, 1939-1941." Diplomatic History 19, no. 4 (Fall 1995): 669-698.

Divine, Robert A. The Reluctant Belligerent: American Entry into World War II. Huntington, NY: Krieger, 1976.

Russett, Bruce M. No Clear and Present Danger: A Skeptical View of the U.S. Entry Into World War II. NY: Harper and Row, 1972.

Utley, Jonathan G. Going to War With Japan, 1937-1941. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985.

Heinrichs, Waldo. The Threshold of War: Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Entry into World War II. NY: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Neumann, William L. America Encounters Japan. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1963, pp. 184-289. ISBN: 0608040495.

Burns, James MacGregor. Roosevelt 1940-1945: The Soldier of Freedom. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970.

Divine, Robert A. Roosevelt and World War II. NY: Penguin, 1970.

Stoler, Mark. Allies and Adversaries: The Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Grand Alliance, and U.S. Strategy in World War II. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Greenfield, Kent Roberts. American Strategy in World War II: A Reconsideration. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1963.

Jonas, Manfred. Isolationism in America, 1935-1941. Chicago: Imprint, 1990.

Adler, Selig. The Uncertain Giant, 1921-1941: American Foreign Policy Between the Wars. NY: Collier, 1965.

———. The Isolationist Impulse: Its Twentieth Century Reaction. NY: Abelard-Schuman, 1957.

Cull, Nicholas John. Selling War: The British Propaganda Campaign Against American "Neutrality" in World War II. NY: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Wyman, David S. Paper Walls: America and the Refugee Crisis 1938-1941. NY: Pantheon, 1968.

———. The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, 1941-1945. NY: Pantheon, 1984.

Frank, Richard B. Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. NY: Random House, 1999.

Origins of the Cold War

Gaddis, John Lewis. Russia, The Soviet Union and the United States. NY: John Wiley, 1978, pp. 175-206.

———. The United States and the Origins of the Cold War 1941-1947. NY: Columbia University Press, 1972.

Paterson, Thomas G., and Robert J. McMahon, eds. The Origins of the Cold War. 3rd ed. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1991. ISBN: 0669244457.

Gaddis, John Lewis. "The Emerging Post-Revisionist Synthesis on the Origins of the Cold War." Diplomatic History 7, no. 3 (Summer 1983): 171-190.

Graebner, Norman A., ed. The Cold War. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1976.

Soviet-American Relations, the Cold War

Spanier, John W. American Foreign Policy Since World War II. 12th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1992. ISBN: 0871877279.

Gaddis, John Lewis. Russia, The Soviet Union and the United States. NY: John Wiley, 1978.

LaFeber, Walter. America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945-1992. 7th ed. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1993. ISBN: 0070358532.

Nathan, James A., and James K. Oliver. United States Foreign Policy and World Order. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1989.

Walker, Martin. The Cold War: A History. NY: Henry Holt, 1993.

Garthoff, Raymond L. Detente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan. Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1985.

———. The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War. Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1994.

Kennan, George F. Russia and the West Under Lenin and Stalin. NY: New American Library, 1960.

Chinese-American Relations

Schaller, Michael. The United States and China in the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed. NY: Oxford University Press, 1990. ISBN: 0195058666.

Foot, Rosemary. The Practice of Power: U.S. Relations with China since 1949. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Harding, Harry. A Fragile Relationship: The United States and China since 1972. Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1992.

Stoessinger, John. Nations in DarknessChina, Russia, and America. 5th ed. NY: McGraw, 1990. ISBN: 0075409208.

Alexander, Bevin. The Strange Connection: U.S. Intervention in China, 1944-1972. NY: Greenwood, 1992.

Chiang, Hsiang-tse. The United States and China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Christensen, Thomas J. Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Christensen, Thomas J. "A 'Lost Chance' For What? Rethinking the Origins of U.S.-PRC Confrontation." Journal of American-East Asian Relations 4, no. 3, (Fall 1995): 249-278.

Shambaugh, David. Beautiful Imperialist: China Perceives America, 1972-1990. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Freeman, Chas. W. "Sino-American Relations: Back to Basics." Foreign Policy 104 (Fall 1996): 3-17.

Nathan, Andrew J., and Robert S. Ross. The Great Wall and the Empty Fortress: China's Search for Security. NY: W.W. Norton, 1997.

