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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:李海蓮(簡介並寄信)
編輯:馬景文(簡介並寄信)
(編註:輔助教室
編輯所設置自學書院網站設有本課程的輔助教室,內容包括部份閱讀文章的翻譯本,中文文獻連結,和自學者論壇。)



時事文章
Current Events Articles

本學期初,你們應該從第7,8,9,10,11,和12課中選擇一課。在準備這堂課時,至少要找一篇近期報紙或雜誌文章,是關於那周的討論主題(比如,軍民關係)。所選文章不需要是課上討論的國家,當然那也可以。有用的資源包括列在〈教學大綱〉後面的網址和刊物,如《紐約時報》《華盛頓郵報》《基督教科學觀察》《經濟學人》雜誌。
At the beginning of the semester, you should select one class from the following classes: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. In preparation for that class, you should find at least one recent newspaper or magazine article dealing with the substantive topic of that week (e.g., civil-military relations). Your article need not cover the country we discuss in class, though it may do so. Useful sources include the web sites listed at the end of the syllabus and publications like New York Times, Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor, and Economist magazine.

時事文章應于選課周的前一星期提交。因此,如果你選了第11課(關於奈日利亞的種族衝突),你應該把討論發展中國家種族衝突和民主化的文章的複印件帶到第10課來。一定要帶上足夠的複印件發給班上每個人。同時,為了讓全班同學獲益,在你的文章將被討論的那周要準備好總結並評論你的文章。
Articles are due the week before the week you have selected. Thus, if you selected class 11 (on ethnic conflict in Nigeria), you should bring copies of an article that discusses ethnic conflict and democratization in the developing world to class 10. Be sure to bring enough copies for everyone in the class. Also, be prepared to summarize and critique your article for the benefit of the class in the week in which your article will be discussed.

課堂辯論(第4課和第10課)
Class Debates (Class 4 and Class 10)

辯論課將包括兩場課內辯論,分別在第4課和第10課。第一場辯論將闡述「民主是否重要」,期望同學提出幾種觀點中的一個(在第3課上描述)。第4課開始時,將從每組隨意選擇一名發言人,把該組在這問題上的立場做簡要的口頭陳述。陳述限於5分鐘之內,我們將嚴格執行這一時間限制。在每組表明其立場後,將開始廣泛的班上討論,同時,未被選擇做正式發表的同學應向不同的辯論者提出問題。辯論結束時,將舉行投票決定哪一立場看起來最有說服力。
The class will include two in-class debates, one in class 4 and one in class 10. The first will address the issue of whether democracy matters, and students will be expected to present one of several points of view (described in class 3). At the beginning of class 4, we will choose at random one speaker from each side, who will make brief oral presentations of their position on the debate question. Each presentation is limited to 5 minutes, and we will strictly enforce the time. A general class discussion will take place after each team has presented its position, and students not chosen to make formal presentations should direct questions to the different debaters. At the end of the debate, a vote will be taken to determine which position seemed most persuasive.

第二場辯論將闡述變遷中的正義問題--具體來說,是否懲罰巴西的軍官在軍事獨裁時期(1964-1984年)違反人權的罪行。我們將把班級分成三組(認為巴西的軍方統治者應該在1985年受審的為一組,認為他們應該現在受審的為一組,認為他們不應該受審的為一組)。每組的第一位發言人將作兩分種的開場陳述,闡述該組的基本立場。然後各組的第二位發言人有兩分鐘的時間反駁其他組的觀點。然後各組的第三位發言人有四分鐘的時間對反方的對手質詢,對方必須以簡明直接的回應維護本組的立場。然後各組的第四位發言人總結本組的觀點,闡述所暴露的弱點並指出其他組立場上的弱點。請注意,每個發言人會嚴格計時,所以應該盡可能提前準備及練習你們的評論。在大多數情況下,這要求預測辯論各方的優點和弱點。
The second debate will address the issue of transitional justice - specifically, whether or not to punish military officers in Brazil for violations of human rights committed during the period of military dictatorship (1964-1984). We will divide the class into three teams (those arguing that Brazil's military rulers should have been tried in 1985, those arguing that they should be tried now, and those arguing that they should not be tried). The first speaker from each team will make a two-minute opening statement laying out her team's overall position. The second speaker from each team will then have two minutes to rebut the arguments made by the other teams. The third speaker from each team will then be allowed four minutes to cross-examine her counterparts on either opposing team, who must defend his team's position with brief and direct replies. The fourth speaker on each team will then summarize her team's arguments, addressing any weaknesses that have been exposed and pointing out weaknesses in the other team's positions. Please note that we will time each presentation strictly, so that you should prepare and practice your comments in advance as much as possible. In most cases, this will require anticipating the strengths and weaknesses of each side of the debate.

A發言之後,裁判們將秘密投票選出(1)哪方的論點最好,以及(2)哪個發言個人表達得最好。最後,全班將投票決定巴西的民間領袖應採取哪種政策。如果時間允許,我們將展開全班討論。
fter the presentations, the judges will vote by secret ballot for (1) which side made the best case, and (2) which individual speaker did the best job presenting her case. Finally, the whole class will vote on which strategy Brazil's civilian leaders should have employed. Time permitting, we will then open up the class to general discussion.

3 短文(7頁)寫作作業
3 Short (7 page) Writing Assignments

題目將於論文提交之前一周或兩周分發下來。論文應于當周所列課程結束3天後下午4點之前交上。論文要列印出來,雙倍行距並有充分參考文獻。論文每遲交一天將被罰1/3等級(比如,從A降為A-)。
Topics will be handed out one or two weeks before the papers are due. Papers are due by 4 p.m. three days after the class for the week they are listed. Papers should be typed, double-spaced, and fully referenced. Late papers will be penalized one third of a grade (e.g., from A to A-) for each day late.

我們傾向於採取不具名評分制,因此請將你的名字寫在論文後的另一張紙上。冒著壓抑自由表達形式的風險,我們也要求你們採用Times 12字體(或者你電腦上最貼近的字體),否則在第一篇論文之後我們將認出字體,這將損害不具名評分制的目的。
We prefer to practice blind grading, so please put your name on a separate sheet at the end of the paper. At the risk of stifling free expression, we also ask that you use Times 12 font (or the closest equivalent on your computer). Otherwise, we learn font styles after the first paper, which defeats the purpose of blind grading.

寫作論文的提示
Hints for Writing Papers
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