Bernstein, Richard, and Ross H. Munro. The Coming Conflict with China. NY: A.A. Knopf, 1997.

Wang, Chi. History of U.S.-China Relations: A Bibliographical Research Guide. McLean, Va.: Academic Press of America, 1991.

The Korean War

Sandler, Stanley, ed. The Korean War: An Encyclopedia. NY: Garland, 1994.

Kaufmann, Burton I. The Korean War: Challenges in Crisis, Credibility, and Command. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986.

Foot, Rosemary. The Wrong War: American Policy and the Dimensions of the Korean Conflict, 1950-1953. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Spanier, John W. The Truman-MacArthur Controversy and the Korean War. NY: W.W. Norton, 1965.

Lowe, Peter. The Origins of the Korean War. NY: Longman, 1986.

Nathan, James A., and James K. Oliver. United States Foreign Policy and World Order. NY: Longman, 1997. pp. 142-190. ISBN: 0673396894.

Brodie, Bernard. War and Politics. NY: Macmillan, 1973, pp. 57-112.

Halperin, Morton H. "The Korean War." In The Use of Force. Edited by Robert J. Art, and Kenneth N. Waltz. 3rd ed. NY: University Press of America, 1988, pp. 220-237. ISBN: 819170038.

Whiting, Allen. China Crosses the Yalu: The Decision to Enter the Korean War. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1960.

Christensen, Thomas J. "Threats, Assurances, and the Last Chance for Peace" International Security 17, no. 1 (Summer 1992): 122-154.

———. Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict 1947-1958. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Lichterman, Martin. "To the Yalu and Back." In American Civil-Military Relations: A Book of Case Studies. Edited by Harold Stein. Birmingham: University of Alabama Press, for the Twentieth Century Fund, 1963, pp. 569-642.

Rees, David. Korea: The Limited War. Baltimore: Penguin, 1970.

Paige, Glenn D. The Korean Decision, June 24-30, 1950. NY: Free Press, 1968.

Simmons, Robert R. The Strained Alliance. NY: Free Press, 1975.

Baldwin, Frank, ed. Without Parallel: The American-Korean Relationship Since 1945. NY: Pantheon, 1974.

Stueck, William W., Jr. Road to Confrontation: American Policy Toward China and Korea, 1947-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

Cumings, Bruce. The Origins of the Korean War. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.

Jervis, Robert. "The Impact of the Korean War on the Cold War." Journal of Conflict Resolution 24, no. 4 (Dec. 1980): 563-92.

U.S. National Security Policy

Smoke, Richard. National Security and the Nuclear Dilemma: An Introduction to the American Experience in the Cold War. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Art, Robert J., and Kenneth N Waltz, eds. The Use of Force. 3rd ed. NY: University Press of America, 1988. ISBN: 819170038.

Bundy, McGeorge. Danger and Survival: Choices About the Bomb in the First Fifty Years. NY: Random House, 1988.

Reichart, John F., and Steven R. Sturm, eds. American Defense Policy. 5th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1982. ISBN: 0801827574.

Miller, Steven E., ed. Strategy and Nuclear Deterrence: An International Security Reader. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Miller, Steven E., and Sean M. Lynn-Jones, eds. Conventional Forces and American Defense Policy: An International Security Reader. Rev. ed. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989.

Miller, Steven E., and Stephen Van Evera, eds. Naval Strategy and National Security: An International Security Reader. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Eden, Lynn, and Steven E. Miller, eds. Nuclear Arguments: Understanding the Strategic Nuclear Arms and Arms Control Debates. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Sagan, Scott D. Moving Targets: Nuclear Strategy and National Security. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Kaplan, Fred. The Wizards of Armageddon. NY: Simon and Schuster, 1983.

Enthoven, Alain C., and K. Wayne Smith. How Much Is Enough? Shaping the Defense Program, 1961-1969. NY: Harper Colophon, 1971.

Williams, Cindy., ed. Holding the Line: U.S. Defense Alternatives for the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.

Jordan, Amos A., William J. Taylor, and Lawrence J. Korb. "Nuclear Strategy." Chapter 11 in American National Security: Policy and Process. 4th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993, pp. 233-246. ISBN: 080184570X.

U.S. Foreign Economic Policy

Lawrence, Robert Z., and Charles L. Schultze, eds. An American Trade Strategy: Options for the 1990s. Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1990.

Gilpin, Robert. The Political Economy of International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Destler, I.M. American Trade Politics. 2nd ed. NY: Twentieth Century Fund, 1992. ISBN: 0881321885.

Gilpin, Robert. "The Politics of Transnational Economic Relations." In Transnational Relations and World Politics. Edited by Robert O. Keohane, and Joseph S. Nye. Cambridge: Harvard Univesity Press, 1970, pp. 48-69.

Oye, Kenneth A. Economic Discrimination and Political Exchange. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Thurow, Lester. Head to Head: The Coming Economic Battle Among Japan, Europe and America. NY: Warner, 1992.

Cold War Crises: Berlin, Offshore Islands, and Cuba 1962

Berlin, 1948 and 1958-1962

George, Alexander L., and Richard Smoke. Deterrence in American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice. NY: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 107-136 and 390-444. ISBN: 0231038372.

Offshore Islands

Chang, Gordon H. Friends and Enemies: The United States, China, and the Soviet Union, 1948-1972. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990, pp. 116-142 and 182-199. ISBN: 0804715653.

George, Alexander L. and Richard Smoke. Deterrence in American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice. NY: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 266-292 and 363-386. ISBN: 0231038372.

Cuban Missile Crisis

Garthoff, Raymond. Reflections on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1989.

Chang, Laurence, and Peter Kornbluh, eds. The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962: A National Security Archive Documents Reader. NY: The New Press, 1992.

Trachtenberg, Marc, ed. "White House Tapes and Minutes of the Cuban Missile Crisis: ExComm Meetings October 1962." International Security 10, no. 1 (Summer 1985): 164-203.

Welch, David A., and James G Blight. "An Introduction to the ExComm Transcripts." International Security 12, no. 3 (Winter 1987/88): 5-29.

Bundy, McGeorge, trans., and James G. Blight, ed. "October 27, 1962: Transcripts of the Meetings of the ExComm." International Security 12, no. 3 (Winter 1987/88): 30-92.

Abel, Elie. The Missile Crisis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1968.

Allison, Graham. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971.

Albert and Roberta Wohlstetter. "Controlling the Risks in Cuba." In The Use of Force. 3rd ed. Edited by Robert J. Art and Kenneth N. Waltz. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988, pp. 238-273. ISBN: 819170038.

Divine, Robert A., ed. The Cuban Missile Crisis. 2nd ed. NY: Marcus Weiner, 1988. ISBN: 0910129150.

The Indochina War

Raskin, Marcus G., and Bernard B. Fall, eds. The Viet-Nam Reader. NY: Vintage, 1967.

McMahon, Robert J., ed. Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1990.

Kahin, George McT. Intervention: How America Became Involved in Vietnam. NY: Knopf, 1986.

Kahin, George McT., and John W. Lewis. The United States in Vietnam. Rev. ed. NY: Delta, 1969.

Halberstam, David. The Best and the Brightest. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Crest, 1973.

Berman, Larry. Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam. NY: W.W. Norton, 1982.

———. Lyndon Johnson's War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam. NY: Norton, 1989.

Galbraith, James K. "Exit Strategy: In 1963 JFK Ordered a Complete Withdrawal from Vietnam." Boston Review 20, no. 3 (October/November 2003): 29-34.

Berman, Larry. No Peace, No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam. NY: Free Press, 2001.

Olson, James S., and Randy Roberts. Where the Domino Fell: America and Vietnam, 1945-1990. NY: St. Martin's, 1991.

VanDeMark, Brian. Into the Quagmire: Lyndon Johnson and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. NY: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Gelb, Leslie H., and Richard K. Betts. The Irony of Vietnam: The System Worked. Washington: Brookings, 1979.

Nixon, Richard M. No More Vietnams. NY: Arbor House, 1985.

Lind, Michael. Vietnam: The Necessary War: A Reinterpretation of America's Most Disastrous Military Conflict. NY: Free Press, 1999.

McNamara, Robert S., James G. Blight, and Robert K. Brigham. Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy. NY: Public Affairs, 1999.

Longevall, Frederik. Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999.

Mann, Robert. A Grand Delusion: America's Descent Into Vietnam. NY: Basic Books, 2001.

Podhoretz, Norman. Why We Were in Vietnam. NY: Simon and Schuster, 1982.

Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars. The Indochina Story. NY: Bantam, 1970.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Bitter Heritage: Vietnam and American Democracy, 1941-1968. Rev. ed. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1968.

Shawcross, William. Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon and the Destruction of Cambodia. NY: Simon and Schuster, 1979.

Chanda, Nayan. Brother Enemy: The War After the War: A History of Indochina Since the Fall of Saigon. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986.

Williams, William Appleman, Thomas McCormick, Lloyd Gardner, and Walter LaFeber, eds. America in Vietnam: A Documentary History. Garden City, NY: Anchor, 1985.

Gettleman, Marvin E., Jane Franklin, Marilyn Young, and H. Bruce Franklin, eds. Vietnam and America, A Documentary History. NY: Grove Press, 1985.

The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking on Vietnam. 4 vols. Boston: Beacon Press, 1973.

The New York Times. The Pentagon Papers. NY: New York Times, 1971. (An abridged edition)

Kimball, Jeffrey P. To Reason Why: The Debate About the Causes of U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Duiker, William J. U.S. Containment Policy and the Conflict in Indochina. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.

Rotter, Andrew J. The Path to Vietnam: Origins of the American Commitment to Southeast Asia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.

Young, Marilyn Blatt. The Vietnam Wars, 1945-1990. NY: HarperCollins, 1991.

Prados, John. The Hidden History of the Vietnam War. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995.

Schulzinger, Robert D. A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941- 1975. NY: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Thomson, James C. "How Could Vietnam Happen? An Autopsy." In Readings in American Foreign Policy: A Bureaucratic Perspective. Edited by Morton H. Halperin and Arnold Kanter. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973, pp. 98-110.

Blachman, Morris J. "The Stupidity of Intelligence." In Readings in American Foreign Policy. Edited by Morton H. Halperin and Arnold Kantor. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973, pp. 328-334.

Adams, Sam. "Vietnam Coverup: Playing War With Numbers." Harpers, May 1975, 41-75.

Poole, Peter A. Eight Presidents and Indochina. Huntington, NY: Krieger, 1978.

Porter, Gareth, ed. Vietnam: A History in Documents. NY: New American Library, 1981.

Ellsberg, Daniel. Papers on the War. NY: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Brodie, Bernard. "Vietnam." In War and Politics. NY: Macmillan, 1973, pp. 113-222.

Kail, F. M. What Washington Said: Administration Rhetoric and the Vietnam War, 1949-1969. NY: HarperCollins, 1973.

Kahn, E. J. The China Hands: America's Foreign Service Officers and What Befell Them. NY: Viking, 1975.

Janis, Irving. "Escalation of the Vietnam War." In Victims of Groupthink. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972, pp. 101-135.

Terry, Wallace. Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans. NY: Random House, 1984.

Wells, Tom. The War Within: America's Battle Over Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Caputo, Philip. Rumor of War. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977.

Whitworth, William. Naive Questions About War and Peace. NY: Norton, 1970.

Prados, John. The Hidden History of the Vietnam War. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995.

DiLeo, David L. George Ball, Vietnam, and the Rethinking of Containment. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Slater, Jerome. "The Domino Theory and International Politics: The Case of Vietnam." Security Studies 3, no. 2 (Winter 1993/94): 186-224.

MacDonald, Douglas J. "Falling Dominoes and System Dynamics: A Risk Aversion Perspective." In ibid, pp. 225-258.

Griffen, William, and John Marciano. Teaching the Vietnam War. Montclair, NJ: Allenheld-Osmond, 1980, pp. xv-51.

A Bibliography is

Burns, Richard Dean, and Milton Leitenberg. The Wars in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, 1945-1982: A Bibliographic Guide. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio, 1984.

The Spanish-American-Filipino War, 1898-1902

Beede, Benjamin R., ed. The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions 1898-1934: An Encyclopedia. NY: Garland, 1994.

Healy, David. U.S. Expansionism: The Imperialist Urge in the 1890s. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970.

Offner, John L. An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain Over Cuba, 1895-1898. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Beisner, Robert L. From the Old Diplomacy to the New, 1865-1900. NY: Crowell, 1975.

Paterson, Thomas G., and Stephen G. Rabe., eds. Imperial Surge: The United States Abroad, the 1890s-Early 1900s. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1992.

Musicant, Ivan. Empire By Default: The Spanish-American War and the Dawn of the American Century. NY: Henry Holt, 1998.

Halle, Louis. Dream and Reality: Aspects of American Foreign Policy. NY: Harper Colophon, 1974, pp. 176-214.

Schirmer, Daniel B. Republic or Empire: American Resistance to the Philippine War. Cambridge: Schenkman, 1972.

LaFeber, Walter. The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1860-1898. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1963.

Grenville, John A.S., and George Berkley Young. Politics, Strategy, and American Diplomacy, 1873-1917. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966, pp. 239-296.

Miller, Stuart Creighton. "Benevolent Assimilation": The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.

Wolff, Leon. Little Brown Brother: America's Forgotten Bid for Empire Which Cost 250,000 Lives. NY: Longmans, 1961, reprinted by Kraus Reprint, NY, 1970.

Schirmer, Daniel B., and Stephen Rosskamm Shalom, eds. The Philippines Reader: A History of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship, and Resistance. Boston: South End Press, 1987.

Seager, Robert, II. "The Naval Lobby." In Expansionism and Imperialism. NY: Harper and Row, 1970, pp. 68-79.

Dobson, John. Reticent Expansionism: The Foreign Policy of William McKinley. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1988.

Brands, H.W. Bound to Empire: The United States and the Philippines. NY: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Linn, Brian McAllister. The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899-1902. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

Fuchs, Elinor, and Joyce Antler. Year One of the Empire: A Play of American Politics, War and Protest Taken from the Historical Record. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1973.

Histories of Other American Interventions in the Third World

The Interventions of 1900-1934

Beede, Benjamin R., ed. The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions 1898-1934: An Encyclopedia. NY: Garland, 1994.

Gil, Federico. "The Interventionist Era, 1904-1933." Chapter 4 in Latin American-United States Relations. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971, pp. 86-116.

Overviews of Cold War Interventions

Barnet, Richard J. Intervention and Revolution: America's Confrontation with Insurgent Movements Around the World. NY: Meridian, 1972.

Schraeder, Peter J., ed. Intervention Into the 1990s. 2nd ed. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1992. ISBN: 1555872921.

Smith, Peter H. Talons of the Eagle: Dynamics of U.S.-Latin American Relations. NY: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Blasier, Cole. The Hovering Giant: U.S. Responses to Revolutionary Change in Latin America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1985.

Shafer, Michael. Deadly Paradigms: The Failure of U.S. Counterinsurgency Policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Overviews of Covert Operations

Blum, William. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995.
This is an update of Blum, William. The CIA: A Forgotten History. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Zed, 1986.

Knott, Stephen F. Secret and Sanctioned: Covert Operations and the American Presidency. NY: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Powers, Thomas. The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.

Borosage, Robert., and John Marks, eds. The CIA File. NY: Grossman, 1976.

Wise, David B., and Thomas B. Ross. The Invisible Government: The CIA and U.S. Intelligence. NY: Vintage, 1974.

Iran 1953

Kinzer, Stephen. All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003.

Bill, James A. Chapter 2 in The Eagle and the Lion: The Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988, pp. 51-97 (on the 1953 Mossadeq coup).

Gavin, Francis. "Politics, Power, and U.S. Policy in Iran, 1950-1953." Journal of Cold War History 1, no. 1 (Winter 1999): 56-89.

Gasiorowski, Mark J. U.S. Foreign Policy and the Shah: Building a Client State in Iran. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Ruehsen, Moyara de Moraes. "Operation 'Ajax' Revisited: Iran, 1953." Middle Eastern Studies 29, no. 3 (1993): 467-486.

Guatemala 1954

Kinzer, Stephen, and Stephen Schlesinger. Bitter Fruit: The Story of the American Coup in Guatemala. Exp. ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Cullather, Nick. The CIA's Classified Account of Its Operations in Guatemala, 1952-1954. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Indonesia 1957

Kahin, Audrey, and George McT. Kahin. Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia. Seattle: University of Washington, 1995.

Bay of Pigs 1961

Rabe, Stephen G. Eisenhower and Latin America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988, pp. 117-173 (on the Bay of Pigs).

Janis, Irving. "A Perfect Failure: The Bay of Pigs." In Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982, pp. 14-47. ISBN: 0395317045.

Dominican Republic 1965

Slater, Jerome. "The Dominican Republic, 1961-66." In Force Without War. Edited by Barry M. Blechman and Stephen S. Kaplan. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1978, pp. 289-342.

———. Intervention and Negotiation: The United States and the Dominican Revolution. NY: Harper and Row, 1970.

Llosa, Mario Vargas. The Feast of the Goat. NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2001.
This is on Trujillo's fall in 1961—background to the 1965 intervention. A novel but historically accurate.

Chile 1973

Hersh, Seymour. The Price of Power. NY: Summit, 1983, pp. 258-297.
On the 1973 Chile coup.

Petras, James, and Morris Morley. The United States and Chile: Imperialism and the Overthrow of the Allende Government. NY: Monthly Review Press, 1975.

Sigmund, Paul. The Overthrow of Allende and the Politics of Chile, 1964-1976. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977.

Davis, Nathaniel. The Last Two Years of Salvador Allende. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Valenzuela, Arturo. The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Chile. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

U.S. Senate, 94th Congress, First Session. "Covert Action in Chile, 1963-73." In Hearings Before the Select Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Vol. 7: Covert Action, pp. 144-203.
This is the Chile study of the "Church Committee Hearings."

African Interventions Since the 1970s

Cohen, Herman J. Intervening in Africa: Superpower Peacemaking in a Troubled Continent. NY: Palgrave, 2000.

Angola 1975

Stockwell, John. In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story. NY: W.W. Norton, 1978.

Central Americas in the 1980s

Coatsworth, John H. Central America and the United States: The Clients and the Colossus. NY: MacMillan, 1994.

Kenworthy, Eldon. America/Américas: Myth in the Making of U.S. Policy Toward Latin America. University Park: Penn State Press, 1995.

LaFeber, Walter. Inevitable Revolutions. New York: Norton, 1984.

Gilbert, Dennis. Sandinistas: The Party and the Revolution. NY: Basil Blackwell, 1988, pp. 162-174.

Pastor, Robert. Condemned to Repetition: The United States and Nicaragua. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Kinzer, Stephen. Blood of Brothers: Life and War in Nicaragua. NY: Putnam, 1991.

Parry, Robert, and Peter Kornbluh. "Iran-Contra's Untold Story." Foreign Policy, no. 72 (Fall 1988): 3-30.

Human Rights Watch. El Salvador's Decade of Terror: Human Rights Since the Assassination of Archbishop Romero. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

Americas Watch. El Salvador and Human Rights. NY: Human Rights Watch, 1991.

Amnesty International. El Salvador: "Death Squads"A Government Strategy. London: Amnesty International, 1988.

Reagan Doctrine, 1985-1991

Tucker, Robert W. Intervention and the Reagan Doctrine. NY: Council on Religion and International Affairs, 1985.

Hahn, Walter F., ed. Central America and the Reagan Doctrine. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1987.

Johnson, Robert. "Rollback Revisited: A Reagan Doctrine for Insurgent Wars?" In Overseas Development Council Policy Focus, no. 1 (1986): 1-12.

Persian Gulf War, 1991

Atkison, Rick. Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993.

Tucker, Robert W., and David C. Hendrickson. The Imperial Temptation: The New World Order and America's Purpose. NY: Council on Foreign Relations, 1992, pp. 73-162 (on the Gulf War).

U.S. News and World Report. Triumph Without Victory: The History of the Persian Gulf War. NY: Times Books, 1992.

Sciolino, Elaine. The Outlaw State: Saddam Hussein's Quest for Power and the Gulf Crisis. NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1991.

Analytical Assessments of Third World Intervention

Rodman, Peter W. More Precious than Peace: The Cold War and the Struggle for the Third World. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1995.

Haass, Richard N. Intervention: The Use of American Military Force in the Post-Cold War World. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment, 1994.

Kanter, Arnold, and Linton F. Brooks, eds. U.S. Intervention in the Post-Cold War World: New Challenges and New Responses. NY: American Assembly, 1994.

Feinberg, Richard. The Intemperate Zone. NY: W.W. Norton, 1983.

Johnson, Robert H. "Exaggerating America's Stakes in Third World Conflicts." International Security 10, no. 3 (Winter 1985/86): 32-68.

Slater, Jerome. "Dominos in Central America: Will They Fall? Does It Matter?" International Security 12, no. 2 (Fall 1987): 105-134.

Desch, Michael. "The Keys that Lock Up the World." International Security 14, no. 1 (Summer 1989): 86-121.

David, Steven R. "Why the Third World Matters." International Security 14, no. 1 (Summer 1989): 50-85.

The End of the Cold War and the Future, 1990s Perspectives

Gaddis, John Lewis. The United States and the End of the Cold War: Implications, Reconsiderations, Provocations. NY: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Hogan, Michael J., ed. The End of the Cold War: Its Meaning and Implications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Kennedy, Paul. Preparing for the Twenty-First Century. NY: Random House, 1993.

Shuman, Michael H., and Hal Harvey. Security Without War: A Post-Cold War Foreign Policy. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993.

Klare, Michael. Rogue States and Nuclear Outlaws: America's Search for a New Foreign Policy. NY: Hill and Wang, 1995.

Fry, Earl H., Stan A. Taylor, and Robert S. Wood. America the Vincible: U.S. Foreign Policy for the 21st Century. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.

The White House. A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement. Washington, D.C.: White House, 1994.

The Terror War

Anonymous. Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 2004. ISBN: 1574888498.

Benjamin, Daniel, and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. NY: Random House, 2003.

Falkenrath, Richard A., Robert D. Newman, and Bradley A. Thayer. America's Achilles Heel: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Terrorism and Covert Attack. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998.

Anonymous. Through Our Enemies' Eyes: Osama Bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 2002.

Bergen, Peter L. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama Bin Laden. NY: Touchstone, 2002.

Talbott, Strobe, and Nayan Chanda, eds. The Age of Terror: America and the World After September 11. NY: Basic Books, 2001.

Hoge, James F., and Gideon Rose, eds. How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War. NY: Public Affairs Press, 2001.

Campbell, Kurt M., and Michèle A. Flournoy, principal authors. To Prevail: An American Strategy for the Campaign Against Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2001.

Pillar, Paul R. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 2001.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. NY: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Ruthven, Malise. A Fury for God: The Islamist Attack on America. Granta: 2002.

Alexander, Yonah, and Michael S. Swetman. Usama bin Laden's al-Qaida: Profile of a Terrorist Network. Transnational, 2001.

Cordesman, Anthony H. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. NY: Praeger, 2001.

Rose, Gideon. "Review Essay: It Could Happen Here: Facing the New Terrorism." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 2 (March/April 1999): 131-137.

Environmental Issues

Gelbspan, Ross. Boiling Point: How Politicians, Big Oil and Coal, Journalists and Activists Have Fueled the Climate CrisisAnd What We Can Do To Avert Disaster. NY: Basic Books, 2004.
This and other works on environmental dangers are discussed in
Klinkenborg, Verlyn. "Be Afraid. Be Very Afraid." New York Times Book Review. (May 30, 2004).

George W. Bush's Foreign Policy, 2001-

Gaddis, John Lewis. Surprise, Security, and the American Experience. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Gaddis defends the 2002 Bush national security strategy and puts it in historical context.

Johnson, Chalmers. The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic. NY: Metropolitan, 2004.

Newhouse, John. Imperial America: The Bush Assault on World Order. NY: A.A. Knopf, 2003.

Daalder, Ivo H., and James M. Lindsay. America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 2003.

Kristol, William and Robert Kagan. Present Dangers: Crisis and Opportunity in American Foreign and Defense Policy. San Francisco: Encouter, 2000.

Lind, Michael. Made in Texas: George W. Bush and the Southern Takeover of American Politics. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp. 128-159. ISBN: 0465041213.

Prestowitz, Clyde. Rogue Nation: American Unilateralism and the Failure of Good Intentions. NY: Basic Books, 2003.

Hirsch, Michael. At War with Ourselves: Why America is Squandering its Chance to Build a Better World. NY: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Pollack, Kenneth. The Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq. NY: Random House, 2002.